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2.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(1): e21-e25, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684864

ABSTRACT

Comparing first and second wave MIS-C cohorts at our quaternary pediatric institution, second wave were older, presented more frequently with shortness of breath, higher maximum troponin and N-terminal BNP, and more frequently required advanced respiratory and inotropic support. Despite increased severity in the second cohort, both cohorts had similar rates of coronary artery abnormalities, systolic dysfunction, and length of stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/pathology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Crit Care Med ; 50(1): e40-e51, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1584019

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multicenter data on the characteristics and outcomes of children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics, ICU admissions, and outcomes among children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 using Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study: Coronavirus Disease 2019 registry. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Society of Critical Care Medicine Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (Coronavirus Disease 2019) registry. PATIENTS: Children (< 18 yr) hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 at participating hospitals from February 2020 to January 2021. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was ICU admission. Secondary outcomes included hospital and ICU duration of stay and ICU, hospital, and 28-day mortality. A total of 874 children with coronavirus disease 2019 were reported to Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry from 51 participating centers, majority in the United States. Median age was 8 years (interquartile range, 1.25-14 yr) with a male:female ratio of 1:2. A majority were non-Hispanic (492/874; 62.9%). Median body mass index (n = 817) was 19.4 kg/m2 (16-25.8 kg/m2), with 110 (13.4%) overweight and 300 (36.6%) obese. A majority (67%) presented with fever, and 43.2% had comorbidities. A total of 238 of 838 (28.2%) met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 404 of 874 (46.2%) were admitted to the ICU. In multivariate logistic regression, age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and pre-existing seizure disorder were independently associated with a greater odds of ICU admission. Hospital mortality was 16 of 874 (1.8%). Median (interquartile range) duration of ICU (n = 379) and hospital (n = 857) stay were 3.9 days (2-7.7 d) and 4 days (1.9-7.5 d), respectively. For patients with 28-day data, survival was 679 of 787, 86.3% with 13.4% lost to follow-up, and 0.3% deceased. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational, multicenter registry of children with coronavirus disease 2019, ICU admission was common. Older age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and seizure disorder were independently associated with ICU admission, and mortality was lower among children than mortality reported in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
5.
Microvasc Res ; 140: 104303, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568955

ABSTRACT

Systemic inflammatory response, as observed in sepsis and severe COVID-19, may lead to endothelial damage. Therefore, we aim to compare the extent of endothelial injury and its relationship to inflammation in both diseases. We included patients diagnosed with sepsis (SEPSIS group, n = 21), mild COVID-19 (MILD group, n = 31), and severe COVID-19 (SEVERE group, n = 24). Clinical and routine laboratory data were obtained, circulating cytokines (INF-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10) and endothelial injury markers (E-Selectin, Tissue Factor (TF) and von Willebrand factor (vWF)) were measured. Compared to the SEPSIS group, patients with severe COVID-19 present similar clinical and laboratory data, except for lower circulating IL-10 and E-Selectin levels. Compared to the MILD group, patients in the SEVERE group showed higher levels of TNF-α, IL-10, and TF. There was no clear relationship between cytokines and endothelial injury markers among the three studied groups; however, in SEVERE COVID-19 patients, there is a positive relationship between INF-γ with TF and a negative relationship between IL-10 and vWF. In conclusion, COVID-19 and septic patients have a similar pattern of cytokines and endothelial dysfunction markers. These findings highlight the importance of endothelium dysfunction in COVID-19 and suggest that endothelium should be better evaluated as a therapeutic target for the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , Blood Cell Count , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , E-Selectin/blood , Female , Humans , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-10/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Thromboplastin/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , von Willebrand Factor/analysis
6.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 61(2): 188-193, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551124

