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1.
Pediatrics ; 149(1)2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595609

ABSTRACT

A 9-year-old girl presented to her primary care pediatrician via telemedicine during the initial months of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic because of 4 days of warmth perceived by her mother, decreased energy, and a new rash on her upper extremities. After 10 additional days of documented fever >38°C, worsening fatigue, and 1 day of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, she was allowed to schedule an in-person visit with her pediatrician after testing negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. She appeared ill on arrival to clinic, and her pediatrician recommended evaluation in an emergency department. Her initial laboratory testing revealed nonspecific elevation in several inflammatory markers and leukopenia, and she responded well to intravenous hydration. Over the next 2 weeks, her fever persisted, constitutional symptoms worsened, and she developed progressively painful cervical lymphadenopathy and pancytopenia. She was evaluated in clinic by several specialists and eventually was urged to present to the emergency department again, at which time she was admitted to the PICU. After consulting additional specialists and waiting for laboratory results, the team reached a definitive diagnosis and initiated therapy; however, she experienced rapid clinical decline shortly thereafter. The specialists who assisted with identification of the underlying etiology of her symptoms were able to work together to manage the subsequent complications.


Subject(s)
Exanthema , Fever , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Telemedicine , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Disease Progression , Exanthema/diagnosis , Exanthema/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/diagnosis , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/blood , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lymphadenopathy/diagnosis , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Pancytopenia/diagnosis , Symptom Assessment , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
2.
J Exp Med ; 219(2)2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594167

ABSTRACT

In rare instances, pediatric SARS-CoV-2 infection results in a novel immunodysregulation syndrome termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We compared MIS-C immunopathology with severe COVID-19 in adults. MIS-C does not result in pneumocyte damage but is associated with vascular endotheliitis and gastrointestinal epithelial injury. In MIS-C, the cytokine release syndrome is characterized by IFNγ and not type I interferon. Persistence of patrolling monocytes differentiates MIS-C from severe COVID-19, which is dominated by HLA-DRlo classical monocytes. IFNγ levels correlate with granzyme B production in CD16+ NK cells and TIM3 expression on CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells. Single-cell TCR profiling reveals a skewed TCRß repertoire enriched for TRBV11-2 and a superantigenic signature in TIM3+/CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells. Using NicheNet, we confirm IFNγ as a central cytokine in the communication between TIM3+/CD38+/HLA-DR+ T cells, CD16+ NK cells, and patrolling monocytes. Normalization of IFNγ, loss of TIM3, quiescence of CD16+ NK cells, and contraction of patrolling monocytes upon clinical resolution highlight their potential role in MIS-C immunopathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Blood Vessels/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Child , Cohort Studies , Complement Activation , Cytokines/metabolism , Enterocytes/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Inflammation/pathology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Interleukin-15/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Superantigens/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology
3.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 140, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590893

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence shows an association between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and a severe inflammatory syndrome in children. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) data about myocardial injury in children are limited to small cohorts. The aim of this multicenter, international registry is to describe clinical and cardiac characteristics of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19 using CMR so as to better understand the real extent of myocardial damage in this vulnerable cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hundred-eleven patients meeting the World Health Organization criteria for MIS-C associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), having clinical cardiac involvement and having received CMR imaging scan were included from 17 centers. Median age at disease onset was 10.0 years (IQR 7.0-13.8). The majority of children had COVID-19 serology positive (98%) with 27% of children still having both, positive serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CMR was performed at a median of 28 days (19-47) after onset of symptoms. Twenty out of 111 (18%) patients had CMR criteria for acute myocarditis (as defined by the Lake Louise Criteria) with 18/20 showing subepicardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). CMR myocarditis was significantly associated with New York Heart Association class IV (p = 0.005, OR 6.56 (95%-CI 1.87-23.00)) and the need for mechanical support (p = 0.039, OR 4.98 (95%-CI 1.18-21.02)). At discharge, 11/111 (10%) patients still had left ventricular systolic dysfunction. CONCLUSION: No CMR evidence of myocardial damage was found in most of our MIS-C cohort. Nevertheless, acute myocarditis is a possible manifestation of MIS-C associated with SARS-CoV-2 with CMR evidence of myocardial necrosis in 18% of our cohort. CMR may be an important diagnostic tool to identify a subset of patients at risk for cardiac sequelae and more prone to myocardial damage. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study has been registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier NCT04455347, registered on 01/07/2020, retrospectively registered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , Child , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
4.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(6)2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590287

