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1.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 44(3): e812-e815, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758948

ABSTRACT

The understanding of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) immune dysregulation is evolving. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease with alternations in both innate and adaptive immunity, probably caused by a complex interplay of genetics and environmental exposure with various triggers. A rare hematological complication of SLE as well as recently reported in an adult with COVID-19 is thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. We report a pediatric case with features suggestive of the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children with coronary artery ectasia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, and new-onset SLE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/complications , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications
2.
Radiology ; 303(1): 173-181, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752921

ABSTRACT

Background Children with pediatric inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS), also known as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, present with abdominal pain among other nonspecific symptoms. Although initial imaging features of PIMS-TS have been reported, the duration of sonographic features remains unknown. Purpose To describe the abdominal US features of PIMS-TS at initial presentation and follow-up. Materials and Methods A retrospective review of children and young adults presenting with clinical features suspicious for PIMS-TS between April 2020 and June 2021 was carried out. US features were documented and reviewed at initial presentation and follow-up. Descriptive statistics were used and interobserver variability was calculated. Results Of 140 children and young adults presenting with suspected PIMS-TS, 120 had confirmed PIMS-TS (median age, 9 years; interquartile range, 7-12 years; 65 male patients) and 102 underwent abdominal US at presentation. PIMS-TS was present as a single abnormality in 109 of the 120 patients (91%) and abdominal symptoms were present in 104 of the 109 (95%). US examinations were abnormal in 86 of 102 patients (84%), with ascites being the most common abnormality in 65 (64%; 95% CI: 54, 73). Bowel wall thickening was present at US in 14 of the 102 patients (14%; 95% CI: 7, 20) and mesenteric inflammation was present in 16 (16%; 95% CI: 9, 23); all of these patients presented with abdominal symptoms. Among the patients with bowel wall thickening, the distal and terminal ileum were most involved (eight of 14 patients, 57%). Abdominal symptoms decreased to seven of 56 patients (13%) in those followed up at 6 months. Thirty-eight patients underwent follow-up US, and the presence of bowel inflammation had decreased to three of 27 patients (11%; 95% CI: -1, 23) in those followed up for less than 2 months and 0 of 17 (0%) in those followed up for more than 2 months. Conclusion Of 102 patients with pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 who underwent US at presentation, 14 (14%) had abdominal US findings of bowel inflammation and 16 (16%) had mesenteric edema. All US abnormalities resolved after 2 months. © RSNA, 2022 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by van Rijn and Pajkrt in this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Child , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnostic imaging
3.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 22(5): 53-60, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750837

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has developed into a pandemic. A unique challenge of this pandemic has been the emergence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a rare post-infectious hyperinflammatory disorder associated with SARS-CoV-2. This syndrome is characterized by overwhelming systemic inflammation, fever, hypotension, and cardiac dysfunction. This disorder may also have features overlapping with Kawasaki disease (KD), macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), and toxic shock syndrome (TSS). The goal of this review is to outline the presenting features, presumed immunopathogenesis, management, and outcomes of patients with MIS-C. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with MIS-C present with characteristics that fall within a wide clinical spectrum. Main features include fever, gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain and diarrhea, and cardiac complications such as myocarditis and coronary artery aneurysms, although various other features have been reported. Younger children may present with features of Kawasaki-like disease, and older children are often admitted to the intensive care unit with cardiogenic shock. Current treatment guidelines recommend intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) and glucocorticoids, with utilization of biologics in refractory cases. Fortunately, the majority of patients recover, with resolution of the systemic inflammation and cardiac abnormalities. Mortality from MIS-C is rare. This review provides an overview of the presenting features, proposed pathogenesis, suggested therapies, and outcomes of MIS-C. Clinicians must have a high clinical suspicion for this disorder in children who have had recent COVID-19 infection or exposure and present with a significant inflammatory response. Understanding of this disorder continues to evolve, and prompt diagnosis and treatment allow for the best possible outcome for patients with MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(3)2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731266

