BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: N-terminal of probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are often elevated in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) secondary to inflammation, myocardial dysfunction, or increased wall tension. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), accepted treatment of MIS-C, may transiently increase myocardial tension and contribute to an increase in NT-proBNP. We sought to study the association between pre- and post-IVIG levels of NT-proBNP and CRP and their clinical significance. METHODS: This single-center, retrospective, cohort study included consecutive children, aged ≤21 years, with diagnosis of MIS-C who received IVIG from April 2020 to October 2021. Data collection included clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, management, and outcomes. Study cohort consisted of patients who received IVIG and had NT-proBNP levels available pre- and post-IVIG. RESULTS: Among 35 patients with MIS-C, 30 met inclusion criteria. Twenty-four, 80%, showed elevation in NT-proBNP post-IVIG. The median NT-proBNP level pre-IVIG was 1921 pg/mL (interquartile range 548-3956), significantly lower than the post-IVIG median of 3756 pg/mL (interquartile range 1342-7634)) (P = .0010). The median pre-IVIG CRP level was significantly higher than the post-IVIG level (12 mg/dL vs 8 mg/dL, P = .0006). All but 1 recovered before discharge, and none had signs of worsening cardiac function post-IVIG. In those who recovered, NT-proBNP had normalized by discharge or 1-week follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that NT-proBNP levels often transiently increase immediately after IVIG therapy without signs of worsening myocardial function. These values should be interpreted in the context of CRP levels and clinical recovery.
Subject(s)COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy
Systemic inflammatory response, as observed in sepsis and severe COVID-19, may lead to endothelial damage. Therefore, we aim to compare the extent of endothelial injury and its relationship to inflammation in both diseases. We included patients diagnosed with sepsis (SEPSIS group, n = 21), mild COVID-19 (MILD group, n = 31), and severe COVID-19 (SEVERE group, n = 24). Clinical and routine laboratory data were obtained, circulating cytokines (INF-Î³, TNF-α, and IL-10) and endothelial injury markers (E-Selectin, Tissue Factor (TF) and von Willebrand factor (vWF)) were measured. Compared to the SEPSIS group, patients with severe COVID-19 present similar clinical and laboratory data, except for lower circulating IL-10 and E-Selectin levels. Compared to the MILD group, patients in the SEVERE group showed higher levels of TNF-α, IL-10, and TF. There was no clear relationship between cytokines and endothelial injury markers among the three studied groups; however, in SEVERE COVID-19 patients, there is a positive relationship between INF-Î³ with TF and a negative relationship between IL-10 and vWF. In conclusion, COVID-19 and septic patients have a similar pattern of cytokines and endothelial dysfunction markers. These findings highlight the importance of endothelium dysfunction in COVID-19 and suggest that endothelium should be better evaluated as a therapeutic target for the disease.
Subject(s)COVID-19/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , Blood Cell Count , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , E-Selectin/blood , Female , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-10/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Thromboplastin/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , von Willebrand Factor/analysis
BACKGROUND: Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) is a rare complication of SARS-CoV-2 associated with single or multiorgan dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and risk factors for kidney dysfunction in PIMS-TS, with reporting of 6-month renal follow-up data. We also evaluated renal involvement between first and second waves of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the UK, the latter attributed to the Alpha variant. DESIGN: A single-centre observational study was conducted through patient chart analysis. SETTING: Data were collected from patients admitted to Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK, between April 2020 and March 2021. PATIENTS: 110 patients <18 years of age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: AKI during hospitalisation. AKI classification was based on upper limit of reference interval (ULRI) serum creatinine (sCr) values. RESULTS: AKI occurred in 33 (30%) patients. Hypotension/hypoperfusion was associated with almost all cases. In univariate analysis, the AKI cohort had higher peak levels of triglycerides (OR, 1.27 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.6) per 1 mmol/L increase) and C reactive protein (OR, 1.06 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.12) per 10 mg/L increase), with higher requirement for mechanical ventilation (OR, 3.8 (95% CI, 1.46 to 10.4)) and inotropic support (OR, 15.4 (95% CI, 3.02 to 2.81)). In multivariate analysis, triglycerides were independently associated with AKI stages 2-3 (adjusted OR, 1.26 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.6)). At follow-up, none had macroalbuminuria and all had sCr values
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology