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This descriptive study aimed to compare the clinical and laboratory features of the children with the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), requiring pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), admission with the MIS-C patients who did not require PICU admission. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was conducted between March 2020 and February 2021 at the University of Health Sciences Dr. Behçet Uz Children's Hospital, a referral center for pediatric infectious diseases in the Aegean Region of Turkey. All hospitalized patients aged 18 years old or less with MIS-C according to the definition of the universal guidelines were included in the study. Data of the patients with the diagnosis of MIS-C were recorded and collected from the electronic medical records of the hospital. The data included demographic characteristics, presenting signs and symptoms, laboratory findings and clinical data. RESULTS: A total of 58 patients with MIS-C were included in this study. Thirty-eight (65.5%) patients were male. The median age was 6 years (2 months-16 years). The patients admitted to PICU were 15 (25.9%). The rate of pulmonary involvement was 81.3% (n = 13) in the PICU group. The median procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, D-Dimer and ferritin values were significantly higher in the PICU group compared to non-PICU group (p < 0.001, p = 0.02, p < 0.001, p = 0.006 and p = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: Besides the depressing cardiac functions reported before, the pulmonary involvement and signs of shock are important factors for PICU admission in children with MIS-C.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Retrospective Studies
5.
N Engl J Med ; 385(1): 11-22, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence is urgently needed to support treatment decisions for children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. METHODS: We performed an international observational cohort study of clinical and outcome data regarding suspected MIS-C that had been uploaded by physicians onto a Web-based database. We used inverse-probability weighting and generalized linear models to evaluate intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) as a reference, as compared with IVIG plus glucocorticoids and glucocorticoids alone. There were two primary outcomes: the first was a composite of inotropic support or mechanical ventilation by day 2 or later or death; the second was a reduction in disease severity on an ordinal scale by day 2. Secondary outcomes included treatment escalation and the time until a reduction in organ failure and inflammation. RESULTS: Data were available regarding the course of treatment for 614 children from 32 countries from June 2020 through February 2021; 490 met the World Health Organization criteria for MIS-C. Of the 614 children with suspected MIS-C, 246 received primary treatment with IVIG alone, 208 with IVIG plus glucocorticoids, and 99 with glucocorticoids alone; 22 children received other treatment combinations, including biologic agents, and 39 received no immunomodulatory therapy. Receipt of inotropic or ventilatory support or death occurred in 56 patients who received IVIG plus glucocorticoids (adjusted odds ratio for the comparison with IVIG alone, 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33 to 1.82) and in 17 patients who received glucocorticoids alone (adjusted odds ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.22 to 1.33). The adjusted odds ratios for a reduction in disease severity were similar in the two groups, as compared with IVIG alone (0.90 for IVIG plus glucocorticoids and 0.93 for glucocorticoids alone). The time until a reduction in disease severity was similar in the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that recovery from MIS-C differed after primary treatment with IVIG alone, IVIG plus glucocorticoids, or glucocorticoids alone, although significant differences may emerge as more data accrue. (Funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 Program and others; BATS ISRCTN number, ISRCTN69546370.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Confidence Intervals , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunomodulation , Male , Propensity Score , Regression Analysis , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1264, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: From May 2020 to January 2021, we enrolled 1233 health care workers (HCW) from Danish Hospitals in a randomized trial evaluating whether Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) provides protection against COVID-19. Participants were randomized 1:1 to BCG vs saline and followed for 6 months. From December 2020, Covid-19 vaccines were offered to the HCW. In most cases, BCG vaccination results in a characteristic scar. Reactivation of the BCG scar has been described in children during viral infections and following influenza vaccination, but is mostly associated to Kawasaki's disease, a disease entity with pathogenesis likely similar to the child Covid-19 complication MIS-C: Multi-System Inflammatory Syndrome. Reactivation of scars after neonatal BCG vaccination has recently been described in four women after Covid-19 mRNA vaccination. Two of our trial participants experienced reactivation of their novel BCG scars after receiving mRNA Covid-19 vaccination 6 to 8 months post-BCG. CASE PRESENTATIONS: Two female HCW participants that had been randomly allocated to BCG in the BCG-DENMARK-COVID trial, spontaneously reported itching and secretion at the BCG scar site after having received mRNA Covid-19 vaccination (Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech) 6 to 8 months following inclusion and BCG vaccination. One participant, who had a larger BCG skin reaction, noticed re-appearing symptoms after both the first and the second COVID-vaccine dose, while the other participant only noted symptoms after the second dose. Both had been BCG vaccinated during childhood, and no reactivation was noted in the older scars. No treatment was needed or provided. CONCLUSIONS: The reactivation of the BCG scar after receiving mRNA vaccine might have been caused by cross-reactivity between BCG and SARS-CoV-2. In both cases, the symptoms were bothersome, but self-limiting and left no sequelae. The risk of reactivation at the scar site is thus not a reason to avoid vaccination with either vaccine.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine , COVID-19 , BCG Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Cicatrix , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 779026, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581330