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a wide pediatric clinical spectrum. Initial reports suggested that children had milder symptoms compared with adults; then diagnosis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) emerged. We performed a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients at a children's hospital over 1 year. Our objectives were to study the demographic and clinical profile of pediatric SARS-CoV-2-associated diagnoses. Based on the clinical syndrome, patients were classified into coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; non-MIS-C) and MIS-C cohorts. Among those who tested positive, 67% were symptomatic. MIS-C was diagnosed in 24 patients. Both diagnoses were more frequent in Caucasians. Both cohorts had different symptom profiles. Inflammatory markers were several-fold higher in MIS-C patients. These patients had critical care needs and longer hospital stays. More COVID-19 patients had respiratory complications, while MIS-C cohort saw cardiovascular involvement. Health care awareness of both syndromes is important for early recognition, diagnosis, and prompt treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Syndrome , Adolescent , COVID-19/classification , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/classification , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology
7.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 164: 69-82, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531870

ABSTRACT

The global propagation of SARS-CoV-2 leads to an unprecedented public health emergency. Despite that the lungs are the primary organ targeted by COVID-19, systemic endothelial inflammation and dysfunction is observed particularly in patients with severe COVID-19, manifested by elevated endothelial injury markers, endotheliitis, and coagulopathy. Here, we review the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 associated endothelial dysfunction; and the likely pathological mechanisms underlying the disease including direct cell entry or indirect immune overreactions after SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition, we discuss potential biomarkers that might indicate the disease severity, particularly related to the abnormal development of thrombosis that is a fatal vascular complication of severe COVID-19. Furthermore, we summarize clinical trials targeting the direct and indirect pathological pathways after SARS-CoV-2 infection to prevent or inhibit the virus induced endothelial disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Endothelium, Vascular/immunology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , HMGB1 Protein/physiology , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Neuropilin-1/physiology , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Scavenger Receptors, Class B/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/physiopathology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/physiology , Vasculitis/etiology , Vasculitis/immunology , Vasculitis/physiopathology , Young Adult
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 723654, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504010

ABSTRACT

With the appearance of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in December 2019, all countries in the world have implemented different strategies to prevent its spread and to intensively search for effective treatments. Initially, severe cases of the disease were considered in adult patients; however, cases of older school-age children and adolescents who presented fever, hypotension, severe abdominal pain and cardiac dysfunction, positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection, have been reported, with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and tissue damage, condition denominated multisystemic inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C); The emerging data from patients with MIS-C have suggested unique characteristics in the immunological response and also clinical similarities with other inflammatory syndromes, which can support as a reference in the search for molecular mechanisms involved in MIS-C. We here in propose that oxidative stress (OE) may play a very important role in the pathophysiology of MIS-C, such as occurs in Kawasaki disease (KD), severe COVID-19 in adults and other processes with characteristics of vascular damage similar to MIS- C, for which we review the available information that can be correlated with possible redox mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Oxidative Stress , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Inflammation , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology
10.
J Pediatr ; 240: 292-296, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490349

