Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 73
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 172, 2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a rare hyperinflammatory condition that occurs following SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is a paucity of research describing risk factors, optimal management, and outcomes of this life-threatening condition. METHODS: This is a case series of 26 patients diagnosed with MIS-C in a West Michigan pediatric tertiary care center from April 2020 to February 2021. We describe the clinical, imaging, and laboratory characteristics of these patients and detail their treatments and outcomes with comparisons between Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) and non-PICU patients. Categorical testing utilized Chi-square and Fisher's Exact tests. Comparison between groups used T-tests or Kruskal-Wallis. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (57%) required intensive care. There was no statistically significant difference in demographics between PICU and non-PICU patients, however all Black patients required intensive care. Gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 22 patients (84%). Seventeen patients (65%) had Kawasaki-like features and 12 (46%) developed coronary artery dilation. Patients requiring intensive care were less likely to have a reported history of COVID-19 disease or exposure (p = 0.0362). Statistically significant differences were also noted in peak ferritin (p = 0.0075), procalcitonin, and BNP in those who required intensive care. CONCLUSIONS: Although overlap exists with other hyperinflammatory conditions, our study provides further evidence that MIS-C is a distinct, albeit heterogenous, disorder with various degrees of cardiac involvement. Anakinra, in conjunction with steroid use, appears to be effective and safe in the treatment of MIS-C. This report identifies procalcitonin, peak ferritin, and BNP as potentially useful biomarkers for severity of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
2.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(45): e312, 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528809

ABSTRACT

As the number of people vaccinated increases, people who complain of adverse reactions continue to occur. We experienced a case characterized by low blood pressure, persistent fever, edema due to increased systemic vascular permeability, and systemic inflammation confirmed by image and laboratory examinations after ChAdOx1 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. The diagnostic criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) in adults are known as fever of 3 days or more in adults, 2 or more mucocutaneous/gastrointestinal/neurologic symptoms, elevation of inflammatory markers, and clinical/imaging diagnosis of heart failure. A 67-year-old man who was medicated for hypertension and diabetes was admitted complaining of fever, maculopapular rash, diarrhea, headache, chills, and dizziness 6 days after the first vaccination of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in Korea. The COVID-19 test was negative but with low blood pressure, leukocytosis, skin rash, pulmonary edema, and increased inflammation markers. His lab findings and clinical course were consistent with those of MIS after COVID-19 vaccination. He was medicated with methylprednisolone 1 mg/kg and diuretics and recovered rapidly. He was discharged after 2 weeks and confirmed cure at outpatient clinic. We report an MIS case after COVID-19 vaccination in Korea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/etiology , Humans , Male
3.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e935005, 2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464039

ABSTRACT

Recent studies on the pathogenesis and clinical spectrum of human disease following infection with the new human pathogen, SARS-CoV-2, have identified the varied presentations and sequelae of COVID-19. Acute 'cytokine storm' in severe COVID-19 results in multiorgan damage due to vascular hyperpermeability, edema, and hypercoagulation. The long-term consequences of infection from SARS-CoV-2 include long COVID. or post-COVID syndrome, and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Several case reports of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) have shown the presentation at more than four weeks after initial infection with SARS-CoV-2 in adults more than 21 years of age. In September 2021, a published systematic review of the literature identified 221 patients with MIS-A, representing the most comprehensive clinical study to date. MIS-A occurs in the post-acute COVID-19 period. The pathogenesis may involve a dysregulated antibody-mediated immune response, similar to MIS-C. Therefore, patients with MIS-A may respond to supportive therapies that control hyperinflammation. This Editorial aims to describe MIS-A and discuss COVID-19 as a spectrum of hyperinflammatory disease in terms of severity, extent, duration, and patient age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/genetics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(10)2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447983

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is an uncommon and under-recognised postinfectious manifestation that presents 4-6 weeks after COVID-19 infection. Patients affected tend to be young or middle-aged, from ethnic minority backgrounds and previously healthy. In addition to high fever and myalgia, there are a myriad of extrapulmonary symptoms and signs, including cardiac, gastrointestinal, neurological and dermatological involvement. Cardiovascular shock and markedly raised inflammatory markers are prominent features, while significant hypoxia is uncommon. Patients respond well to corticosteroid therapy, but failure of clinicians to recognise this recently identified phenomenon, which can mimic common conditions including sepsis, could delay diagnosis and treatment. Here we present a case of MIS-A in an adult woman, compare her presentation and management with other similar case reports, and reflect on how clinicians can learn from our experiences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Minority Groups , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2126456, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432338

