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1.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(12): 989-993, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 variations as well as immune protection after previous infections and/or vaccination may have altered the incidence of multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We aimed to report an international time-series analysis of the incidence of MIS-C to determine if there was a shift in the regions or countries included into the study. METHODS: This is a multicenter, international, cross-sectional study. We collected the MIS-C incidence from the participant regions and countries for the period July 2020 to November 2021. We assessed the ratio between MIS-C cases and COVID-19 pediatric cases in children <18 years diagnosed 4 weeks earlier (average time for the temporal association observed in this disease) for the study period. We performed a binomial regression analysis for 8 participating sites [Bogotá (Colombia), Chile, Costa Rica, Lazio (Italy), Mexico DF, Panama, The Netherlands and Catalonia (Spain)]. RESULTS: We included 904 cases of MIS-C, among a reference population of 17,906,432 children. We estimated a global significant decrease trend ratio in MIS-C cases/COVID-19 diagnosed cases in the previous month ( P < 0.001). When analyzing separately each of the sites, Chile and The Netherlands maintained a significant decrease trend ( P < 0.001), but this ratio was not statistically significant for the rest of sites. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first international study describing a global reduction in the trend of the MIS-C incidence during the pandemic. COVID-19 vaccination and other factors possibly linked to the virus itself and/or community transmission may have played a role in preventing new MIS-C cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Child , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Incidence , COVID-19 Vaccines , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
2.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(12): e513-e516, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190914

ABSTRACT

Although post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 among adult survivors has gained significant attention, data in children hospitalized for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is limited. This study of commercially insured US children shows that those hospitalized with COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children have a substantial burden of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 sequelae and associated health care visits postdischarge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Adult , Humans , Aftercare , Follow-Up Studies , Patient Discharge , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Disease Progression , Delivery of Health Care
3.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 6(7): 459-465, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2132839

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) occurs after infection with SARS-CoV-2 and its incidence is likely to depend on multiple factors, including the variant of the preceding SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccine effectiveness. We aimed to estimate the incidence of MIS-C, and describe the clinical phenotype, following the delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.617.2 and sublineages) according to vaccination status. We aimed to compare the incidence and clinical phenotype of MIS-C from our cohort during the pre-delta era. METHODS: This prospective, population-based cohort study included patients aged 0-17 years hospitalised with MIS-C in Denmark, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition, from Aug 1, 2021, to Feb 1, 2022, a period dominated by the delta variant. We identified MIS-C cases via a nationwide research collaboration involving real-time data collection from all 18 paediatric departments. Aggregated number of SARS-CoV-2 infections by vaccination status was obtained from the Danish COVID-19 surveillance registries. The incidence of MIS-C was calculated using the estimated number of infected individuals by vaccination status. We calculated the incidence of MIS-C per 1 000 000 vaccinated and unvaccinated person-years, and estimated vaccine effectiveness as 1-incidence rate ratio using Poisson regression. Incidence and phenotype of MIS-C were compared with MIS-C cases from the first year of the pandemic. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05186597. FINDINGS: We identified 51 MIS-C cases among unvaccinated individuals and one in a fully vaccinated adolescent. The incidence of MIS-C was one in 3400 unvaccinated individuals (95% CI 2600-4600) with the delta variant and one in 9900 vaccinated individuals (95% CI 1800-390 000) with breakthrough infection. The estimated vaccine effectiveness against MIS-C after the delta variant was 94% (95% CI 55-99; p=0·0061) in individuals aged 5-17 years. The clinical phenotype during the delta wave was comparable to the pre-delta era. INTERPRETATION: We found the incidence and phenotype of MIS-C in unvaccinated children during the delta wave to be similar to the incidence during the first year of the pandemic. We found vaccine effectiveness to be high against MIS-C, which we suggest was due to protection from infection and, possibly, a decreased incidence of MIS-C after breakthrough infection. Knowledge of the incidence of MIS-C after different SARS-CoV-2 variants and the effect of vaccination might contribute to the elucidation of the extent to which MIS-C is a vaccine-preventable disease. FUNDING: National Ministry of Higher Education and Science and Innovation Fund Denmark.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Phenotype , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Vaccination
4.
Indian Pediatr ; 59(7): 563-569, 2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2092961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With wide clinical spectrum, multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children (MIS-C) is a relatively novel condition occurring weeks to months' post SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim was to systematically review data on clinical features, laboratory parameters and therapeutics of MIS-C from India. Methods: This systematic review was done as per the PRISMA guidelines, and quality assessment was done using NIH tool for case-series. A systematic search through databases yielded studies whose data was pooled to calculate the mean frequencies with standard deviation using GraphPad software. RESULTS: Screening of 2548 articles published till December, 2021, yielded 11 case-series. World Health Organization case definition was used widely. There was a slight preponderance of males (57%), median (IQR) age was 7 (6,7) years, 63% (n=305) required intensive care unit admissions, and mortality rate was 10% (n=261). Clinical features included fever, mucocutaneous features (72%), and gastrointestinal problems (62%) in majority. Widely used treatment was corticosteroids (76%) and intravenous immunoglobulin (62%) with other options depending on patient's state. An increased level of inflammatory markers and derangement in other parameters corroborated with disease status. Kawasaki disease like features, not reported in many studies, ranged from 4-76% of patients. CONCLUSION: MIS-C presents with a wide spectrum clinical features, increased inflammatory markers and managed as per the disease course and presentation. Future studies monitoring the long-term effects of MIS-C are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
7.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(11): e276-e288, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062013