, Disease Progression
, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology
, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications
, Acute Kidney Injury/complications
, Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology
, C-Reactive Protein/analysis
, Follow-Up Studies
, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology
, Respiration, Artificial
, Risk Factors
, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood
, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
, United Kingdom/epidemiology
Subject(s)Acute Kidney Injury , Aspirin/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Echocardiography/methods , Fatty Liver/diagnostic imaging , Fatty Liver/etiology , Humans , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Myositis/diagnosis , Myositis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
BACKGROUND: Post-COVID multisystem hyperinflammatory syndrome in children (MISC) has clinical and laboratory similarities with Kawasaki disease (KD). Inflammatory markers like C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL6) as well as N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are elevated in both. This study attempts a comparative analysis of the 3 markers in an attempt at early differentiation for planning appropriate management. METHODOLOGY: This analytical study conducted at the Institute of Child Health, Kolkata, India compared the levels of the above 3 markers at admission between 72 patients with KD, 30% of whom had coronary artery lesions (CALs) collected over a period of 18 months (Jan 2017-June 2018), with 71 MISC patients over a period of 6 months (July 2020-December 2020). The non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to test for similarity in distributions of the samples of CRP, NT-proBNP and IL6 in KD and MISC patients using correction factor for similar ranks. The 3 parameters were compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. RESULTS: Mean IL6 value in KD was 83.22 pg/mL and in MISC 199.91 pg/mL, which was not found to be statistically significant (P = .322 > .05).However mean NT-proBNP (914.91 pg/mL) with CRP level (96.32 mg/L) in KD was significantly lower (P < .05 for both cases) than that in MISC (9141.16 pg/mL and 145.66 mg/L respectively). ROC analysis showed NT-proBNP has the best sensitivity and specificity in predicting MISC. CONCLUSION: NT-proBNP and CRP are significantly higher among MISC patients; ROC analysis shows levels >935.7 pg/mL and >99.55 mg/L respectively might act as a guide to differentiate between them.
Subject(s)C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , Interleukin-6/blood , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/blood , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , India , Infant , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2
We compared cardiac findings in patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and Kawasaki disease in the first 6 months of the 2020 coronavirus disease pandemic to patients with Kawasaki disease during 2016-2019. We saw a high rate of coronary aneurysms in 2020, with a similar rate of coronary involvement but greater volume and incidence of cardiac dysfunction compared with previous years.
Subject(s)COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronary Aneurysm/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , COVID-19/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronary Aneurysm/complications , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Infant , Los Angeles , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
BACKGROUND: The emergence of increasing reports worldwide of a severe inflammatory process and shock in pediatric patients resembling Kawasaki disease (KD)-and, more specifically, Kawasaki disease shock syndrome (KDSS)-prompted us to explore KDSS in a preamble of a systematic comparison between the 2 conditions. METHODS: We completed a systematic review of KDSS and performed a meta-analysis comparison between reported KDSS cases and KD controls. RESULTS: A total of 10 case-control series were included in the meta-analysis. Patients with KDSS were older (38.4 ± 30.6 vs 21.9 ± 19.5 months; P < 0.001) compared with standard KD with equal sex distribution and completeness of clinical diagnostic criteria. KDSS present higher C-reactive protein (59.4 ± 29.2 mg/dL vs 20.8 ± 14.8 mg/dL; P < 0.001), lower albumin (2.7 ± 0.5 g/dL vs 3.3 ± 0.5 g/dL; P < 0.01), and lower platelets (255 ± 149 109/L vs 394 ± 132 109/L; P < 0.001) but only borderline higher white blood cells (P = 0.06). Differences in alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were nonsignificant. The odds of intravenous immunoglobulin resistance (44.4% vs 9.6%; (P < 0.001) and the hospital length of stay (10.9 ± 5.8 vs 5.0 ± 3.0 days; P < 0.001) were higher in KDSS, as were the odds of coronary-artery abnormalities (33.9% vs 8.6%; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This first meta-analysis on KDSS vs KD represents a basis for future works on KDSS and opens the opportunity for future multicentre studies in the search of causal relationships between presenting elements and the eventual complications of KDSS. The similarities between SARS-CoV-2 multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and KDSS open new horizons to the understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology related to KDSS.