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has caused a global pandemic with serious impact around the world. Patients most commonly present with severe lung involvement and acute respiratory failure; however, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is a known-although rare-complication. We present a case of a 49-year-old patient who presented with combined cardiogenic and vasodilatory shock and was diagnosed with MIS-A. He initially required venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and Impella for haemodynamic support but was able to be weaned off these devices with complete recovery of left ventricular systolic function. This case demonstrates that MIS-A may present as haemodynamic collapse in adults, but complete recovery is possible with proper haemodynamic support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Adult , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/diagnosis , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
7.
Diabetes Care ; 45(4): 983-989, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674210

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report and describe cases of children presenting with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) with new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in severe diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted to characterize children with COVID-19-related MIS-C and new-onset T1DM who were in DKA. MIS-C was diagnosed if Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization criteria were fulfilled. RESULTS: Six cases were identified. The patients were critically ill and in nonfluid responsive shock (combined hypovolemic and cardiogenic or distributive shock). All had cardiac involvement. One patient had a Kawasaki shock-like presentation. All needed aggressive treatment with careful monitoring of fluid balance (because of associated cardiac dysfunction), early institution of vasoactive/inotropic supports, and use of methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulins. The latter are better administered after DKA resolution to avoid undue volume overload and fluid shifts while the patients are in DKA. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness of MIS-C coexistence with DKA at T1DM onset is crucial for rapid proper management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , COVID-19/complications , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Humans , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications
9.
Pediatr Res ; 91(2): 432-439, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671538

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has had a significant impact worldwide, particularly in middle- and low-income countries. While this impact has been well-recognized in certain age groups, the effects, both direct and indirect, on the neonatal population remain largely unknown. There are placental changes associated, though the contributions to maternal and fetal illness have not been fully determined. The rate of premature delivery has increased and SARS-CoV-2 infection is proportionately higher in premature neonates, which appears to be related to premature delivery for maternal reasons rather than an increase in spontaneous preterm labor. There is much room for expansion, including long-term data on outcomes for affected babies. Though uncommon, there has been evidence of adverse events in neonates, including Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children, associated with COVID-19 (MIS-C). There are recommendations for reduction of viral transmission to neonates, though more research is required to determine the role of passive immunization of the fetus via maternal vaccination. There is now considerable evidence suggesting that the severe visitation restrictions implemented early in the pandemic have negatively impacted the care of the neonate and the experiences of both parents and healthcare professionals alike. Ongoing collaboration is required to determine the full impact, and guidelines for future management. IMPACT: Comprehensive review of current available evidence related to impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on neonates, effects on their health, impact on their quality of care and indirect influences on their clinical course, including comparisons with other age groups. Reference to current evidence for maternal experience of infection and how it impacts the fetus and then neonate. Outline of the need for ongoing research, including specific areas in which there are significant gaps in knowledge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Maternal-Fetal Exchange , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Premature Birth , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications
10.
Pediatr Neurol ; 129: 1-6, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671017

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) involves multiple organs and shows increased inflammatory markers. Since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several studies have reported the association between severe COVID-19 and MIS-C. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) presents with thunderclap headaches and multifocal reversible vasoconstriction on imaging. RCVS is very rare in children. This article reports two cases of pediatric COVID-19 with severe MIS-C and clinical and imaging features indicative of RCVS. METHODS: Clinical, laboratory, and imaging data of the patients were reviewed. The diagnosis of RCVS was confirmed based on clinical symptomatology and brain magnetic resonance imaging findings. RESULTS: Two pediatric patients with clinical findings compatible with severe MIS-C and hemodynamic compromise presented to the hospital. During their hospitalization course, they developed thunderclap headaches and neurological deficits. Both were receiving vasoactive agents, intravenous immunoglobulin, and immunosuppressants. Imaging studies showed marked multifocal cerebral vasoconstriction in both cases and infarcts in one. The course and management of the patients will be presented. After controlling inflammation and elimination of triggers, both patients were ultimately symptom free upon discharge. Cerebral vasoconstriction had completely resolved on follow-up imaging. CONCLUSIONS: Although a variety of symptoms including headaches may be seen in pediatric COVID-19 patients with MIS-C, RCVS should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of thunderclap headache accompanied by neurological signs in these patients. Imaging findings and follow-up are also key in establishing the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnosis , Cerebrovascular Disorders/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Child , Constriction, Pathologic , Female , Headache Disorders, Primary/diagnosis , Headache Disorders, Primary/therapy , Headache Disorders, Primary/virology , Humans , Male , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(3): e023251, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642967