ABSTRACT

As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 continues to spread worldwide, there have been increasing reports from Europe, North America, Asia, and Latin America describing children and adolescents with COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory conditions. However, the association between multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and COVID-19 is still unknown. We review the epidemiology, causes, clinical features, and current treatment protocols for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents associated with COVID-19. We also discuss the possible underlying pathophysiological mechanisms for COVID-19-induced inflammatory processes, which can lead to organ damage in paediatric patients who are severely ill. These insights provide evidence for the need to develop a clear case definition and treatment protocol for this new condition and also shed light on future therapeutic interventions and the potential for vaccine development. TRANSLATIONS: For the French, Chinese, Arabic, Spanish and Russian translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Adolescent , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/drug therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Young Adult
8.
JAAPA ; 35(10): 33-37, 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051564

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a potentially life-threatening syndrome that emerged soon after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. This case report focuses on the general overview, case definition, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical findings, and management of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_2): S303-S307, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051342

ABSTRACT

We describe 2116 multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during Delta and Omicron circulation from July 2021 through January 2022. Half of MIS-C patients were aged 5-11 years, 52% received intensive care unit-level care, and 1.1% died. Only 3.0% of eligible patients were fully vaccinated prior to MIS-C onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19/complications , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
10.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274104, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039407

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes of the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) following COVID-19 in five different geographical regions of Iran. METHODS: In this multicenter observational study, patients <21 years were included between March 2020 and October 2021. By Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) checklist, demographic characteristics, comorbidities, clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory and radiology findings, and treatment were collected. Statistical analysis was using Chi-square and t-test in STATA14. RESULTS: In total 225 patients with median age of 55 (26-96) months were included that 59.56% boys. 57.33% were admitted to the PICU with a median of 7 days (4-10). 95.56% of patients were discharged with recovery and the rest died. All of the patients in our study were included based on the MIS-C criteria. However, some patients had Kawasaki symptoms, so we compared the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the two groups. Conjunctival injection, cervical lymphadenopathy>1.5 cm diameter, and strawberry tongue in Kawasaki-like MIS-C patients were higher than of MIS-C patients, and this difference was significant(p<0.001). The most common comorbidity was obesity (24.86%). Most patients tested for COVID-19 and about 60% of the patients had a positive test by serology or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Gastrointestinal (88.89%) and hematologic signs (84.44%) were most common. Most drugs used in patients were IVIG and steroids. 88.07% and 61.29% of the patients had at least one problem in echocardiography and lung CT, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The best outcome was seen in patients who were treated with both IVIG and steroids on the first days of admission. Myocarditis was common in two groups of patients. According to most patients had echocardiography abnormal, screening of heart function is recommended for patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Iran/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
11.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(11): 891-898, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a postinfectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related complication that has disproportionately affected racial/ethnic minority children. We conducted a pilot study to investigate risk factors for MIS-C aiming to understand MIS-C disparities. METHODS: This case-control study included MIS-C cases and SARS-CoV-2-positive outpatient controls less than 18 years old frequency-matched 4:1 to cases by age group and site. Patients hospitalized with MIS-C were admitted between March 16 and October 2, 2020, across 17 pediatric hospitals. We evaluated race, ethnicity, social vulnerability index (SVI), insurance status, weight-for-age and underlying medical conditions as risk factors using mixed effects multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: We compared 241 MIS-C cases with 817 outpatient SARS-CoV-2-positive at-risk controls. Cases and controls had similar sex, age and U.S. census region distribution. MIS-C patients were more frequently previously healthy, non-Hispanic Black, residing in higher SVI areas, and in the 95th percentile or higher for weight-for-age. In the multivariable analysis, the likelihood of MIS-C was higher among non-Hispanic Black children [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.07; 95% CI: 1.23-3.48]. Additionally, SVI in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles (aOR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.18-2.97 and aOR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.19-3.47, respectively) were independent factors along with being previously healthy (aOR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.18-2.28). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, non-Hispanic Black children were more likely to develop MIS-C after adjustment for sociodemographic factors, underlying medical conditions, and weight-for-age. Investigation of the potential contribution of immunologic, environmental, and other factors is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Ethnicity , Humans , Minority Groups , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
12.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(11): e453-e455, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029113