Subject(s)COVID-19/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child, Preschool , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/blood , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
BACKGROUNDMultisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare but potentially severe illness that follows exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Kawasaki disease (KD) shares several clinical features with MIS-C, which prompted the use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), a mainstay therapy for KD. Both diseases share a robust activation of the innate immune system, including the IL-1 signaling pathway, and IL-1 blockade has been used for the treatment of both MIS-C and KD. The mechanism of action of IVIG in these 2 diseases and the cellular source of IL-1ß have not been defined.METHODSThe effects of IVIG on peripheral blood leukocyte populations from patients with MIS-C and KD were examined using flow cytometry and mass cytometry (CyTOF) and live-cell imaging.RESULTSCirculating neutrophils were highly activated in patients with KD and MIS-C and were a major source of IL-1ß. Following IVIG treatment, activated IL-1ß+ neutrophils were reduced in the circulation. In vitro, IVIG was a potent activator of neutrophil cell death via PI3K and NADPH oxidase, but independently of caspase activation.CONCLUSIONSActivated neutrophils expressing IL-1ß can be targeted by IVIG, supporting its use in both KD and MIS-C to ameliorate inflammation.FUNDINGPatient Centered Outcomes Research Institute; NIH; American Asthma Foundation; American Heart Association; Novo Nordisk Foundation; NIGMS; American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Foundation.
Subject(s)COVID-19/complications , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Cell Death/immunology , Cell Lineage/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Fas Ligand Protein/immunology , Female , Humans , Infant , Interleukin-1beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/blood , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils/classification , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood
BACKGROUND: Most children and youth develop mild or asymptomatic disease during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. However, a very small number of patients suffer severe Coronavirus induced disease 2019 (COVID-19). The reasons underlying these different outcomes remain unknown. METHODS: We analyzed three different cohorts: children with acute infection (n=550), convalescent children (n=138), and MIS-C (multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, n=42). IgG and IgM antibodies to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, serum-neutralizing activity, plasma cytokine levels, and the frequency of circulating Follicular T helper cells (cTfh) and plasmablasts were analyzed by conventional methods. FINDINGS: Fifty-eight percent of the children in the acute phase of infection had no detectable antibodies at the time of sampling while a seronegative status was found in 25% and 12% of convalescent and MIS-C children, respectively. When children in the acute phase of the infection were stratified according disease severity, we found that contrasting with the response of children with asymptomatic, mild and moderate disease, children with severe COVID-19 did not develop any detectable response. A defective antibody response was also observed in the convalescent cohort for children with severe disease at the time of admission. This poor antibody response was associated to both, a low frequency of cTfh and a high plasma concentration of inflammatory cytokines. INTERPRETATION: A weak and delayed kinetic of antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 together with a systemic pro-inflammatory profile characterize pediatric severe COVID-19. Because comorbidities are highly prevalent in children with severe COVID-19, further studies are needed to clarify their contribution in the weak antibody response observed in severe disease. FUNDING: National Agency for Scientific and Technological Promotion from Argentina (IP-COVID-19-0277 and PMO-BID-PICT2018-2548).
Subject(s)Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Argentina , COVID-19/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood
This study sought to evaluate the candidacy of plasma osteopontin (OPN) as a biomarker of COVID-19 severity and multisystem inflammatory condition in children (MIS-C) in children. A retrospective analysis of 26 children (0-21 years of age) admitted to Children's Healthcare of Atlanta with a diagnosis of COVID-19 between March 17 and May 26, 2020 was undertaken. The patients were classified into three categories based on COVID-19 severity levels: asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic (control population, admitted for other non-COVID-19 conditions), mild/moderate, and severe COVID-19. A fourth category of children met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's case definition for MIS-C. Residual blood samples were analyzed for OPN, a marker of inflammation using commercial ELISA kits (R&D), and results were correlated with clinical data. This study demonstrates that OPN levels are significantly elevated in children hospitalized with moderate and severe COVID-19 and MIS-C compared to OPN levels in mild/asymptomatic children. Further, OPN differentiated among clinical levels of severity in COVID-19, while other inflammatory markers including maximum erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and ferritin, minimum lymphocyte and platelet counts, soluble interleukin-2R, and interleukin-6 did not. We conclude OPN is a potential biomarker of COVID-19 severity and MIS-C in children that may have future clinical utility. The specificity and positive predictive value of this marker for COVID-19 and MIS-C are areas for future larger prospective research studies.
