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1.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(9): 742-750, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891096

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the world has a large number of reported COVID-19 cases and deaths. Information on characteristics and mortality rate of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) cases with COVID-19 remains limited. This study aims to identify the risk factors for mortality related to COVID-19 in children admitted to PICU. METHODS: A retrospective multicenter cohort study was conducted between March 2020 and April 2021 at 44 PICUs in Turkey. Children who were 1 month-18-year of age with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to PICU were included in the study. Children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome and asymptomatic for COVID-19 were excluded. RESULTS: Of 335 patients with COVID-19, the median age was 6.8 years (IQR: 1.2-14) and 180 (53.7 %) were male, 215 (64.2 %) had at least one comorbidity. Age and gender were not related to mortality. Among 335 patients, 166 (49.5%) received mechanical ventilation, 17 (5.1%) received renal replacement therapy and 44 (13.1 %) died. Children with medical complexity, congenital heart disease, immunosuppression and malignancy had significantly higher mortality. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, organ failure index [odds ratio (OR): 2.1, 95 confidence interval (CI): 1.55-2.85], and having congenital heart disease (OR: 2.65, 95 CI: 1.03-6.80), were associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents detailed data on clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 admitted to PICU in the first pandemic year in Turkey. Our study shows that having congenital heart disease is associated with mortality. In addition, the high organ failure score in follow-up predict mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Turkey/epidemiology
2.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e26, 2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683880

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is a hyperinflammatory illness related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The characteristics of patients with this syndrome and the frequency with which it occurs among patients hospitalised after SARS-CoV-2 infection are unclear. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition for MIS-A, we created ICD-10-CM code and laboratory criteria to identify potential MIS-A patients in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release, a database containing patient-level information on hospital discharges across the United States. Modified MIS-A criteria were applied to hospitalisations with discharge from March to December 2020. The proportion of hospitalisations meeting electronic health record criteria for MIS-A and descriptive statistics for patients in the potential MIS-A cohort were calculated. Of 34 515 SARS-CoV-2-related hospitalisations with complete clinical and laboratory data, 53 met modified criteria for MIS-A (0.15%). The median age was 62 years (IQR 52-74). Most patients met the severe cardiac illness criterion through either myocarditis (66.0%) or new-onset heart failure (35.8%). A total of 79.2% of patients required ICU admission, while 43.4% of patients in the cohort died. MIS-A appears to be a rare but severe outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additional studies are needed to investigate how this syndrome differs from severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/ethnology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
3.
N Engl J Med ; 385(1): 11-22, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence is urgently needed to support treatment decisions for children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. METHODS: We performed an international observational cohort study of clinical and outcome data regarding suspected MIS-C that had been uploaded by physicians onto a Web-based database. We used inverse-probability weighting and generalized linear models to evaluate intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) as a reference, as compared with IVIG plus glucocorticoids and glucocorticoids alone. There were two primary outcomes: the first was a composite of inotropic support or mechanical ventilation by day 2 or later or death; the second was a reduction in disease severity on an ordinal scale by day 2. Secondary outcomes included treatment escalation and the time until a reduction in organ failure and inflammation. RESULTS: Data were available regarding the course of treatment for 614 children from 32 countries from June 2020 through February 2021; 490 met the World Health Organization criteria for MIS-C. Of the 614 children with suspected MIS-C, 246 received primary treatment with IVIG alone, 208 with IVIG plus glucocorticoids, and 99 with glucocorticoids alone; 22 children received other treatment combinations, including biologic agents, and 39 received no immunomodulatory therapy. Receipt of inotropic or ventilatory support or death occurred in 56 patients who received IVIG plus glucocorticoids (adjusted odds ratio for the comparison with IVIG alone, 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33 to 1.82) and in 17 patients who received glucocorticoids alone (adjusted odds ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.22 to 1.33). The adjusted odds ratios for a reduction in disease severity were similar in the two groups, as compared with IVIG alone (0.90 for IVIG plus glucocorticoids and 0.93 for glucocorticoids alone). The time until a reduction in disease severity was similar in the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that recovery from MIS-C differed after primary treatment with IVIG alone, IVIG plus glucocorticoids, or glucocorticoids alone, although significant differences may emerge as more data accrue. (Funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 Program and others; BATS ISRCTN number, ISRCTN69546370.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Confidence Intervals , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunomodulation , Male , Propensity Score , Regression Analysis , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
4.
Crit Care Med ; 50(1): e40-e51, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1584019