ABSTRACT

Background In multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, there is paucity of longitudinal data on cardiac outcomes. We analyzed cardiac outcomes 3 to 4 months after initial presentation using echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Methods and Results We included 60 controls and 60 cases of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Conventional echocardiograms and deformation parameters were analyzed at 4 time points: (1) acute phase (n=60), (2) subacute phase (n=50; median, 3 days after initial echocardiography), (3) 1-month follow-up (n=39; median, 22 days), and (4) 3- to 4-month follow-up (n=25; median, 91 days). Fourteen consecutive cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies were reviewed for myocardial edema or fibrosis during subacute (n=5) and follow-up (n=9) stages. In acute phase, myocardial injury was defined as troponin-I level ≥0.09 ng/mL (>3 times normal) or brain-type natriuretic peptide >800 pg/mL. All deformation parameters, including left ventricular global longitudinal strain, peak left atrial strain, longitudinal early diastolic strain rate, and right ventricular free wall strain, recovered quickly within the first week, followed by continued improvement and complete normalization by 3 months. Median time to normalization of both global longitudinal strain and left atrial strain was 6 days (95% CI, 3-9 days). Myocardial injury at presentation (70% of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children cases) did not affect short-term outcomes. Four patients (7%) had small coronary aneurysms at presentation, all of which resolved. Only 1 of 9 patients had residual edema but no fibrosis by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusions Our short-term study suggests that functional recovery and coronary outcomes are good in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Use of sensitive deformation parameters provides further reassurance that there is no persistent subclinical dysfunction after 3 months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Echocardiography , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart/virology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications
12.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 44(1): e134-e137, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632085

ABSTRACT

To this day, there are limited data about the effects and management of coronavirus disease infection in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease. We present the management and successful clinical course of an 8-year-old female with homozygous sickle cell disease (SS) and severe acute chest syndrome secondary to coronavirus disease 2019 infection, complicated by cortical vein thrombosis.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Anemia, Sickle Cell/pathology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Child , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
13.
Am J Dermatopathol ; 44(3): 183-189, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608833

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A new entity, which occurs a few weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection and resembling incomplete Kawasaki disease or toxic shock syndrome, has been defined and named multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19 in children. The aim of our study was to describe histopathological characteristics of skin lesions of MIS-C patients to reveal whether there is a relationship between histopathological features and clinical manifestations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen who had skin involvement of 57 patients who were diagnosed with MIS-C between December 2020 and February 2021 were included in this prospective study. Demographic information, laboratory findings, and patients' managements were recorded. Skin biopsies were taken simultaneously of each patient. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded skin samples were examined microscopically. RESULTS: The rate of skin rash was 30% in patients with MIS-C and was predominantly the maculopapular type. The anatomical distribution of the rash was evaluated as localized in 10 and generalized in 7 patients. In patients with myocarditis, C-reactive protein and fibrinogen were found to be significantly higher, and lymphocyte and albumin values were found to be low. Herpes-like inclusions were found in the microscopic examination of 2 patients with a history of zona zoster in themselves or in their mother. There was a significant difference between keratinocyte necrosis and some clinical parameters. DISCUSSION: Localized skin lesions appear to be associated with a more severe inflammatory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Exanthema/etiology , Skin/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Adolescent , Biopsy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Exanthema/immunology , Exanthema/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Skin/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2139974, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589283