Subject(s)COVID-19/complications , Osteopontin/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Young Adult
OBJECTIVE: To characterize viscoelastic testing profiles of children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: This single-center retrospective review included 30 patients diagnosed with MIS-C from March 1 to September 1, 2020. Thromboelastography (TEG) with platelet mapping was performed in 19 (63%) patients and compared to age- and sex-matched controls prior to cardiac surgery. Relationships between TEG parameters and inflammatory markers were assessed using correlation. RESULTS: Patients with MIS-C had abnormal TEG results compared to controls, including decreased kinetic (K) time (1.1 vs. 1.7 minutes, p < .01), increased alpha angle (75.0° vs. 65.7°, p < .01), increased maximum amplitude (70.8 vs. 58.3 mm, p < .01), and decreased lysis in 30 minutes (Ly30) (1.1% vs. 3.7%, p = .03); consistent with increased clot formation rate and strength, and reduced fibrinolysis. TEG maximum amplitude was moderately correlated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (r = 0.60, p = .02), initial platelet count (r = 0.67, p < .01), and peak platelet count (r = 0.51, p = .03). TEG alpha angle was moderately correlated with peak platelet count (r = 0.54, p = .02). Seventeen (57%) patients received aspirin (ASA) and anticoagulation, five (17%) received only ASA, and three (10%) received only anticoagulation. No patients had a symptomatic thrombotic event. Six (20%) patients had a bleeding event, none of which was major. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with MIS-C had evidence of hypercoagulability on TEG. Increased ESR and platelets were associated with higher clot strength. Patients were prophylactically treated with ASA or anticoagulation with no symptomatic thrombosis or major bleeding. Further multicenter study is required to characterize the rate of thrombosis and optimal thromboprophylaxis algorithm in this patient population.
Subject(s)Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Thrombophilia/blood , Adolescent , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Platelets/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Thrombelastography , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
[Figure: see text].
Subject(s)COVID-19/immunology , Granulocytes/immunology , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/blood , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/genetics , Caspase 1/blood , Caspase 1/genetics , Caspases, Initiator/blood , Caspases, Initiator/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Granulocytes/metabolism , Humans , Inflammasomes/genetics , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/blood , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/genetics , Transcriptome
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Immunocompromised Host , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/blood , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/immunology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/pathology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology
OBJECTIVE: Features of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) overlap with other febrile illnesses, hindering prompt and accurate diagnosis. The objectives of this study were to identify clinical and laboratory findings that distinguished MIS-C from febrile illnesses in which MIS-C was considered but ultimately excluded, and to examine the diseases that most often mimicked MIS-C in a tertiary medical centre. STUDY DESIGN: We identified all children hospitalised with fever who were evaluated for MIS-C at our centre and compared clinical signs and symptoms, SARS-CoV-2 status and laboratory studies between those with and without MIS-C. Multivariable logistic LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) regression was used to identify the most discriminative presenting features of MIS-C. RESULTS: We identified 50 confirmed MIS-C cases (MIS-C+) and 68 children evaluated for, but ultimately not diagnosed with, MIS-C (MIS-C-). In univariable analysis, conjunctivitis, abdominal pain, fatigue, hypoxaemia, tachypnoea and hypotension at presentation were significantly more common among MIS-C+ patients. MIS-C+ and MIS-C- patients had similar elevations in C-reactive protein (CRP), but were differentiated by thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, and elevated ferritin, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, BNP and troponin. In multivariable analysis, predictors of MIS-C included age, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, platelets, conjunctivitis, oral mucosa changes, abdominal pain and hypotension. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalised children undergoing evaluation for MIS-C, children with MIS-C were older, more likely to present with conjunctivitis, oral mucosa changes, abdominal pain and hypotension, and had higher neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios and lower platelet counts. These data may be helpful for discrimination of MIS-C from other febrile illnesses, including bacterial lymphadenitis and acute viral infection, with overlapping features.
Subject(s)COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Adolescent , Age of Onset , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Conjunctivitis/etiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Hypotension/etiology , Leukocyte Count , Lymphadenitis/diagnosis , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Neutrophils , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/diagnosis
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic continues to spread relentlessly, associated with a high frequency of respiratory failure and mortality. Children experience largely asymptomatic disease, with rare reports of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Identifying immune mechanisms that result in these disparate clinical phenotypes in children could provide critical insights into coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis. Using systems serology, in this study we observed in 25 children with acute mild COVID-19 a functional phagocyte and complement-activating IgG response to SARS-CoV-2, similar to the acute responses generated in adults with mild disease. Conversely, IgA and neutrophil responses were significantly expanded in adults with severe disease. Moreover, weeks after the resolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection, children who develop MIS-C maintained highly inflammatory monocyte-activating SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies, distinguishable from acute disease in children but with antibody levels similar to those in convalescent adults. Collectively, these data provide unique insights into the potential mechanisms of IgG and IgA that might underlie differential disease severity as well as unexpected complications in children infected with SARS-CoV-2.