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multicenter data on the characteristics and outcomes of children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics, ICU admissions, and outcomes among children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 using Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study: Coronavirus Disease 2019 registry. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Society of Critical Care Medicine Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (Coronavirus Disease 2019) registry. PATIENTS: Children (< 18 yr) hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 at participating hospitals from February 2020 to January 2021. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was ICU admission. Secondary outcomes included hospital and ICU duration of stay and ICU, hospital, and 28-day mortality. A total of 874 children with coronavirus disease 2019 were reported to Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry from 51 participating centers, majority in the United States. Median age was 8 years (interquartile range, 1.25-14 yr) with a male:female ratio of 1:2. A majority were non-Hispanic (492/874; 62.9%). Median body mass index (n = 817) was 19.4 kg/m2 (16-25.8 kg/m2), with 110 (13.4%) overweight and 300 (36.6%) obese. A majority (67%) presented with fever, and 43.2% had comorbidities. A total of 238 of 838 (28.2%) met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 404 of 874 (46.2%) were admitted to the ICU. In multivariate logistic regression, age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and pre-existing seizure disorder were independently associated with a greater odds of ICU admission. Hospital mortality was 16 of 874 (1.8%). Median (interquartile range) duration of ICU (n = 379) and hospital (n = 857) stay were 3.9 days (2-7.7 d) and 4 days (1.9-7.5 d), respectively. For patients with 28-day data, survival was 679 of 787, 86.3% with 13.4% lost to follow-up, and 0.3% deceased. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational, multicenter registry of children with coronavirus disease 2019, ICU admission was common. Older age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and seizure disorder were independently associated with ICU admission, and mortality was lower among children than mortality reported in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
5.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 36(9): 2627-2638, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is responsible for the 2019 novel coronavirus disease pandemic. Despite the vast research about the adult population, there has been little data collected on acute kidney injury (AKI) epidemiology, associated risk factors, treatments, and mortality in pediatric COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. AKI is a severe complication of COVID-19 among children and adolescents. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane Center Trials to find all published literature related to AKI in COVID-19 patients, including incidence and outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies reporting the outcomes of interest were included. Across all studies, the overall sample size of COVID positive children was 1,247 and the median age of this population was 9.1 years old. Among COVID positive pediatric patients, there was an AKI incidence of 30.51%, with only 0.56% of these patients receiving KRT. The mortality was 2.55% among all COVID positive pediatric patients. The incidence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) among COVID positive patients was 74.29%. CONCLUSION: AKI has shown to be a negative prognostic factor in adult patients with COVID-19 and now also in the pediatric cohort with high incidence and mortality rates. Additionally, our findings show a strong comparison in epidemiology between adult and pediatric COVID-19 patients; however, they need to be confirmed with additional data and studies.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
6.
Nat Med ; 28(1): 185-192, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514420