ABSTRACT

Importance: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) has not been well described. Improved diagnosis and treatment of MIS-A might mitigate COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Objective: To summarize the descriptive epidemiology and clinical characteristics of MIS-A. Evidence Review: This systematic review identified patients with MIS-A using 3 strategies: (1) literature review from May 1, 2020, to May 25, 2021, by searching MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, CAB Abstracts, PsycINFO, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Academic Search Complete, Scopus, World Health Organization Global COVID-19 Literature Database, and Google Scholar; (2) voluntary reports of MIS-A to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); and (3) reports among persons aged 18 to 20 years in the CDC surveillance system for MIS in children. Findings: Of 221 patients with MIS-A, the median age was 21 (interquartile range [IQR], 19-34) years, and 154 of 219 (70%) with data available were men. Sixty of 169 patients (36%) were non-Hispanic Black individuals, and 122 of 209 (58%) had no underlying comorbidity. One hundred two of 149 patients (68%) noted a previous symptomatic COVID-19-like illness (median, 28 [IQR, 20-36] days previously). Most patients with MIS-A presented with fever (197 of 205 [96%]), hypotension (133 of 220 [60%]), cardiac dysfunction (114 of 210 [54%]), shortness of breath (102 of 198 [52%]), and/or diarrhea (102 of 197 [52%]). The median number of organ systems involved was 5 (IQR, 4-6). Median hospital stay was 8 (IQR, 5-12) days; 115 of 201 patients (57%) were admitted to the intensive care unit; 101 of 213 (47%) required respiratory support, and 15 of 220 (7%) died. Most patients (176 of 195 [90%]) had elevated markers of coagulopathy and/or inflammation and a positive SARS-CoV-2 serologic finding (139 of 194 [72%]). Ten patients with MIS-A presented with Kawasaki disease. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that MIS-A is a serious hyperinflammatory condition that presents approximately 4 weeks after onset of acute COVID-19 with extrapulmonary multiorgan dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Young Adult
6.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(10): e364-e369, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414164