ABSTRACT

A 26-year-old otherwise healthy man died of fulminant myocarditis. Nasopharyngeal specimens collected premortem tested negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Histopathological evaluation of the heart showed myocardial necrosis surrounded by cytotoxic T-cells and tissue-repair macrophages. Myocardial T-cell receptor (TCR) sequencing revealed hyper-dominant clones with highly similar sequences to TCRs that are specific for SARS-CoV-2 epitopes. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the gut, supporting a diagnosis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A). Molecular targets of MIS-associated inflammation are not known. Our data indicate that SARS-CoV-2 antigens selected high-frequency T-cell clones that mediated fatal myocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/pathology , Myocarditis/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/immunology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology
8.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 78(6): 642-646, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579379

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is characterized by excessive activation of macrophages and lymphocytes, leading to multiorgan dysfunction. As the initial manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), MAS is rare in children. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it is vital to identify the MAS as it shares similar characteristics with the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). CASE REPORT: We report the case of an 11-year-old male adolescent with symptoms of MIS-C. Although with negative results of RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) and serology for SARS-CoV-2, contact with a positive COVID-19 relative was reported. When admitted to a referral hospital center, the patient received standard treatment for MIS-C. Although the same scheme was given on three occasions, the patient showed no response to initial therapy. Thus, the patient was classified as a refractory case. When the study was extended to other differential diagnoses, we found MAS associated with SLE. Therefore, the patient was treated with etoposide, cyclosporine, dexamethasone, and methotrexate and showed a good clinical response. CONCLUSIONS: MAS associated with SLE is rare in the pediatric population. MAS shares inflammatory markers with the MIS-C and is often confused with rheumatologic, infectious, and neoplastic entities. Reporting this case is important to identify differential diagnoses in patients presenting as MIS-C and decide on timely treatment, as it could be harmful or even fatal if a definitive diagnosis is not obtained on time.