ABSTRACT

We describe the epidemiology of COVID-19 exposure, preceding illness, and SARS-CoV-2 testing in a large population with MIS-C during the first 18 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. The majority of cases had exposure, preceding illness, or positive SARS-CoV-2 testing 4-8 weeks before MIS-C onset. Serology can help establish epidemiological link to COVID-19 when past infection or exposure are unknown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Humans , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
13.
Acta Paediatr ; 111(12): 2344-2351, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019132

ABSTRACT

AIM: Our aim was to describe the epidemiology of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) in the Republic of Ireland, in the context of all cases of COVID-19 in children, during the first year of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. METHODS: Cases of MIS-C were identified by prospective surveillance in Irish hospitals from April 2020 to April 2021. Paediatric COVID-19 cases and outbreaks in schools or childcare facilities were notified to and routinely investigated by Public Health. Univariate and bivariate analyses were carried out in Excel, Stata and JMP statistical package. RESULTS: Fifty-four MIS-C cases (median age 7.58 years; males 57%) were identified over the study period. MIS-C incidence was higher in certain ethnicities ('black' 21.3/100,000 [95% CI 4.3-38.4]; and 'Irish Traveller' 14.7/100,000 [95% CI -5.7-35.1]) than those of 'white' ethnicity (3.4 /100,000). MIS-C cases occurred in three temporal clusters, which followed three distinct waves of community COVID-19 infection, irrespective of school closures. Formal contact tracing identified an epidemiological link with a COVID-19-infected family member in the majority of MIS-C cases (77%). In contrast, investigation of COVID-19 school outbreaks demonstrated no epidemiological link with MIS-C cases during the study period. CONCLUSION: Efforts at controlling SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the community may be a more effective means to reduce MIS-C incidence than school closures. Establishing a mandatory reporting structure for MIS-C will help delineate the role of risk factors such as ethnicity and obesity and the effect of vaccination on MIS-C incidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , Ireland/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
14.
J Trop Pediatr ; 68(5)2022 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008615

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinico-laboratory profile, intensive care needs and outcome of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) during the first and second waves. METHODOLOGY: This retrospective study was conducted in the paediatric emergency and paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a tertiary care teaching hospital in North India involving 122 children with MIS-C admitted during the first wave (September 2020-January 2021, n = 40) and second wave (February 2021-September 2021, n = 82) of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). RESULTS: The median (interquartile range) age was 7 (4-10) years and 67% were boys. Common manifestations included fever (99%), abdominal symptoms (81%), rash (66%) and conjunctival injection (65%). Elevated C-reactive protein (97%), D-dimer (89%), procalcitonin (80%), IL-6 (78%), ferritin (56%), N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (84%) and positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody (81%) were common laboratory abnormalities. Cardiovascular manifestations included myocardial dysfunction (55%), shock (48%) and coronary artery changes (10%). The treatment included intensive care support (57%), non-invasive (33%) and invasive (18%) ventilation, vasoactive drugs (47%), intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (83%), steroids (85%) and aspirin (87%). The mortality was 5% (n = 6). During the second wave, a significantly higher proportion had positive SARS-CoV-2 antibody, contact with COVID-19 and oral mucosal changes; lower markers of inflammation; lower proportion had lymphopenia, elevated IL-6 and ferritin; lower rates of shock, myocardial dysfunction and coronary artery changes; lesser need of PICU admission, fluid boluses, vasoactive drugs and IVIG; and shorter hospital stay. CONCLUSION: MIS-C is a febrile multisystemic disease characterized by hyperinflammation, cardiovascular involvement, temporal relationship to SARS-CoV-2 and good outcome with immunomodulation and intensive care. During the second wave, the severity of illness, degree of inflammation, intensive care needs, and requirement of immunomodulation were less as compared to the first wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Critical Care , Female , Ferritins , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-6 , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
16.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 38(10): e1584-e1589, 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985187