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, there are only sporadic reports of acute abdomen and appendicitis in children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: Children 17 years of age or younger assessed in 5 Latin American countries with a diagnosis of microbiologically confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and children fulfilling MIS-C definition were included. For children with acute abdomen, we investigate main radiologic patterns, surgical treatment and intraoperative findings, outcomes. FINDINGS: One-thousand ten children were enrolled. Forty-two children (4.2%) had a clinical diagnosis of acute abdomen. Four (9.5%) were diagnosed with MIS-C and did not undergo surgery. The remaining 38 children (3.8%) underwent abdominal surgery due to suspected appendicitis, 34 of them (89.7%) had an intraoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA), while 4 of them had nonsurgical findings. Eight children died (0.8%), none of them being diagnosed with appendicitis. Children with AA were significantly older than those without (P < 0.0001). Children with complicated appendicitis had more frequently fever (85.7% vs. 60%), intestinal distension on the abdominal radiograph (7.1% vs. none), leukocytosis (85.7% vs. 40%) and high levels of C-reactive protein (35.7% vs. 5%), although differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that children may present with acute abdomen during COVID-19 or MIS-C, which is not always associated with intraoperative findings of appendicitis, particularly in case of MIS-C. Further studies are needed to better characterize children with acute abdomen during COVID-19 or MIS-C, to avoid delay in diagnosis of surgical conditions and at the same time, minimize unnecessary surgical approaches.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute/etiology , Abdomen, Acute/virology , Appendicitis/etiology , Appendicitis/virology , COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Adolescent , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Latin America , Male , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
9.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(9): 669-677, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In April, 2020, clinicians in the UK observed a cluster of children with unexplained inflammation requiring admission to paediatric intensive care units (PICUs). We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics, course, management, and outcomes of patients admitted to PICUs with this condition, which is now known as paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS). METHODS: We did a multicentre observational study of children (aged <18 years), admitted to PICUs in the UK between April 1 and May 10, 2020, fulfilling the case definition of PIMS-TS published by the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. We analysed routinely collected, de-identified data, including demographic details, presenting clinical features, underlying comorbidities, laboratory markers, echocardiographic findings, interventions, treatments, and outcomes; serology information was collected if available. PICU admission rates of PIMS-TS were compared with historical trends of PICU admissions for four similar inflammatory conditions (Kawasaki disease, toxic shock syndrome, haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and macrophage activation syndrome). FINDINGS: 78 cases of PIMS-TS were reported by 21 of 23 PICUs in the UK. Historical data for similar inflammatory conditions showed a mean of one (95% CI 0·85-1·22) admission per week, compared to an average of 14 admissions per week for PIMS-TS and a peak of 32 admissions per week during the study period. The median age of patients was 11 years (IQR 8-14). Male patients (52 [67%] of 78) and those from ethnic minority backgrounds (61 [78%] of 78) were over-represented. Fever (78 [100%] patients), shock (68 [87%]), abdominal pain (48 [62%]), vomiting (49 [63%]), and diarrhoea (50 [64%]) were common presenting features. Longitudinal data over the first 4 days of admission showed a serial reduction in C-reactive protein (from a median of 264 mg/L on day 1 to 96 mg/L on day 4), D-dimer (4030 µg/L to 1659 µg/L), and ferritin (1042 µg/L to 757 µg/L), whereas the lymphocyte count increased to more than 1·0 × 109 cells per L by day 3 and troponin increased over the 4 days (from a median of 157 ng/mL to 358 ng/mL). 36 (46%) of 78 patients were invasively ventilated and 65 (83%) needed vasoactive infusions; 57 (73%) received steroids, 59 (76%) received intravenous immunoglobulin, and 17 (22%) received biologic therapies. 28 (36%) had evidence of coronary artery abnormalities (18 aneurysms and ten echogenicity). Three children needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and two children died. INTERPRETATION: During the study period, the rate of PICU admissions for PIMS-TS was at least 11-fold higher than historical trends for similar inflammatory conditions. Clinical presentations and treatments varied. Coronary artery aneurysms appear to be an important complication. Although immediate survival is high, the long-term outcomes of children with PIMS-TS are unknown. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
10.
J Neuroimmunol ; 360: 577704, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373149