ABSTRACT

Importance: Severe gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations have been sporadically reported in children with COVID-19; however, their frequency and clinical outcome are unknown. Objective: To describe the clinical, radiological, and histopathologic characteristics of children with COVID-19 presenting with severe GI manifestations to identify factors associated with a severe outcome. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter retrospective cohort study (February 25, 2020, to January 20, 2021) enrolled inpatient and outpatient children (aged <18 years) with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed by positive real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab or fulfilling the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). The study was conducted by pediatricians working in primary care or hospitals in Italy participating in the COVID-19 Registry of the Italian Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. Main Outcomes and Measures: The occurrence of severe GI manifestations, defined by a medical and/or radiological diagnosis of acute abdomen, appendicitis (complicated or not by perforation and/or peritonitis), intussusception, pancreatitis, abdominal fluid collection, and diffuse adenomesenteritis requiring surgical consultation, occurring during or within 4 to 6 weeks after infection with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs of factors potentially associated with severe outcomes. Results: Overall, 685 children (386 boys [56.4%]; median age, 7.3 [IQR, 1.6-12.4] years) were included. Of these children, 628 (91.7%) were diagnosed with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and 57 (8.3%) with MIS-C. The presence of GI symptoms was associated with a higher chance of hospitalization (OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.89-3.69) and intensive care unit admission (OR, 3.90; 95% CI, 1.98-7.68). Overall, 65 children (9.5%) showed severe GI involvement, including disseminated adenomesenteritis (39.6%), appendicitis (33.5%), abdominal fluid collection (21.3%), pancreatitis (6.9%), or intussusception (4.6%). Twenty-seven of these 65 children (41.5%) underwent surgery. Severe GI manifestations were associated with the child's age (5-10 years: OR, 8.33; 95% CI, 2.62-26.5; >10 years: OR, 6.37; 95% CI, 2.12-19.1, compared with preschool-age), abdominal pain (adjusted OR [aOR], 34.5; 95% CI, 10.1-118), lymphopenia (aOR, 8.93; 95% CI, 3.03-26.3), or MIS-C (aOR, 6.28; 95% CI, 1.92-20.5). Diarrhea was associated with a higher chance of adenomesenteritis (aOR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.08-9.12) or abdominal fluid collection (aOR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.03-10.0). Conclusions and Relevance: In this multicenter cohort study of Italian children with SARS-CoV-2 infection or MIS-C, 9.5% of the children had severe GI involvement, frequently associated with MIS-C. These findings suggest that prompt identification may improve the management of serious complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Gastrointestinal Diseases/pathology , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Radiography , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Mod Rheumatol ; 32(2): 460-466, 2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575484

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has not yet been fully elucidated and there is no clear consensus on its treatment yet. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate our patients diagnosed with MIS-C and present them to the literature in order to contribute to the better understanding of this new disease, which entered paediatric practice with the SARS-CoV-2 peak. METHODS: In this study, 17 MIS-C cases diagnosed according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria were included. RESULTS: Of the patients, 7 (41.2%) had a comorbidity. Gastrointestinal system involvement was the most prominent in the patients (70.6%). Laparotomy was performed in 3 patients due to acute abdomen. Two patients had neurological involvement. Of the patients, 15 (88.2%) received intravenous immunoglobulin and 13 (76.5%) received both intravenous immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone. Two patients received invasive mechanical ventilation and 4 patients received high flow rate nasal cannula oxygen therapy. One of our patients who needed invasive mechanical ventilation and high vasoactive-inotrope support died despite all supportive treatments including plasmapheresis and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. CONCLUSIONS: MIS-C picture can have a fatal course and may present with severe gastrointestinal and neurological signs. Unnecessary laparotomy should be avoided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Turkey , United States
17.
Am J Emerg Med ; 52: 184-186, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568459