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess whether elevations in cardiac biomarkers are associated with pediatric cardiac diagnoses in the era of COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). STUDY DESIGN: This single-center retrospective study analyzed children with a troponin drawn in the emergency department or inpatient unit between April 21 and December 31, 2020. The primary outcome was the presence of a cardiac diagnosis or MIS-C. Relationships among demographics, complaint, cardiac diagnostics, and cardiac biomarkers were analyzed. RESULTS: Four hundred eighty-six patients (mean ± SD; age 13.1 ± 7.8 years; 46.7% women) met inclusion criteria, for whom a cardiac diagnosis (excluding MIS-C) was made in 27 (5.6%) patients, with MIS-C diagnosed in 14 (2.9%) patients. The sensitivity and specificity of an elevated initial high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTropT) value (>14 ng/L) in predicting the composite outcome of a cardiac diagnosis or MIS-C were 54% and 89%, respectively. Four percent of patients with negative initial troponin values were found to have a cardiac diagnosis or MIS-C. Multivariable regression analysis demonstrated that elevated hsTropT (>14 ng/L; odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval]: 4.9 [1.70-14.0]) and elevated N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide values (>500 pg/mL; 6.4 [2.01-20.1]) were associated with increased odds of a cardiac diagnosis or MIS-C. CONCLUSIONS: Children with elevated cardiac biomarkers have increased odds of a cardiac diagnosis or MIS-C and warrant workup regardless of indication for testing. Although a negative hsTropT may reassure providers, further investigation is critical in developing algorithms to reliably exclude cardiac disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Adolescent , Adult , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Troponin , Troponin T , Young Adult
17.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969507

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease has long-term effects, known as post-COVID conditions (PCC) or long-COVID. Post-COVID-19 syndrome is defined by signs and symptoms that occur during or after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection which persist for more than 12 weeks and cannot be supported by an alternative diagnosis. The cardiovascular damage caused by COVID-19 in the severe forms of the disease is induced by severe systemic inflammation, considered to be one of the causes of myocardial lesions, with increased levels of circulating cytokines and toxic response mediators. We have focused on conditions that can induce long-COVID-19, or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults or children (MIS-C/MIS-A), with an emphasis on endocrinological and metabolic disorders. Although described less frequently in children than in adults, long-COVID syndrome should not be confused with MIS-C, which is an acute condition characterized by multisystem involvement and paraclinical evidence of inflammation in a pediatric patient who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. At the same time, we mention that the MIS-A symptoms remit within a few weeks, while the duration of long-COVID is measured in months. Long-COVID syndrome, along with its complications, MIS-A and MIS-C, represents an important challenge in the medical community. Underlying comorbidities can expose both COVID-19 adult and pediatric patients to a higher risk of negative outcomes not only during, but in the aftermath of the SARS-CoV-2 infection as well.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
18.
Indian Pediatr ; 59(7): 563-569, 2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1958357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With wide clinical spectrum, multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children (MIS-C) is a relatively novel condition occurring weeks to months' post SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim was to systematically review data on clinical features, laboratory parameters and therapeutics of MIS-C from India. Methods: This systematic review was done as per the PRISMA guidelines, and quality assessment was done using NIH tool for case-series. A systematic search through databases yielded studies whose data was pooled to calculate the mean frequencies with standard deviation using GraphPad software. RESULTS: Screening of 2548 articles published till December, 2021, yielded 11 case-series. World Health Organization case definition was used widely. There was a slight preponderance of males (57%), median (IQR) age was 7 (6,7) years, 63% (n=305) required intensive care unit admissions, and mortality rate was 10% (n=261). Clinical features included fever, mucocutaneous features (72%), and gastrointestinal problems (62%) in majority. Widely used treatment was corticosteroids (76%) and intravenous immunoglobulin (62%) with other options depending on patient's state. An increased level of inflammatory markers and derangement in other parameters corroborated with disease status. Kawasaki disease like features, not reported in many studies, ranged from 4-76% of patients. CONCLUSION: MIS-C presents with a wide spectrum clinical features, increased inflammatory markers and managed as per the disease course and presentation. Future studies monitoring the long-term effects of MIS-C are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
19.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(6): e256-e258, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948537

ABSTRACT

Social constructs are known risk factors for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. A review of 206 patients demonstrated that children who were non-Hispanic Black, over the age of 12 years or living in a disadvantaged neighborhood associated with severe multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (intensive care unit admission, intubation and/or vasopressor use).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Residence Characteristics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
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