Subject(s)Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age of Onset , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Carrier State/blood , Carrier State/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunity/physiology , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Young Adult
OBJECTIVE: To assess demographic, clinical, and biomarker features distinguishing patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C); compare MIS-C sub-phenotypes; identify cytokine biosignatures; and characterize viral genome sequences. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a prospective observational cohort study of 124 children hospitalized and treated under the institutional MIS-C Task Force protocol from March to September 2020 at Children's National, a quaternary freestanding children's hospital in Washington, DC. Of this cohort, 63 of the patients had the diagnosis of MIS-C (39 confirmed, 24 probable) and 61 were from the same cohort of admitted patients who subsequently had an alternative diagnosis (controls). RESULTS: Median age and sex were similar between MIS-C and controls. Black (46%) and Latino (35%) children were over-represented in the MIS-C cohort, with Black children at greatest risk (OR 4.62, 95% CI 1.151-14.10; P = .007). Cardiac complications were more frequent in critically ill patients with MIS-C (55% vs 28%; P = .04) including systolic myocardial dysfunction (39% vs 3%; P = .001) and valvular regurgitation (33% vs 7%; P = .01). Median cycle threshold was 31.8 (27.95-35.1 IQR) in MIS-C cases, significantly greater (indicating lower viral load) than in primary severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Cytokines soluble interleukin 2 receptor, interleukin [IL]-10, and IL-6 were greater in patients with MIS-C compared with controls. Cytokine analysis revealed subphenotype differences between critically ill vs noncritically ill (IL-2, soluble interleukin 2 receptor, IL-10, IL-6); polymerase chain reaction positive vs negative (tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-10, IL-6); and presence vs absence of cardiac abnormalities (IL-17). Phylogenetic analysis of viral genome sequences revealed predominance of GH clade originating in Europe, with no differences comparing patients with MIS-C with patients with primary coronavirus disease 19. Treatment was well tolerated, and no children died. CONCLUSIONS: This study establishes a well-characterized large cohort of MIS-C evaluated and treated following a standardized protocol and identifies key clinical, biomarker, cytokine, viral load, and sequencing features. Long-term follow-up will provide opportunity for future insights into MIS-C and its sequelae.
Subject(s)COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Phenotype , Phylogeny , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
Secretory phospholipase 2 (sPLA2) acts as a mediator between proximal and distal events of the inflammatory cascade. Its role in SARS-CoV-2 infection is unknown, but could contribute to COVID-19 inflammasome activation and cellular damage. We present the first report of plasma sPLA2 levels in adults and children with COVID-19 compared with controls. Currently asymptomatic adults with a history of recent COVID-19 infection (≥4 weeks before) identified by SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies had sPLA2 levels similar to those who were seronegative (9 ± 6 vs.17 ± 28 ng/mL, P = 0.26). In contrast, children hospitalized with severe COVID-19 had significantly elevated sPLA2 compared with those with mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection (269 ± 137 vs. 2 ± 3 ng/mL, P = 0.01). Among children hospitalized with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), all had severe disease requiring pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission. sPLA2 levels were significantly higher in those with acute illness <10 days versus convalescent disease ≥10 days (540 ± 510 vs. 2 ± 1, P = 0.04). Thus, sPLA2 levels correlated with COVID-19 severity and acute MIS-C in children, implicating a role in inflammasome activation and disease pathogenesis. sPLA2 may be a useful biomarker to stratify risk and guide patient management for children with acute COVID-19 and MIS-C. Therapeutic compounds targeting sPLA2 and inflammasome activation warrant consideration.
Subject(s)COVID-19/blood , Phospholipases A2, Secretory/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Occasionally, children with COVID-19 may develop arrhythmia, myocarditis, and cardiogenic shock involving multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). This study aimed to identify the laboratory parameters that may predict early cardiovascular involvement in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of 320 pediatric patients, aged 0-18 years (average age, 10.46 ± 5.77 years; 156 female), with positive COVID-19 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test and with cardiac biomarkers at the time of admission to the pediatric emergency department were retrospectively scanned. The age, sex, COVID-19-associated symptoms, pro-brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP), CK-MB, and troponin I levels of the patients were recorded. RESULTS: Fever was noted in 58.1% of the patients, cough in 29.7%, diarrhea in 7.8%, headache in 14.7%, sore throat in 17.8%, weakness in 17.8%, abdominal pain in 5%, loss of taste in 4.1%, loss of smell in 5.3%, nausea in 3.4%, vomiting in 3.8%, nasal discharge in 4.4%, muscle pain in 5%, and loss of appetite in 3.1%. The proBNP value ≥282 ng/L predicted the development of MIS-C with 100% sensitivity and 93% specificity [AUC: 0.985 (0.959-1), P < 0.001]; CK-MB value ≥2.95 with 80% sensitivity and 77.6% specificity [AUC: 0.792 (0.581-1), P = 0.026]; and troponin I value ≥0.03 with 60% sensitivity and 99.2% specificity [AUC: 0.794 (0.524-1)]. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac markers (proBNP and troponin I), especially proBNP, could be used to detect early diagnosis of cardiac involvement and/or MIS-C in pediatric patients with COVID-19 and to predict related morbidity and mortality.
