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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 519, 2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879225

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are two very important diseases. However, relevant researches about how COVID-19 pandemic has impacted on the epidemiological trend of STDs are limited in China. This study aimed to analyze the impact of COVID-19 on STDs in China and proposed relevant recommendations to be used in bettering health. METHODS: The incidence of HIV infection, syphilis and gonorrhea in China from 2008 to 2020 were collected. Grey Model (1,1) were established to predict the incidence of STDs with the incidence data of these three STDs from 2013 to 2018 considering the impact of policies in China, respectively. We then calculated the predictive incidence of each STD in 2019, 2020 and 2021 by the established Model. And we estimated the extent of the impact of COVID-19 on the epidemiological changes of STDs by analyzing the difference between the absolute percentage error (APE) of the predictive incidence and actual rate in 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: The incidence of HIV infection and syphilis showed a trend of increase from 2008 to 2019 in China, but that for gonorrhea was fluctuant. Of note, the incidence of these three STDs decreased significantly in 2020 compared with that in 2019. The APE of HIV infection, syphilis and gonorrhea in 2020 (20.54%, 15.45% and 60.88%) were about 7 times, 4 times and 2 times of that in 2019 (2.94%, 4.07% and 30.41%). The incidence of HIV infection, syphilis and gonorrhea would be 5.77/100,000, 39.64/100,000 and 13.19/100,000 in 2021 based on our model. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological trend of STDs in China was significant influenced by COVID-19 pandemic. It is important to balance the control of COVID-19 and timely management of STDs during the COVID-19 epidemic to prevent or reduce the poor outcome among COVID-19 patients with STDs. New management strategies on STDs, such as leveraging social media, online medical care, rapid self-testing, timely diagnosis and treatment guarantee and balance of medical resources for STDs management should be adapted in the context of the long-term effects of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gonorrhea , HIV Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Syphilis , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/prevention & control , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Syphilis/epidemiology , Syphilis/prevention & control
2.
Sex Transm Dis ; 49(2): 166-168, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860989

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: A virtual partner services technical assistance (TA) project was piloted with the Minnesota Department of Health to address an ongoing syphilis outbreak. The TA reduced the health department's disease intervention specialist workload, achieved partner services outcomes comparable with in-person methods, and identified lessons learned to replicate with other jurisdictions.


Subject(s)
Syphilis , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Minnesota , Pilot Projects , Syphilis/epidemiology , Syphilis/prevention & control , United States
3.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 24(5): 337-338, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1857627
4.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 462022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1856694

ABSTRACT

Abstract: An ongoing outbreak of syphilis in Australia, first reported in the state of Queensland in 2011, has led to increasing cases of congenital syphilis, including several deaths. Here, we applied multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) on available Treponema pallidum PCR-positive samples from the state of Queensland from the beginning of the outbreak to July 2020. In total, 393 samples from 337 males and 56 females were genotyped. Of 36 different Treponema pallidum sequence types (ST) observed, the two most common STs, ST 1 (also reported to be a dominant strain in various other countries) and ST 100 (the latter differing from ST 1 by only one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based on the MLST scheme), together comprised 69% (271/393) of all samples, including the majority of samples in females (79%; 44/56). ST 1 was prevalent throughout the entire study period. Both strains remained the most common STs during the year 2020 where social distancing and other measures were implemented due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Both STs had high male-to-female ratios and included male rectal infections, therefore suggestive of occurrence primarily among men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). Hence, bridging from MSM to heterosexual networks may potentially contribute to infections among females, but further studies are needed to confirm this. Overall, there was considerable diversity of Treponema pallidum genotypes observed throughout the study period, but the fact that two key strains accounted for the majority of infections, including among females, stresses the need for further investigations into the transmission of these strains, and potentially a need for targeted public health interventions to better control the spread of syphilis in Queensland.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Syphilis , Australia/epidemiology , Female , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Pandemics , Queensland/epidemiology , Syphilis/epidemiology , Treponema pallidum/genetics
5.
Nature ; 605(7911): 598-599, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852398
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 118: 230-235, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838866