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is rarely fatal in children and young people (CYP, <18 years old), but quantifying the risk of death is challenging because CYP are often infected with SARS-CoV-2 exhibiting no or minimal symptoms. To distinguish between CYP who died as a result of SARS-CoV-2 infection and those who died of another cause but were coincidentally infected with the virus, we undertook a clinical review of all CYP deaths with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test from March 2020 to February 2021. The predominant SARS-CoV-2 variants were wild-type and Alpha. Here we show that, of 12,023,568 CYP living in England, 3,105 died, including 61 who were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Of these deaths, 25 were due to SARS-CoV-2 infection (mortality rate, two per million), including 22 due to coronavirus disease 2019-the clinical disease associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection-and 3 were due to pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2. In total, 99.995% of CYP with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test survived. CYP older than 10 years, Asian and Black ethnic backgrounds and comorbidities were over-represented in SARS-CoV-2-related deaths compared with other CYP deaths. These results are important for guiding decisions on shielding and vaccinating children. New variants might have different mortality risks and should be evaluated in a similar way.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Adolescent , Age Distribution , /statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , Cause of Death , Child , Child, Preschool , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/ethnology , /statistics & numerical data
7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(2): e698-e707, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity is an established risk factor for severe COVID-19 outcomes. The mechanistic underpinnings of this association are not well-understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mediating role of systemic inflammation in obesity-associated COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: This hospital-based, observational study included 3828 SARS-CoV-2-infected patients who were hospitalized February to May 2020 at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) or Columbia University Irving Medical Center/New York Presbyterian Hospital (CUIMC/NYP). We use mediation analysis to evaluate whether peak inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein [CRP], erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], D-dimer, ferritin, white blood cell count and interleukin-6) are in the causal pathway between obesity (BMI ≥ 30) and mechanical ventilation or death within 28 days of presentation to care. RESULTS: In the MGH cohort (n = 1202), obesity was associated with greater likelihood of ventilation or death (OR = 1.73; 95% CI = [1.25, 2.41]; P = 0.001) and higher peak CRP (P < 0.001) compared with nonobese patients. The estimated proportion of the association between obesity and ventilation or death mediated by CRP was 0.49 (P < 0.001). Evidence of mediation was more pronounced in patients < 65 years (proportion mediated = 0.52 [P < 0.001] vs 0.44 [P = 0.180]). Findings were more moderate but consistent for peak ESR. Mediation by other inflammatory markers was not supported. Results were replicated in CUIMC/NYP cohort (n = 2626). CONCLUSION: Findings support systemic inflammatory pathways in obesity-associated severe COVID-19 disease, particularly in patients < 65 years, captured by CRP and ESR. Contextualized in clinical trial findings, these results reveal therapeutic opportunity to target systemic inflammatory pathways and monitor interventions in high-risk subgroups and particularly obese patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Obesity/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/mortality , Risk Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
8.
Pediatrics ; 148(5)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357451

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the demographics, clinical characteristics, and hospital course among persons <21 years of age with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-associated death. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series of suspected SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths in the United States in persons <21 years of age during February 12 to July 31, 2020. All states and territories were invited to participate. We abstracted demographic and clinical data, including laboratory and treatment details, from medical records. RESULTS: We included 112 SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths from 25 participating jurisdictions. The median age was 17 years (IQR 8.5-19 years). Most decedents were male (71, 63%), 31 (28%) were Black (non-Hispanic) persons, and 52 (46%) were Hispanic persons. Ninety-six decedents (86%) had at least 1 underlying condition; obesity (42%), asthma (29%), and developmental disorders (22%) were most commonly documented. Among 69 hospitalized decedents, common complications included mechanical ventilation (75%) and acute respiratory failure (82%). The sixteen (14%) decedents who met multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) criteria were similar in age, sex, and race and/or ethnicity to decedents without MIS-C; 11 of 16 (69%) had at least 1 underlying condition. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths among persons <21 years of age occurred predominantly among Black (non-Hispanic) and Hispanic persons, male patients, and older adolescents. The most commonly reported underlying conditions were obesity, asthma, and developmental disorders. Decedents with coronavirus disease 2019 were more likely than those with MIS-C to have underlying medical conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , United States/epidemiology
9.
Am J Emerg Med ; 49: 148-152, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316366