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection can cause inflammatory reactions that could involve several organs. In the pediatric population, Multi-System Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) has been reported as one of the consequences of COVID-19. We report a unique pediatric COVID-19 patient with MIS-C, associated with paralysis of the extremities. MRI showed abnormal signal in the cervical spinal cord compatible with transverse myelitis. Methylprednisolone and IVIG were administered, without significant symptom improvement. As a next step, Infliximab was tried for her, and she responded remarkably well to this treatment. Infliximab may be considered as a treatment option in COVID-19 patients with transverse myelitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myelitis, Transverse/diagnostic imaging , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/etiology , Child , Female , Humans , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Myelitis, Transverse/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy
11.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(11): e400-e406, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) varies by race and ethnicity. This study assessed whether disparities in MIS-C in the United States by race and ethnicity exceed known disparities in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence. METHODS: We compared the distribution of race and ethnicity among patients with MIS-C (<21 years of age, termed children) with onset March 2020 to February 2021 to that of children with COVID-19 and in the general population. Analysis was restricted to 369 counties with high completeness of race and ethnicity reporting for MIS-C and COVID-19. For each racial and ethnic group, observed numbers of patients with MIS-C were compared with expected numbers (observed/expected ratio) in children with COVID-19 and in the general population within these counties. RESULTS: Compared with children in the general population, MIS-C was more frequent among Hispanic (139% of expected) and non-Hispanic Black children (183%) and less frequent among non-Hispanic White (64%) and non-Hispanic Asian children (48%). Compared with children with COVID-19, MIS-C was more frequent in non-Hispanic Black children (207% of expected) and less frequent in non-Hispanic White children (68%); however, frequency was not different among Hispanic (102%) and non-Hispanic Asian (74%) children. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities in MIS-C by race and ethnicity exist, even after controlling for COVID-19 disparities and geographic variations. The high proportion of MIS-C among Hispanic children and low proportion among non-Hispanic Asian children align with COVID-19 rates, while the high proportion among non-Hispanic Black children and low proportion among non-Hispanic White children are not explainable by COVID-19 rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , History, 21st Century , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Public Health Surveillance , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/history , United States/epidemiology , United States/ethnology , Young Adult
13.
J Clin Invest ; 131(14)2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDWeeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection or exposure, some children develop a severe, life-threatening illness called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common in patients with MIS-C, and a severe hyperinflammatory response ensues with potential for cardiac complications. The cause of MIS-C has not been identified to date.METHODSHere, we analyzed biospecimens from 100 children: 19 with MIS-C, 26 with acute COVID-19, and 55 controls. Stools were assessed for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and plasma was examined for markers of breakdown of mucosal barrier integrity, including zonulin. Ultrasensitive antigen detection was used to probe for SARS-CoV-2 antigenemia in plasma, and immune responses were characterized. As a proof of concept, we treated a patient with MIS-C with larazotide, a zonulin antagonist, and monitored the effect on antigenemia and the patient's clinical response.RESULTSWe showed that in children with MIS-C, a prolonged presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the GI tract led to the release of zonulin, a biomarker of intestinal permeability, with subsequent trafficking of SARS-CoV-2 antigens into the bloodstream, leading to hyperinflammation. The patient with MIS-C treated with larazotide had a coinciding decrease in plasma SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen levels and inflammatory markers and a resultant clinical improvement above that achieved with currently available treatments.CONCLUSIONThese mechanistic data on MIS-C pathogenesis provide insight into targets for diagnosing, treating, and preventing MIS-C, which are urgently needed for this increasingly common severe COVID-19-related disease in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Haptoglobins/physiology , Intestinal Mucosa/physiopathology , Protein Precursors/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Antigens, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Haptoglobins/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Male , Oligopeptides/pharmacology , Permeability/drug effects , Proof of Concept Study , Protein Precursors/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein Precursors/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Young Adult
14.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(11): e390-e394, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309649

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular complications with myocarditis in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection have been reported, but the optimal therapeutic strategy remains unknown. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study included 19 patients with acute left ventricular systolic dysfunction associated with MIS-C, average years of age 13.2 ± 3.8, treated from April 2020 to April 2021. RESULTS: Treatment failure (TF) was observed in 8 patients (in the intravenous immunoglobulin [IVIG] group 7/10; in the corticosteroid [CS] group 1/9). The independent risk factor for TF was IVIG treatment (odds ratio [OR] 18.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-222.93, P = 0.02). Patients initially treated with CS became afebrile during in-hospital day 1 (1.5, interquartile range [IQR] 1-2), while IVIG-treated patients became afebrile on in-hospital day 4 (IQR 2-4.25), after CS was added. The C-reactive protein (CRP) significantly declined in CS-treated patients on day 2 (P = 0.01), while in the IVIG group, CRP decreased significantly on the fourth day (P = 0.04). Sodium and albumin levels were higher on third in-hospital day in the CS group than in the IVIG group (P = 0.015, P = 0.03). A significant improvement and normalization of ejection fraction (EF) during the first 3 days was observed only in the CS group (P = 0.005). ICU stays were shorter in the CS group (4, IQR 2-5.5) than in the IVIG group (IVIG group 7, IQR 6-8.5) (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Among children with MIS-C with cardiovascular involvement, treatment with CS was associated with faster normalization of LV EF, fever, laboratory analysis, and shorter ICU than IVIG-treated patients.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adolescent , Biomarkers , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Male , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 148(3): 732-738.e1, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293879