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To uncover the role of the platelet indices in patients with syphilis. METHODS: A total of 2061 patients with syphilis and 528 healthy controls were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. The data of platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and indicators of syphilis activities were collected. The correlations between the platelet indices and disease activities were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 425 (20.6%) of the 2061 patients were of primary and secondary syphilis, 433 (21.0%) latent, 463 (22.5%) serofast, 350 (17.0%) asymptomatic neurosyphilis, and 390 (18.9%) symptomatic neurosyphilis. Compared with the healthy controls, PLT was significantly increased in the primary and secondary syphilis group; whereas, MPV and PDW were significantly decreased in all stages of syphilis. These changes of platelet indices were reversed after anti-treponemal therapy. Further correlation analysis showed that PLT was positively associated with the syphilis activity indicators [rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titer, cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell (CSF-WBC), CSF-protein, and CSF-VDRL (venereal disease research laboratory)] and inflammatory markers [WBC, C-reaction protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)]. Conversely, PDW was negatively correlated with all of these parameters. MPV had an inverse relationship with RPR, ESR, and CRP. CONCLUSIONS: Platelet indices are associated with syphilis activities.


Subject(s)
Neurosyphilis , Syphilis , Biomarkers , Humans , Mean Platelet Volume , Neurosyphilis/cerebrospinal fluid , Retrospective Studies , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/drug therapy
7.
PLoS Med ; 19(3): e1003930, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low syphilis testing uptake is a major public health issue among men who have sex with men (MSM) in many low- and middle-income countries. Syphilis self-testing (SST) may complement and extend facility-based testing. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and costs of providing SST on increasing syphilis testing uptake among MSM in China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: An open-label, parallel 3-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted between January 7, 2020 and July 17, 2020. Men who were at least 18 years of age, had condomless anal sex with men in the past year, reported not testing for syphilis in the last 6 months, and had a stable residence with mailing addresses were recruited from 124 cities in 26 Chinese provinces. Using block randomization with blocks of size 12, enrolled participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) into 3 arms: standard of care arm, standard SST arm, and lottery incentivized SST arm (1 in 10 chance to win US$15 if they had a syphilis test). The primary outcome was the proportion of participants who tested for syphilis during the trial period and confirmed with photo verification and between arm comparisons were estimated with risk differences (RDs). Analyses were performed on a modified intention-to-treat basis: Participants were included in the complete case analysis if they had initiated at least 1 follow-up survey. The Syphilis/HIV Duo rapid test kit was used. A total of 451 men were enrolled. In total, 136 (90·7%, 136/150) in the standard of care arm, 142 (94·0%, 142/151) in the standard of SST arm, and 137 (91·3%, 137/150) in the lottery incentivized SST arm were included in the final analysis. The proportion of men who had at least 1 syphilis test during the trial period was 63.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 55.5% to 71.3%, p = 0.001) in the standard SST arm, 65.7% (95% CI: 57.7% to 73.6%, p = 0.0002) in the lottery incentivized SST arm, and 14.7% (95% CI: 8.8% to 20.7%, p < 0.001) in the standard of care arm. The estimated RD between the standard SST and standard of care arm was 48.7% (95% CI: 37.8% to 58.4%, p < 0.001). The majority (78.5%, 95% CI: 72.7% to 84.4%, p < 0.001) of syphilis self-testers reported never testing for syphilis. The cost per person tested was US$26.55 for standard SST, US$28.09 for the lottery incentivized SST, and US$66.19 for the standard of care. No study-related adverse events were reported during the study duration. Limitation was that the impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) restrictions may have accentuated demand for decentralized testing. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to standard of care, providing SST significantly increased the proportion of MSM testing for syphilis in China and was cheaper (per person tested). TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR1900022409.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/diagnosis , Homosexuality, Male , Patient Participation/methods , Self-Testing , Syphilis/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Male , Mass Screening/economics , Mass Screening/methods , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Middle Aged , Motivation , Pandemics , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/economics , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data , Syphilis/epidemiology , Syphilis/prevention & control , Young Adult
8.
Sex Transm Infect ; 98(3): 197-202, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788980