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a dangerous pediatric complication of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review article is to provide a summary of the diagnosis and management of MIS-C with a focus on management in the acute care setting. DISCUSSION: MIS-C is an inflammatory syndrome which can affect nearly any organ system. The most common symptoms are fever and gastrointestinal symptoms, though neurologic and dermatologic findings are also well-described. The diagnosis includes a combination of clinical and laboratory testing. Patients with MIS-C will often have elevated inflammatory markers and may have an abnormal electrocardiogram or echocardiogram. Initial treatment involves resuscitation with careful assessment for cardiac versus vasodilatory shock using point-of-care ultrasound. Treatment should include intravenous immunoglobulin, anticoagulation, and consideration of corticosteroids. Interleukin-1 and/or interleukin-6 blockade may be considered for refractory cases. Aspirin is recommended if there is thrombocytosis or Kawasaki disease-like features on echocardiogram. Patients will generally require admission to an intensive care unit. CONCLUSION: MIS-C is a condition associated with morbidity and mortality that is increasingly recognized as a potential complication in pediatric patients with COVID-19. It is important for emergency clinicians to know how to diagnose and treat this disorder.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Point-of-Care Systems , Resuscitation , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Ultrasonography
10.
Trop Biomed ; 38(2): 129-133, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282843

ABSTRACT

We describe a child with acute fever and abdominal pain who developed rash and edema of extremities. Blood test revealed thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, positive dengue-IgM, and hypoalbuminemia with elevated procalcitonin. Right pleural effusion revealed from chest x-ray. Diagnosed as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) grade 1, however, at 7th day of illness, altered mental status, respiratory and circulatory failure occurred. Laboratory examination showed marked thrombocytopenia, transaminitis, metabolic acidosis, elevated D-dimer, decrease fibrinogen, and elevated cardiac marker (troponin I and CKMB). The patient then developed catecholamine-resistant shock and did not survive after 48 hours. Although rapid test of SARS CoV-2 infection was negative, rapid deterioration with some unusual clinical feature suggest multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. This case raises an awareness of MIS-C that clinical features resemble dengue infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Diagnostic Errors/mortality , Severe Dengue/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Child , Critical Care , Dengue Virus , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Clin Immunol ; 41(7): 1479-1489, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281310

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is still scarce data on SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with Inborn Errors of Immunity (IEI) and many unresolved questions. We aimed to describe the clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Brazilian IEI patients and identify factors influencing the infection. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional, multicenter study that included patients of any age affected by IEI and SARS-CoV-2 infection. The variables studied were sex, age, type of IEI, comorbidities (number and type), treatment in use for IEI, clinical manifestations and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: 121 patients were included: 55.4% female, ages from six months to 74 yo (median age = 25.1 yo). Most patients had predominantly antibody deficiency (n = 53). The infection was mostly asymptomatic (n = 21) and mild (n = 66), and one child had multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). We could not observe sex-related susceptibility, and there was a weak correlation between age and severity of infection. The number of comorbidities was higher in severe cases, particularly bronchiectasis and cardiopathy. There were no severe cases in hereditary angioedema patients. Six patients aged 2 to 74 years died, three of them with antibody deficiency. CONCLUSION: The outcome was mild in most patients, but the Case Fatality Ratio was higher than in the general population. However, the type of IEI was not a determining factor for severity, except for complement deficiencies linked to milder COVID-19. The severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection seems to be more related to older age, a higher number of comorbidities and type of comorbidities (bronchiectasis and cardiopathy).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases , Brazil , COVID-19/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Young Adult
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5458-5473, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272201