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a pediatric complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection that is characterized by multiorgan inflammation and frequently by cardiovascular dysfunction. It occurs predominantly in otherwise healthy children. We previously reported haploinsufficiency of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), a negative regulator of type I and II interferons, as a genetic risk factor for MIS-C. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify additional genetic mechanisms underlying susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-associated MIS-C. METHODS: In a single-center, prospective cohort study, whole exome sequencing was performed on patients with MIS-C. The impact of candidate variants was tested by using patients' PBMCs obtained at least 7 months after recovery. RESULTS: We enrolled 18 patients with MIS-C (median age = 8 years; interquartile range = 5-12.25 years), of whom 89% had no conditions other than obesity. In 2 boys with no significant infection history, we identified and validated hemizygous deleterious defects in XIAP, encoding X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis, and CYBB, encoding cytochrome b-245, beta subunit. Including the previously reported SOCS1 haploinsufficiency, a genetic diagnosis was identified in 3 of 18 patients (17%). In contrast to patients with mild COVID-19, patients with defects in SOCS1, XIAP, or CYBB exhibit an inflammatory immune cell transcriptome with enrichment of differentially expressed genes in pathways downstream of IL-18, oncostatin M, and nuclear factor κB, even after recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Although inflammatory disorders are rare in the general population, our cohort of patients with MIS-C was enriched for monogenic susceptibility to inflammation. Our results support the use of next-generation sequencing in previously healthy children who develop MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Disease Susceptibility , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
16.
Am J Emerg Med ; 48: 307-311, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293516

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Occasionally, children with COVID-19 may develop arrhythmia, myocarditis, and cardiogenic shock involving multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). This study aimed to identify the laboratory parameters that may predict early cardiovascular involvement in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of 320 pediatric patients, aged 0-18 years (average age, 10.46 ± 5.77 years; 156 female), with positive COVID-19 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test and with cardiac biomarkers at the time of admission to the pediatric emergency department were retrospectively scanned. The age, sex, COVID-19-associated symptoms, pro-brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP), CK-MB, and troponin I levels of the patients were recorded. RESULTS: Fever was noted in 58.1% of the patients, cough in 29.7%, diarrhea in 7.8%, headache in 14.7%, sore throat in 17.8%, weakness in 17.8%, abdominal pain in 5%, loss of taste in 4.1%, loss of smell in 5.3%, nausea in 3.4%, vomiting in 3.8%, nasal discharge in 4.4%, muscle pain in 5%, and loss of appetite in 3.1%. The proBNP value ≥282 ng/L predicted the development of MIS-C with 100% sensitivity and 93% specificity [AUC: 0.985 (0.959-1), P < 0.001]; CK-MB value ≥2.95 with 80% sensitivity and 77.6% specificity [AUC: 0.792 (0.581-1), P = 0.026]; and troponin I value ≥0.03 with 60% sensitivity and 99.2% specificity [AUC: 0.794 (0.524-1)]. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac markers (proBNP and troponin I), especially proBNP, could be used to detect early diagnosis of cardiac involvement and/or MIS-C in pediatric patients with COVID-19 and to predict related morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Peptide Fragments/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Troponin I/blood , Adolescent , COVID-19/etiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology
17.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(25): e181, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286918

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory disease in children is a Kawasaki disease like illness occurring after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in children. As the pandemic progresses, similar syndromes were also reported in adult with a decreased incidence. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) can be characterized with shock, heart failure, and gastrointestinal symptoms with elevated inflammatory markers after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Herein, we describe the first case of MIS-A in South Korea. A 38-year-old man presented to our hospital with a 5-day history of abdominal pain and fever. He had been treated with antibiotics for 5 days at the previous hospital, but symptoms had worsened and he had developed orthopnea on the day of presentation. He suffered COVID-19 six weeks ago. Laboratory data revealed elevated white blood cell counts with neutrophil dominance, C-reactive protein, and B-type natriuretic peptide. Chest X-ray showed normal lung parenchyme and echocardiography showed severe biventricular failure with normal chamber size. We diagnosed him as MIS-A and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroid.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Fever/etiology , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Republic of Korea , Shock/etiology , Shock/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy
19.
Nutr Hosp ; 38(3): 622-630, 2021 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264738