Subject(s)COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Troponin I/blood , Adolescent , COVID-19/etiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology
BACKGROUND: Cardiac evaluations, including cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and biomarker results, are needed in children during mid-term recovery after infection with SARS-CoV-2. The incidence of CMR abnormalities 1-3 months after recovery is over 50% in older adults and has ranged between 1 and 15% in college athletes. Abnormal cardiac biomarkers are common in adults, even during recovery. METHODS: We performed CMR imaging in a prospectively-recruited pediatric cohort recovered from COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We obtained CMR data and serum biomarkers. We compared these results to age-matched control patients, imaged prior to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. RESULTS: CMR was performed in 17 children (13.9 years, all ≤ 18 years) and 29 age-matched control patients without SARS-CoV-2 infection. Cases were recruited with symptomatic COVID-19 (11/17, 65%) or MIS-C (6/17, 35%) and studied an average of 2 months after diagnosis. All COVID-19 patients had been symptomatic with fever (73%), vomiting/diarrhea (64%), or breathing difficulty (55%) during infection. Left ventricular and right ventricular ejection fractions were indistinguishable between cases and controls (p = 0.66 and 0.70, respectively). Mean native global T1, global T2 values and segmental T2 maximum values were also not statistically different from control patients (p ≥ 0.06 for each). NT-proBNP and troponin levels were normal in all children. CONCLUSIONS: Children prospectively recruited following SARS-CoV-2 infection had normal CMR and cardiac biomarker evaluations during mid-term recovery. Trial Registration Not applicable.
Subject(s)COVID-19/complications , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart/physiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood
BACKGROUND: In order to manage the COVID-19 systemic inflammatory response, it is important to identify clinicopathological characteristics across multiple cohorts. METHODS: The aim of the present study was to compare the 4C mortality score, other measures of the systemic inflammatory response and clinicopathological characteristics in two consecutive cohorts of patients on admission with COVID-19. Electronic patient records for 2 consecutive cohorts of patients admitted to two urban teaching hospitals with COVID-19 during two 7-week periods of the COVID-19 pandemic in Glasgow, U.K. (cohort 1: 17/3/2020-1/5/2020) and (cohort 2: 18/5/2020-6/7/2020) were examined for routine clinical, laboratory and clinical outcome data. RESULTS: Compared with cohort 1, cohort 2 were older (p<0.001), more likely to be female (p<0.05) and have less independent living circumstances (p<0.001). More patients in cohort 2 were PCR positive, CXR negative (both p<0.001) and had low serum albumin concentrations (p<0.001). 30-day mortality was similar between both cohorts (23% and 22%). In cohort 2, age >70 (p<0.05), male gender (p<0.05), COPD (p<0.05), cognitive impairment (p<0.05), frailty (p<0.001), delirium (p = 0.001), CRP>150mg/L (p<0.05), albumin <30 g/L (p<0.01), elevated perioperative Glasgow Prognostic Score (p<0.05), elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (p<0.001), low haematocrit (p<0.01), elevated PT (p<0.05), sodium <133 mmol/L (p<0.01) elevated urea (p<0.001), creatinine (p<0.001), glucose (p<0.05) and lactate (p<0.001) and the 4C score (p<0.001) were associated with 30-day mortality. In multivariate analysis, greater frailty (CFS>3) (OR 11.3, 95% C.I. 2.3-96.7, p<0.05), low albumin (<30g/L) (OR 2.5, 95% C.I. 1.0-6.2, p<0.05), high NLR (≥3) (OR 2.2, 95% C.I. 1.5-4.5, p<0.05) and the 4C score (OR 2.4, 95% C.I. 1.0-5.6, p<0.05) remained independently associated with 30-day mortality. CONCLUSION: In addition to the 4C mortality score, frailty score and a low albumin were strongly independently associated with 30-day mortality in two consecutive cohorts of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04484545.