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki-like disease (KLD) and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) are considered as challenges for pediatric patients under the age of 18 infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A systematic search was performed on July 2, 2020, and updated on December 1, 2020, to identify studies on KLD/MIS-C associated with COVID-19. The databases of Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Scholar were searched. The hospitalized children with a presentation of Kawasaki disease (KD), KLD, MIS-C, or inflammatory shock syndromes were included. A total number of 133 children in 45 studies were reviewed. A total of 74 (55.6%) cases had been admitted to pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). Also, 49 (36.8%) patients had required respiratory support, of whom 31 (23.3%) cases had required mechanical ventilation/intubation, 18 (13.5%) cases had required other oxygen therapies. In total, 79 (59.4%) cases had been discharged from hospitals, 3 (2.2%) had been readmitted, 9 (6.7%) had been hospitalized at the time of the study, and 9 (6.7%) patients had expired due to the severe heart failure, shock, brain infarction. Similar outcomes had not been reported in other patients. Approximately two-thirds of the children with KLD associated with COVID-19 had been admitted to PICUs, around one-fourth of them had required mechanical ventilation/intubation, and even some of them had been required readmissions. Therefore, physicians are strongly recommended to monitor children that present with the characteristics of KD during the pandemic as they can be the dominant manifestations in children with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain Infarction/complications , COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Shock/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Adolescent , Brain Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Brain Infarction/mortality , Brain Infarction/virology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Heart Failure/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/virology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/mortality , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/virology , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Shock/diagnostic imaging , Shock/mortality , Shock/virology , Survival Analysis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology
13.
N Engl J Med ; 385(1): 23-34, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The assessment of real-world effectiveness of immunomodulatory medications for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) may guide therapy. METHODS: We analyzed surveillance data on inpatients younger than 21 years of age who had MIS-C and were admitted to 1 of 58 U.S. hospitals between March 15 and October 31, 2020. The effectiveness of initial immunomodulatory therapy (day 0, indicating the first day any such therapy for MIS-C was given) with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) plus glucocorticoids, as compared with IVIG alone, was evaluated with propensity-score matching and inverse probability weighting, with adjustment for baseline MIS-C severity and demographic characteristics. The primary outcome was cardiovascular dysfunction (a composite of left ventricular dysfunction or shock resulting in the use of vasopressors) on or after day 2. Secondary outcomes included the components of the primary outcome, the receipt of adjunctive treatment (glucocorticoids in patients not already receiving glucocorticoids on day 0, a biologic, or a second dose of IVIG) on or after day 1, and persistent or recurrent fever on or after day 2. RESULTS: A total of 518 patients with MIS-C (median age, 8.7 years) received at least one immunomodulatory therapy; 75% had been previously healthy, and 9 died. In the propensity-score-matched analysis, initial treatment with IVIG plus glucocorticoids (103 patients) was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular dysfunction on or after day 2 than IVIG alone (103 patients) (17% vs. 31%; risk ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34 to 0.94). The risks of the components of the composite outcome were also lower among those who received IVIG plus glucocorticoids: left ventricular dysfunction occurred in 8% and 17% of the patients, respectively (risk ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.19 to 1.15), and shock resulting in vasopressor use in 13% and 24% (risk ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.00). The use of adjunctive therapy was lower among patients who received IVIG plus glucocorticoids than among those who received IVIG alone (34% vs. 70%; risk ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.65), but the risk of fever was unaffected (31% and 40%, respectively; risk ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.53 to 1.13). The inverse-probability-weighted analysis confirmed the results of the propensity-score-matched analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Among children and adolescents with MIS-C, initial treatment with IVIG plus glucocorticoids was associated with a lower risk of new or persistent cardiovascular dysfunction than IVIG alone. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/prevention & control , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Combined Modality Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunomodulation , Infant , Logistic Models , Male , Propensity Score , Public Health Surveillance , Shock/etiology , Shock/prevention & control , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Young Adult
15.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(12): 3252-3267, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic has been emerged as a cardinal public health problem. Children have their own specific clinical features; notably, they seem to be escaping the severe respiratory adverse effects. The international scientific community is rapidly carrying out studies, driving to the need to reassess knowledge of the disease and therapeutic strategies. AIM: To assess the characteristics of COVID-19 infected children worldwide of all ages, from neonates to children and adolescents, and how they differ from their adult counterparts. SEARCH STRATEGY: An electronic search in PubMed was conducted, using combinations of the following keywords: coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, children. The search included all types of articles written in English between January 1, 2019 until August 15, 2020. RESULTS: The search identified 266 relevant articles. Children were mainly within family clusters of cases and have relatively milder clinical presentation compared with adults; children were reported to have better outcomes with a significantly lower mortality rate. Cough and fever were the most common symptoms while pneumonia was the cardinal respiratory manifestation of infected children. Laboratory results and thoracic imaging give varying results. CONCLUSIONS: Children were mainly family cluster cases and usually presented with a mild infection, although cases presented with the multisystem inflammatory syndrome are becoming more apparent. Studies determining why the manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection are so variable may help to gain a better understanding of the disease and accelerate the development of vaccines and therapies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Cough/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Vomiting/physiopathology
16.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(11): e374-e376, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-884870