ABSTRACT

Return visits (RV) to a pediatric emergency department (PED) can be secondary to illness progression, parental concerns, call backs or rarely due to a diagnostic error during the first visit. Fever accounts for nearly half of these RVs and is also one of the most common presenting complaints of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID- 19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children. Although majority of children with COVID 19 have a mild illness, severe complications such as Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) can occur. These children are often critically ill with a mortality rate of 2-4%. Initial symptoms of MIS- C are non- specific and mimic other viral illness making early diagnosis challenging. We report five patients who were evaluated for fever and discharged from our PED and were subsequently diagnosed with MIS-C (n = 3) or Kawasaki Disease (n = 2) during their RV within 7 days. All patients presented with fever during the initial visit and three of the five children had gastrointestinal symptoms. They were all noted have persistent tachycardia during the index visit. Three patients presented in cardiogenic shock and echocardiographic abnormalities were noted in four patients during the RV. Significant interventions were required in majority of these children (PICU admission: 4, inotropes: 3, mechanical ventilation:2). Clinicians need to maintain a high index of suspicion for diagnosis of MIS-C especially in those who present with persistent fever and have abnormal vital signs during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fever/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Adolescent , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Infant , Male , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Tachycardia/virology , Ventricular Dysfunction/virology
19.
Radiology ; 303(1): 173-181, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555801

ABSTRACT

Background Children with pediatric inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS), also known as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, present with abdominal pain among other nonspecific symptoms. Although initial imaging features of PIMS-TS have been reported, the duration of sonographic features remains unknown. Purpose To describe the abdominal US features of PIMS-TS at initial presentation and follow-up. Materials and Methods A retrospective review of children and young adults presenting with clinical features suspicious for PIMS-TS between April 2020 and June 2021 was carried out. US features were documented and reviewed at initial presentation and follow-up. Descriptive statistics were used and interobserver variability was calculated. Results Of 140 children and young adults presenting with suspected PIMS-TS, 120 had confirmed PIMS-TS (median age, 9 years; interquartile range, 7-12 years; 65 male patients) and 102 underwent abdominal US at presentation. PIMS-TS was present as a single abnormality in 109 of the 120 patients (91%) and abdominal symptoms were present in 104 of the 109 (95%). US examinations were abnormal in 86 of 102 patients (84%), with ascites being the most common abnormality in 65 (64%; 95% CI: 54, 73). Bowel wall thickening was present at US in 14 of the 102 patients (14%; 95% CI: 7, 20) and mesenteric inflammation was present in 16 (16%; 95% CI: 9, 23); all of these patients presented with abdominal symptoms. Among the patients with bowel wall thickening, the distal and terminal ileum were most involved (eight of 14 patients, 57%). Abdominal symptoms decreased to seven of 56 patients (13%) in those followed up at 6 months. Thirty-eight patients underwent follow-up US, and the presence of bowel inflammation had decreased to three of 27 patients (11%; 95% CI: -1, 23) in those followed up for less than 2 months and 0 of 17 (0%) in those followed up for more than 2 months. Conclusion Of 102 patients with pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 who underwent US at presentation, 14 (14%) had abdominal US findings of bowel inflammation and 16 (16%) had mesenteric edema. All US abnormalities resolved after 2 months. © RSNA, 2022 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by van Rijn and Pajkrt in this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Child , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnostic imaging
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(22): 7115-7126, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1552078

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is to date a global pandemic that can affect all age groups; gastrointestinal symptoms are quite common in patients with COVID-19 and a new clinical entity defined as Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) has been described in children and adolescents previously affected by COVID-19. Presenting symptoms of this new disease include high fever and severe abdominal pain that can mimic more common causes of abdominal pain; patients can rapidly deteriorate presenting severe cardiac dysfunction and multiorgan failure. Some fatalities due to this serious illness have been reported. We describe the case of a ten-year-old patient presenting with persistent high fever associated with continuous and worsening abdominal pain. Various hypotheses were performed during his diagnostic workup and an initial appendectomy was performed in the suspect of acute appendicitis. As his clinical picture deteriorated, the child was subsequently diagnosed and successfully treated as a case of MIS-C. The objective of this case report and brief review of abdominal pain in children throughout the age groups is to provide the emergency pediatrician with updated suggestions in diagnosing abdominal pain in children during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Pediatric Emergency Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Combined Modality Therapy , Conjunctivitis/etiology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/therapy , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Mucositis/etiology , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Pediatric Emergency Medicine/trends , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Steroids/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
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