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Self-testing for STIs such as HIV and syphilis may empower sexual minorities and expand uptake of STI testing. While much is known about HIV self-testing (HIVST), less is known about syphilis self-testing, particularly in low-income settings. The objective of this study is to determine context-specific facilitators and barriers for self-testing and to assess the usability of syphilis self-testing in Zimbabwe among men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: This mixed methods study was conducted in Harare as part of a larger syphilis self-testing trial. The study included in-depth interviews (phase I) followed by usability testing and a second interview (phase II). In-depth interviews were conducted with MSM and key informants prior to syphilis self-testing. The same MSM then used the syphilis self-test, quantitatively assessed its usability and participated in a second in-depth interview. Phase I data were analysed using a thematic approach, guided by an adapted social ecological model conceptual framework. Phase II interviews were analysed using rapid assessment procedure methodology, and usability was assessed using a pre-established index, adapted from existing HIVST scales. RESULTS: Twenty MSM and 10 key informants were recruited for phase I in-depth interviews, and 16 of these MSM participated in phase II by completing a syphilis self-test kit. Facilitating factors for self-testing included the potential for increased privacy, convenience, autonomy, and avoidance of social and healthcare provider stigma. Barriers included the fear to test and uncertainty about linkage to care and treatment. Data from the Usability Index suggested high usability (89.6% on a 0-100 scale) among the men who received the self-test. CONCLUSIONS: MSM in Zimbabwe were willing to use syphilis self-test kits and many of the barriers and facilitators were similar to those observed for HIVST. Syphilis self-testing may increase syphilis test uptake among sexual minorities in Zimbabwe and other low-income and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Syphilis , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Self-Testing , Syphilis/diagnosis , Zimbabwe
9.
Int J STD AIDS ; 33(5): 525-526, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779543
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 764203, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775974

ABSTRACT

Background: Stigmatization and poor social support are challenges faced by individuals living with HIV or sexually transmitted disease, which can have a profound negative impact on their healthcare. Mother-to-child transmission of either HIV or syphilis can lead to adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate stigmatization and social support of pregnant women with HIV or syphilis in eastern China. Methods: This was an explanatory sequential mixed-method study conducted in Zhejiang province, China in 2019. Stigmatization, social support, and the associated factors toward HIV or syphilis were evaluated using questionnaires. The social support rating scale was used to evaluate social support, where a score <25% was defined as poor social support. A logistic regression model was used to explore the association between stigmatization and poor social support. Results: A total of 448 women (HIV positive, N = 93; syphilis, N = 355) were recruited in this study. Higher stigmatization was observed in pregnant women with HIV compared to those with syphilis (53.76% vs. 24.36%, p < 0.001), and poorer social support was observed in women with HIV compared with those with syphilis (40.86% vs. 19.86%, p < 0.001), with significant distributions of the total social support scores (Z = -1.976, p = 0.048) and scores on objectivity (Z = -2.036, p = 0.042) and subjectivity (Z = -2.500, p = 0.012). Similar social support among HIV or syphilis pregnant women was observed in medical healthcare facilities. In multivariable logistic model analysis, stigmatization (OR adj = 2.927; 95%CI, 1.714-4.996; p < 0.001) and ethnic minority (OR adj = 2.373; 95%CI, 1.113-5.056; p = 0.025) were negatively associated with social support. Interestingly, employment status was associated with improved social support (OR adj = 0.345; 95%CI, 0.180-0.662; p = 0.001). Conclusion: Stigmatization among pregnant women with HIV or syphilis remains high. We demonstrated that stigmatization was a significant predictor of low social support in pregnant women with HIV or syphilis. The support shown in medical facilities was similar toward pregnant women with HIV or syphilis. Implementation of stigmatization eradication and social support strategies targeting pregnant women with HIV or syphilis may therefore improve the dual elimination of mother-to-child transmission service.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Social Stigma , Social Support , Syphilis , China/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Minority Groups , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/psychology , Pregnant Women , Syphilis/epidemiology , Syphilis/psychology
11.
Clin Perinatol ; 48(3): 485-511, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767998

ABSTRACT

Maternal pathogens can be transmitted to the fetus resulting in congenital infection with sequelae ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe debilitating disease and still birth. The TORCH pneumonic (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus) is used widely, but it provides a limited description of the expanding list of pathogens associated with congenital infection. This article focuses on the evaluation and management of infants with common congenital infections such as cytomegalovirus, and infections that warrant early diagnosis and treatment to prevent serious complications, such as toxoplasmosis, human immunodeficiency virus, and syphilis. Zika virus and Chagas disease remain uncommon.