ABSTRACT

We described the characteristics of 11 children with pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome-temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2. The main clinical indications for hospital admission were vasogenic toxic shock (n = 2), Kawasaki disease (n = 4), and Kawasaki disease shock syndrome (n = 5). The echocardiography findings were abnormal in 63% of cases. All patients had 2 or more organ dysfunctions, and the mortality rate was 18%.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mortality , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/mortality , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology
17.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(11): e340-e346, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760012

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, severe manifestations associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) have been recognized. Analysis of studies for this novel syndrome is needed for a better understanding of effective management among affected children. METHODS: An extensive search strategy was conducted by combining the terms multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and coronavirus infection or using the term multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children in bibliographic electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL) and in preprint servers (BioRxiv.org and MedRxiv.org) following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Metaanalyses guidelines to retrieve all articles published from January 1, 2020, to July 31, 2020. Observational cross-sectional, cohort, case series, and case reports were included. RESULTS: A total of 328 articles were identified. Sixteen studies with 655 participants (3 months-20 years of age) were included in the final analysis. Most of the children in reported studies presented with fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, and Kawasaki Disease-like symptoms. Sixty-eight percent of the patients required critical care; 40% needed inotropes; 34% received anticoagulation; and 15% required mechanical ventilation. More than two-thirds of the patients received intravenous immunoglobulin and 49% received corticosteroids. Remdesivir and convalescent plasma were the least commonly utilized therapies. Left ventricular dysfunction was reported in 32% of patients. Among patients presenting with KD-like symptoms, 23% developed coronary abnormalities and 26% had circulatory shock. The majority recovered; 11 (1.7%) children died. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review delineates and summarizes clinical features, management, and outcomes of MIS-C associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although most children required intensive care and immunomodulatory therapies, favorable outcomes were reported in the majority with low-mortality rates.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Care , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Infant , Male , Mortality , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Young Adult
18.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(9): 1281-1292, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-602629

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Up to date, the exploration of clinical features in severe COVID-19 patients were mostly from the same center in Wuhan, China. The clinical data in other centers is limited. This study aims to explore the feasible parameters which could be used in clinical practice to predict the prognosis in hospitalized patients with severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Methods: In this case-control study, patients with severe COVID-19 in this newly established isolation center on admission between 27 January 2020 to 19 March 2020 were divided to discharge group and death event group. Clinical information was collected and analyzed for the following objectives: 1. Comparisons of basic characteristics between two groups; 2. Risk factors for death on admission using logistic regression; 3. Dynamic changes of radiographic and laboratory parameters between two groups in the course. Results: 124 patients with severe COVID-19 on admission were included and divided into discharge group (n=35) and death event group (n=89). Sex, SpO2, breath rate, diastolic pressure, neutrophil, lymphocyte, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and D-dimer were significantly correlated with death events identified using bivariate logistic regression. Further multivariate logistic regression demonstrated a significant model fitting with C-index of 0.845 (p<0.001), in which SpO2≤89%, lymphocyte≤0.64×109/L, CRP>77.35mg/L, PCT>0.20µg/L, and LDH>481U/L were the independent risk factors with the ORs of 2.959, 4.015, 2.852, 3.554, and 3.185, respectively (p<0.04). In the course, persistently lower lymphocyte with higher levels of CRP, PCT, IL-6, neutrophil, LDH, D-dimer, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and increased CD4+/CD8+ T-lymphocyte ratio and were observed in death events group, while these parameters stayed stable or improved in discharge group. Conclusions: On admission, the levels of SpO2, lymphocyte, CRP, PCT, and LDH could predict the prognosis of severe COVID-19 patients. Systematic inflammation with induced cardiac dysfunction was likely a primary reason for death events in severe COVID-19 except for acute respiratory distress syndrome.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Heart Failure/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Heart Failure/blood , Heart Failure/virology , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils , Oximetry , Oxygen/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Procalcitonin/blood , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology
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