INTRODUCCIÓN: El síndrome de activación de macrófagos (SAM) se caracteriza por una activación excesiva de los macrófagos y de los linfocitos que conduce a una disfunción multiorgánica. Como manifestación inicial del lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES), el SAM es poco común en la infancia. Debido a la pandemia de COVID-19, es importante identificar el SAM, ya que comparte características similares con el síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico en niños (MIS-C, por sus siglas en inglés). CASO CLÍNICO: Presentamos el caso de un varón de 11 años con síntomas de MIS-C. Resultó negativo en la prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con retrotranscriptasa y en la serología para SARS-CoV-2, aunque reportó contacto con un familiar positivo para COVID-19. Ingresó en un centro hospitalario de referencia y recibió tratamiento estandarizado para MIS-C. A pesar de recibir el mismo esquema en tres ocasiones, no mostró respuesta a la terapia inicial, por lo que fue clasificado como caso refractario. Al ampliar el estudio para otros diferenciales, se encontró SAM asociado con LES, por lo que el paciente recibió tratamiento con etopósido, ciclosporina, dexametasona y metotrexato, y mostró buena respuesta clínica. CONCLUSIONES: La asociación entre el SAM y el LES es rara en la población pediátrica. El SAM comparte marcadores inflamatorios con el MIS-C y suele confundirse con enfermedades reumatológicas, infecciosas y neoplásicas. La importancia de reportar este caso es identificar los diagnósticos diferenciales en los pacientes que se presentan como MIS-C, y decidir el tratamiento con prontitud, pues podría ser dañino o incluso fatal si no se obtiene un diagnóstico definitivo a tiempo.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Macrophage Activation Syndrome , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/diagnosis , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
9.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 172, 2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a rare hyperinflammatory condition that occurs following SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is a paucity of research describing risk factors, optimal management, and outcomes of this life-threatening condition. METHODS: This is a case series of 26 patients diagnosed with MIS-C in a West Michigan pediatric tertiary care center from April 2020 to February 2021. We describe the clinical, imaging, and laboratory characteristics of these patients and detail their treatments and outcomes with comparisons between Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) and non-PICU patients. Categorical testing utilized Chi-square and Fisher's Exact tests. Comparison between groups used T-tests or Kruskal-Wallis. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (57%) required intensive care. There was no statistically significant difference in demographics between PICU and non-PICU patients, however all Black patients required intensive care. Gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 22 patients (84%). Seventeen patients (65%) had Kawasaki-like features and 12 (46%) developed coronary artery dilation. Patients requiring intensive care were less likely to have a reported history of COVID-19 disease or exposure (p = 0.0362). Statistically significant differences were also noted in peak ferritin (p = 0.0075), procalcitonin, and BNP in those who required intensive care. CONCLUSIONS: Although overlap exists with other hyperinflammatory conditions, our study provides further evidence that MIS-C is a distinct, albeit heterogenous, disorder with various degrees of cardiac involvement. Anakinra, in conjunction with steroid use, appears to be effective and safe in the treatment of MIS-C. This report identifies procalcitonin, peak ferritin, and BNP as potentially useful biomarkers for severity of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2139974, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589283

ABSTRACT

Importance: Severe gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations have been sporadically reported in children with COVID-19; however, their frequency and clinical outcome are unknown. Objective: To describe the clinical, radiological, and histopathologic characteristics of children with COVID-19 presenting with severe GI manifestations to identify factors associated with a severe outcome. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter retrospective cohort study (February 25, 2020, to January 20, 2021) enrolled inpatient and outpatient children (aged <18 years) with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed by positive real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab or fulfilling the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). The study was conducted by pediatricians working in primary care or hospitals in Italy participating in the COVID-19 Registry of the Italian Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. Main Outcomes and Measures: The occurrence of severe GI manifestations, defined by a medical and/or radiological diagnosis of acute abdomen, appendicitis (complicated or not by perforation and/or peritonitis), intussusception, pancreatitis, abdominal fluid collection, and diffuse adenomesenteritis requiring surgical consultation, occurring during or within 4 to 6 weeks after infection with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs of factors potentially associated with severe outcomes. Results: Overall, 685 children (386 boys [56.4%]; median age, 7.3 [IQR, 1.6-12.4] years) were included. Of these children, 628 (91.7%) were diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and 57 (8.3%) with MIS-C. The presence of GI symptoms was associated with a higher chance of hospitalization (OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.89-3.69) and intensive care unit admission (OR, 3.90; 95% CI, 1.98-7.68). Overall, 65 children (9.5%) showed severe GI involvement, including disseminated adenomesenteritis (39.6%), appendicitis (33.5%), abdominal fluid collection (21.3%), pancreatitis (6.9%), or intussusception (4.6%). Twenty-seven of these 65 children (41.5%) underwent surgery. Severe GI manifestations were associated with the child's age (5-10 years: OR, 8.33; 95% CI, 2.62-26.5; >10 years: OR, 6.37; 95% CI, 2.12-19.1, compared with preschool-age), abdominal pain (adjusted OR [aOR], 34.5; 95% CI, 10.1-118), lymphopenia (aOR, 8.93; 95% CI, 3.03-26.3), or MIS-C (aOR, 6.28; 95% CI, 1.92-20.5). Diarrhea was associated with a higher chance of adenomesenteritis (aOR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.08-9.12) or abdominal fluid collection (aOR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.03-10.0). Conclusions and Relevance: In this multicenter cohort study of Italian children with SARS-CoV-2 infection or MIS-C, 9.5% of the children had severe GI involvement, frequently associated with MIS-C. These findings suggest that prompt identification may improve the management of serious complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Gastrointestinal Diseases/pathology , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Radiography , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 590, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adult patients with coronavirus disease present primarily with respiratory symptoms, but children and some adults may display a more systemic inflammatory syndrome with rash, fever, mucosal changes, and elevated inflammatory biomarkers. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report the case of a 29-year-old Hispanic patient presenting with significant rash and multisystem inflammation. We describe his clinical course, review dermatological manifestations of coronavirus disease, and summarize the pathophysiology of coronavirus disease-associated multisystem inflammation. CONCLUSION: This case should alert physicians to the atypical nature of presenting rash with minimal respiratory symptoms in coronavirus disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exanthema , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Exanthema/etiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
12.
Br J Radiol ; 95(1129): 20210570, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566544