Subject(s)
Fetal Diseases , Herpes Simplex , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Rubella , Syphilis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital , Toxoplasmosis , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Female , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Rubella/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/drug therapy , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
12.
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 39: e0184, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1698767

ABSTRACT

A sífilis, uma infecção vertical e sexualmente transmissível, curável e prevenível, é um problema de saúde pública no Brasil. Métodos diagnósticos e tratamentos são importantes no controle da doença. A pandemia de Covid-19 causou atrasos em diagnósticos e no tratamento na atenção primária em várias doenças e em diversos países, pois interrompeu padrões usuais de atendimento à saúde. O objetivo do estudo é identificar se houve menor número de procedimentos diagnósticos e de tratamento realizados para sífilis nos primeiros sete meses de 2020, comparativamente à média dos mesmos meses entre 2016 e 2019, no Brasil e nas unidades federativas. A redução no número de procedimentos seria um indicativo de atraso no diagnóstico, na detecção e no tratamento da sífilis em 2020. Foram utilizadas informações disponibilizadas no Sistema de Informações Ambulatoriais (SIA/SUS). Os achados para o Brasil indicaram queda de 1/3 nos procedimentos de diagnóstico e de tratamento referentes à sífilis nos sete primeiros meses do ano da pandemia, comparados com a média dos sete primeiros meses nos quatro anos anteriores (2016-2019). Indicadores mostram diferenças importantes por unidades da federação, apontando para maiores quedas proporcionais nos volumes de procedimentos no Norte e Nordeste, com ênfase nos estados do Maranhão, Roraima, Pará, Bahia, Rio Grande do Norte, Amazonas, Pernambuco e Amapá.


Syphilis, a vertical and sexually transmitted infection, curable and preventable, is a public health problem in Brazil. Diagnostic methods and treatments are important in controlling the disease. The COVID-19 pandemic caused delays in diagnosis and lack of treatment in primary care in several diseases and in several countries, as the pandemic disrupted usual health care standards. The aim of the study was to identify whether there were fewer diagnostic and treatment procedures performed for syphilis in the first seven months of 2020, compared to the average for the same months between 2016 and 2019, in Brazil and Federative Units. The reduction in the number of procedures would be indicative of a delay in the diagnosis, detection and treatment of syphilis in 2020. Information used came from the Outpatient Information System (SIA / SUS). The findings for Brazil indicated a 1/3 drop in diagnosis and treatment procedures for syphilis in the first seven months of the year of the COVID-19 pandemic, compared with the first seven months of the previous four years (2016-2019). Indicators showed important differences by Federation Units, pointing to greater proportional decrease in the volume of procedures in the North and Northeast, with an emphasis on Maranhão, Roraima, Pará, Bahia, Rio Grande do Norte, Amazonas, Pernambuco and Amapá.


La sífilis, una infección vertical y de transmisión sexual, curable y prevenible, es un problema de salud pública en Brasil. Los métodos de diagnóstico y los tratamientos son importantes para controlar la enfermedad. La pandemia de Covid-19 provocó retrasos en el diagnóstico y tratamiento en la atención primaria de variadas enfermedades en varios países, ya que interrumpió los estándares habituales de atención de la salud. El objetivo del estudio fue identificar si se realizaron menos procedimientos de diagnóstico y tratamiento de la sífilis en los primeros siete meses de 2020 en comparación con la media de los mismos meses entre 2016 y 2019, en Brasil y en sus unidades federativas. La reducción del número de procedimientos indicaría indicativo de un retraso en el diagnóstico, la detección temprana y el tratamiento de la sífilis en 2020. Para ello se utilizó la información disponible en el Sistema de Información Ambulatoria (SIA/SUS). Los hallazgos indicaron una caída de un tercio en los procedimientos de diagnóstico y tratamiento de la sífilis en los primeros siete meses del año de la pandemia de Covid-19 para Brasil, en comparación con los primeros siete meses de los cuatro años anteriores (2016-2019). Los indicadores mostraron diferencias importantes por unidades de la Federación, apuntando a mayores caídas proporcionales en el volumen de trámites en el Norte y Nordeste, con énfasis en Maranhão, Roraima, Pará, Bahia, Rio Grande do Norte, Amazonas, Pernambuco y Amapá.