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Compared with adults, children with SARS-CoV-2 infection may have fewer and less severe symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms are commonly reported in children, sometimes as the only manifestation of the disease, and most often manifest as anorexia, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, or abdominal pain. Although most children have asymptomatic or mild disease, 10 % of those infected may experience serious or critical disease, or even death. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome is a rare but serious condition recently reported in children with COVID-19. Studies indicate that children with obesity are at higher risk of developing severe COVID-19, and inflammation associated with obesity could be one of the factors that worsens COVID-19 symptoms due to an increased inflammatory response involving molecules such as interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and monocyte chemoattractant protein. On the other hand, evidence has been reported of a higher protein expression of ACE2 in the visceral adipose tissue of obese and malnourished humans, and this could be associated with complications and severity of COVID-19. Therefore, regulation of the intake of macronutrients or micronutrients could be used as a strategy to reduce the consequences of COVID-19. Diet in general and bioactive compounds could play an important role in the prevention of the inflammatory cascade. The micronutrients with the most evidence suggesting a role in immune support are vitamins C and D, zinc, and polyphenols.


La enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) está causada por el virus "síndrome respiratorio agudo severo-coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2). En comparación con los adultos, los niños con infección por SARS-CoV-2 pueden tener menos síntomas y estos pueden ser menos graves. Los síntomas gastrointestinales se informan comúnmente en los niños, a veces como única manifestación de la enfermedad. Los más comunes son anorexia, diarrea, náuseas y vómitos, y dolor abdominal. Aunque la mayoría de los niños tienen un cuadro leve o asintomático, el 10 % de los infectados pueden experimentar un cuadro grave o crítico, e incluso la muerte. El síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico es una afección poco común, pero grave, que se documentó recientemente en niños con COVID-19. Los estudios indican que los niños con obesidad tienen mayor riesgo de desarrollar COVID-19 grave, y la inflamación asociada con la obesidad podría ser uno de los factores que empeoran los síntomas de la COVID-19 debido a una respuesta inflamatoria aumentada en donde se ven involucradas moléculas como la interleucina 6, el factor de necrosis tumoral alfa y la proteína quimioatrayente de monocitos. Por otro lado, se ha encontrado evidencia de una mayor expresión proteica de ACE2 en el tejido adiposo visceral de los seres humanos obesos y desnutridos, y esto podría estar asociado a las complicaciones y la severidad de la COVID-19. Por tanto, la regulación de la ingesta de macronutrientes o micronutrientes podría utilizarse como estrategia para reducir las consecuencias de la enfermedad. La dieta en general y los compuestos bioactivos podrían desempeñar un papel importante en la prevención de la cascada inflamatoria. Los micronutrientes con mayor evidencia indicativa de que desempeñan un papel en el apoyo inmunológico son las vitaminas C y D, el zinc y los polifenoles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anorexia/etiology , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Child , Diarrhea/etiology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Male , Nausea/etiology , Overweight/complications , Oxidative Stress , Pediatric Obesity/metabolism , Polyphenols/administration & dosage , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Thinness/complications , Thinness/metabolism , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vomiting/etiology , Zinc/administration & dosage , Zinc/deficiency
20.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 114(5): 426-433, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240132

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has been characterized by high transmission rates and high mortality in adults with predisposing factors, including age>70 years, obesity, diabetes, systemic hypertension and other underlying diseases. During the second week of viral pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome can occur and carries high mortality. Unlike most common respiratory viruses, children seem to be less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and generally develop mild disease with low mortality. However, clusters of severe shock associated with high levels of cardiac biomarkers and unusual vasoplegia requiring inotropes, vasopressors and volume loading have recently been described. Both the clinical symptoms (i.e. high and persistent fever, gastrointestinal disorders, skin rash, conjunctival injection and dry cracked lips) and the biological signs (e.g. elevated C-reactive protein/procalcitonin and high levels of ferritinaemia) mimicked Kawasaki disease. In most cases, intravenous immunoglobin therapy improved cardiac function and led to full recovery within a few days. Adjunctive steroid therapy and sometimes biotherapy (e.g. anti-interleukin 1Ra and anti-interleukin 6 monoclonal antibodies) were often necessary. Although almost all children fully recovered within a week, some of them later developed coronary artery dilation or aneurysm. Thus, a new "multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children" related to SARS-CoV-2 has recently been described. Similarities with Kawasaki disease and the physiopathology of this syndrome still need further exploration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Biomarkers , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/blood , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/physiopathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Shock, Septic/diagnosis , Symptom Assessment , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...