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is seen as a serious delayed complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The aim of this study was to describe the most common imaging features of MIS-C associated with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: A retrospective review was made of the medical records and radiological imaging studies of 47 children (26 male, 21 female) in the age range of 25 months-15 years who were diagnosed with MIS-C between August 2020 and March 2021. Chest radiographs were available for all 47 patients, thorax ultrasound for 6, chest CT for 4, abdominal ultrasound for 42, abdomen CT for 9, neck ultrasound for 4, neck CT for 2, brain CT for 1, and brain MRI for 3. RESULTS: The most common finding on chest radiographs was perihilar-peribronchial thickening (46%). The most common findings on abdominal ultrasonography were mesenteric inflammation (42%), and hepatosplenomegaly (38%, 28%). Lymphadenopathy was determined in four patients who underwent neck ultrasound, one of whom had deep neck infection on CT. One patient had restricted diffusion and T2 hyperintensity involving the corpus callosum splenium on brain MRI, and one patient had epididymitis related with MIS-C. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary manifestations are uncommon in MIS-C. In the abdominal imaging, mesenteric inflammation, hepatosplenomegaly, periportal edema, ascites and bowel wall thickening are the most common findings. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The imaging findings of MIS-C are non-specific and can mimic many other pathologies. Radiologists should be aware that these findings may indicate the correct diagnosis of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Neck/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging , Radiography, Abdominal , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography
14.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 34(1): 127-131, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553539

ABSTRACT

On March 20, 2021, the Columbia University Department of Anesthesiology hosted the Papper virtual event dedicated to an academic discussion of various aspects of coronavirus disease-2019. Dr. Eva Cheung, a pediatric intensivist and pediatric cardiologist, spoke about the clinical challenges associated with tackling multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, a novel clinical entity in pediatric patients related to coronavirus disease-2019, and the experience with confronting multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children in New York.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
15.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 33(6): 691-703, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546084

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the global literature regarding rashes encountered in children and adults infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and aims to provide practicing pediatricians with an understanding of the relationship between instances of rashes and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children in order to effectively evaluate and treat patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The true incidence of cutaneous reactions in children infected with SARS-CoV-2 is not known. Children's immune systems differ from those of adults and rashes as a manifestation of immune responses, in turn, differ in morphology and distribution. Rarely, children develop a severe multisystem inflammatory syndrome that has overlapping clinical features with Kawasaki disease. In addition, vaccinations produce rashes similar to natural infections. The rashes associated with COVID-19 vaccination are mild and transient, and should not preclude vaccination. Lastly, children who chronically wear masks are more likely to experience flaring of acne around the nose and mouth ('maskne') and facial conditions such as seborrheic dermatitis. SUMMARY: There are ongoing worldwide registries, clinical and basic science studies to better understand the burden of skin disease and pathophysiology of rashes seen in patients infected with COVID-19. Robust vaccination programs should be encouraged as a way to contain viral spread among children and the greater population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Skin Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
16.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 33(6): 580-590, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546081