Subject(s)
Humans , Unified Health System , Brazil , Syphilis/diagnosis , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Pandemics , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody-Absorption Test , Delivery of Health Care
17.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 75(2): 151-158, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485744

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 pandemic had a big impact on the health services organisation, including that of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). AIM: To analyse and evaluate the influence of COVID-19 epidemic on the detection of STIs and healthcare services in a group of these patients on the base of the experience of the Department of Dermatology and Venereology and University Outpatient Clinic in Bialystok, Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of the number of consultations for suspicion of STIs, number of newly diagnosed cases of syphilis, gonorrhoea, Chlamydia trachomatis infections and genital herpes in two periods: January 2019 - February 2020 (before the epidemic state was introduced) and March 2020 - April 2021 (during pandemic). STIs cases hospitalised in the same periods were also analysed. RESULTS: The number of hospitalisations and outpatient consultations decreased during pandemic as compared to the period before it (by 83.3% and 41.9%, respectively). Patients with syphilis constituted the majority in both periods, remaining STIs were few. During pandemic, the proportion of detected cases of syphilis was higher as compared to the time before it, despite the diminished number of consultations (39.4% and 28%, respectively). Majority of patients with syphilis were men (92.3% and 93.3%), among them men-who-have-sex-with-men constituted at least 50%. Early syphilis was diagnosed more frequently during pandemic than before it (92.3% and 78.6%, respectively), early symptomatic syphilis in particular (46.2% and 35.7%, respectively). HIV coinfection in syphilis patients was more frequent during pandemic (15.8% and 7.1%, respectively). More than half of these patients (53.8%) did not come for follow-up visits after treatment during pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic caused the decrease in number of outpatient STIs consultations and hospitalisations. The proportion of newly diagnosed cases of syphilis per number of consultations increased. The percentage of early syphilis cases, especially early symptomatic syphilis increased. Adherence to after treatment follow up was suboptimal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gonorrhea , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Syphilis , Female , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/epidemiology
19.
Sex Transm Dis ; 48(10): 798-804, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To describe changes in reported sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) during the US coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, we compared the weekly number of reported nationally notifiable STDs in 2020 to 2019. METHODS: We reviewed cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis reported to the US National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System in 2020. For each STD, we compare the number of 2020 cases reported for a given Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) week to the number of 2019 cases reported in the same week, expressing 2020 cases as a percentage of 2019 cases. We also calculated the percent difference between 2020 and 2019 cumulative case totals as of MMWR week 50 (week of December 9). RESULTS: During MMWR weeks 1 to 11 (week of December 29, 2019-March 11, 2020), the weekly number of cases of STDs reported in 2020 as a percentage of the cases in the same week in 2019 was similar. However, 2020 numbers were much lower than 2019 numbers in week 15 (week of April 8; chlamydia, 49.8%; gonorrhea, 71.2%; and P&S syphilis, 63.7%). As of week 50, the 2020 cumulative totals compared with 2019 were 14.0% lower for chlamydia, 7.1% higher for gonorrhea, and 0.9% lower for P&S syphilis. CONCLUSIONS: During March-April 2020, national case reporting for STDs dramatically decreased compared with 2019. However, resurgence in reported gonorrhea and syphilis cases later in the year suggests STD reporting may have increased in 2020, underscoring the importance of continued STD prevention and care activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlamydia Infections , Gonorrhea , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Syphilis , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Syphilis/epidemiology
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