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has overwhelmed the global community, negatively impacting patient health and research efforts; associated neurological manifestations are a significant cause of morbidity. This review outlines the worldwide epidemiology of neurologic manifestations of different SARS-CoV-2 clinical pediatric phenotypes, including acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and postacute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC). We discuss strategies to develop adaptive global research platforms for future investigation into emerging pediatric neurologic conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Multicenter, multinational studies show that neurological manifestations of acute COVID-19, such as smell/taste disorders, headache, and stroke, are common in hospitalized adults (82%) and children (22%), associated with increased mortality in adults. Neurological manifestations of MIS-C are reported in up to 20% of children, including headache, irritability, and encephalopathy. Data on PASC are emerging and include fatigue, cognitive changes, and headache. Reports of neurological manifestations in each phenotype are limited by lack of pediatric-informed case definitions, common data elements, and resources. SUMMARY: Coordinated, well resourced, multinational investigation into SARS-CoV-2-related neurological manifestations in children is critical to rapid identification of global and region-specific risk factors, and developing treatment and mitigation strategies for the current pandemic and future health neurologic emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics
17.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45: In press, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1543063

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a rare but severe illness associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. A dysregulated immune response is recognized as the main pathogenic mechanism. Previous studies demonstrated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in faeces of almost one-third of patients with COVID-19, while data are currently missing about MIS-C. OBJECTIVES: to evaluate faecal sample positivity to SARS-CoV-2 in MIS-C and to compare the positivity rate between MIS-C and COVID-19 hospitalised children.  DESIGN: observational descriptive study with prospective patient enrollment. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: the SARS-CoV-2 positivity was evaluated in stool samples obtained in a prospective series of 63 paediatric patients admitted to Regina Margherita Children's Hospital (Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria - Città della Salute e della Scienza, Turin, Northern Italy) with diagnosis of MIS-C (N. 31) or COVID-19 (N. 32), during the first year of pandemic emergency. The real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR), was performed using a validated kit measuring 3 target SARS-CoV-2 genes: E gene, N gene, and ORF1ab gene MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: SARS-CoV-2 stool positivity and concomitant gastrointestinal symptoms. RESULTS: overall, 16/63 (25%) stool samples revealed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA. In patients with COVID-19, faecal samples were collected 8 days as median (IQR 7) after the presumed viral exposure and were positive in 12/31 (39%; 95%CI 23.2-56.2); among children with MIS-C, stools were collected 27.5 days as median (IQR 26.25) after presumed contact and the positivity rate was 12.5% (95%CI 4.4-27.0) (4/32). More than 80% of the children with MIS-C presented gastrointestinal symptoms, but the frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with positive stools for SARS-CoV-2 RNA is not higher than patients tested negative (p=0.092). CONCLUSIONS: MIS-C patients frequently experienced gastrointestinal symptoms, confirming the intestinal involvement in MIS-C already described in the literature. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA in faecal samples is confirmed in more than 10% of MIS-C patients and stool positivity was also detected many days after presumed first contact with the virus. This data suggests the possibility of tracing SARS-COV-2 also in faeces for a better description of its circulation and spread in the environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Child , Feces , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
19.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 141(2021-14)2021 10 12.
Article in Norwegian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528949

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome is a rare immune-mediated complication of infection with SARS-CoV-2 in children and adolescents. The patients can rapidly become seriously ill with high fever, gastrointestinal symptoms and cardiogenic shock. The goal of treatment is to ensure adequate circulation and prevent late complications by providing anti-inflammatory therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
20.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(45): e312, 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528809

ABSTRACT

As the number of people vaccinated increases, people who complain of adverse reactions continue to occur. We experienced a case characterized by low blood pressure, persistent fever, edema due to increased systemic vascular permeability, and systemic inflammation confirmed by image and laboratory examinations after ChAdOx1 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. The diagnostic criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) in adults are known as fever of 3 days or more in adults, 2 or more mucocutaneous/gastrointestinal/neurologic symptoms, elevation of inflammatory markers, and clinical/imaging diagnosis of heart failure. A 67-year-old man who was medicated for hypertension and diabetes was admitted complaining of fever, maculopapular rash, diarrhea, headache, chills, and dizziness 6 days after the first vaccination of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in Korea. The COVID-19 test was negative but with low blood pressure, leukocytosis, skin rash, pulmonary edema, and increased inflammation markers. His lab findings and clinical course were consistent with those of MIS after COVID-19 vaccination. He was medicated with methylprednisolone 1 mg/kg and diuretics and recovered rapidly. He was discharged after 2 weeks and confirmed cure at outpatient clinic. We report an MIS case after COVID-19 vaccination in Korea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/etiology , Humans , Male
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