ABSTRACT

We compared cardiac findings in patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and Kawasaki disease in the first 6 months of the 2020 coronavirus disease pandemic to patients with Kawasaki disease during 2016-2019. We saw a high rate of coronary aneurysms in 2020, with a similar rate of coronary involvement but greater volume and incidence of cardiac dysfunction compared with previous years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronary Aneurysm/physiopathology , Coronary Vessels/physiopathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , COVID-19/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronary Aneurysm/complications , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Infant , Los Angeles , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
11.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 522, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the high prevalence of COVID-19 infections worldwide, the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is becoming an increasingly recognized entity. This syndrome presents in patients several weeks after infection with COVID-19 and is associated with thrombosis, elevated inflammatory markers, hemodynamic compromise and cardiac dysfunction. Treatment is often with steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). The pathologic basis of myocardial injury in MIS-A, however, is not well characterized. In our case report, we obtained endomyocardial biopsy that revealed a pattern of myocardial injury similar to that found in COVID-19 cardiac specimens. CASE PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old male presented with fevers, chills, headache, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea 5 weeks after his COVID-19 infection. His SARS-CoV-2 PCR was negative and IgG was positive, consistent with prior infection. He was found to be in cardiogenic shock with biventricular failure, requiring inotropes and diuretics. Given concern for acute fulminant myocarditis, an endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) was performed, showing an inflammatory infiltrate consisting predominantly of interstitial macrophages with scant T lymphocytes. The histologic pattern was similar to that of cardiac specimens from COVID-19 patients, helping rule out myocarditis as the prevailing diagnosis. His case was complicated by persistent hypoxemia, and a computed tomography scan revealed pulmonary emboli. He received IVIg, steroids, and anticoagulation with rapid recovery of biventricular function. CONCLUSIONS: MIS-A should be considered as the diagnosis in patients presenting several weeks after COVID-19 infection with severe inflammation and multi-organ involvement. In our case, EMB facilitated identification of MIS-A and guided therapy. The patient's biventricular function recovered with IVIg and steroids.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Shock, Cardiogenic , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adult , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiotonic Agents/administration & dosage , Diagnosis, Differential , Diuretics/administration & dosage , Electrocardiography/methods , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Male , Myocardium/pathology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/diagnosis , Shock, Cardiogenic/drug therapy , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome
12.
J Pediatr ; 241: 237-241.e1, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474761

ABSTRACT

At midterm follow-up visits performed at a median of 7 months (IQR 6.0-8.4 months), 16 patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children had resolution of left ventricular dysfunction and most had resolution of coronary aneurysms. On cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, no patients had late gadolinium enhancement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronary Aneurysm/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/virology , Young Adult
13.
Postgrad Med ; 133(8): 994-1000, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450321

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare but severe condition resulting in excessive response of the immune system after SARS-CoV-2 infection. We report a single-center cohort of children with MIS-C, describing the spectrum of presentation, therapies, clinical course, and short-term outcomes. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study from to a tertiary pediatric rheumatology center including patients (aged 1 month to 21 years) diagnosed with MIS-C between April 2020-April 2021. Demographic, clinical, laboratory results and follow-up data were collected through the electronic patient record system and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 67 patients with MIS-C were included in the study. Fever was detected in all patients; gastrointestinal system symptoms were found in 67.2% of the patients, rash in 38.8%, conjunctivitis in 31.3%, hypotension in 26.9% myocarditis, and/or pericarditis in 22.4%, respectively. Respiratory symptoms were only in five patients (7.5%). Kawasaki Disease like presentation was found 37.3% of the patients. The mean duration of hospitalization was 11.8 7.07 days. Fifty-seven patients (85%) received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), 45 (67%) received corticosteroids, 17 (25.3%) received anakinra, and one (1.5%) received tocilizumab. Seven of the patients (10.4%) underwent therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). In 21 (31.3%) patients, a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) was required in a median of 2 days. The first finding to improve was fever, while the first parameter to decrease was ferritin (median 6.5 days (IQR, 4-11.2 days)). Sixty-five patients were discharged home with a median duration of hospital stay of 10 days (IQR, 7-15 days). CONCLUSION: Patients with MIS-C may have severe cardiac findings and intensive care requirements in admission and hospital follow-up. The vast majority of these findings improve with effective treatment without any sequelae until discharge and in a short time in follow-up. Although the pathogenesis and treatment plan of the disease are partially elucidated, follow-up studies are needed in terms of long-term prognosis and relapse probabilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Rheumatology/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Administration, Intravesical , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/administration & dosage , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Male , Oxytocin/administration & dosage , Oxytocin/analogs & derivatives , Oxytocin/therapeutic use , Plasma Exchange , Prospective Studies
14.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438739

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) commonly complicates with coagulopathy. A syndrome called Long-COVID-19 is emerging recently in COVID-19 survivors, characterized, in addition to the persistence of symptoms typical of the acute phase, by alterations in inflammatory and coagulation parameters due to endothelial damage. The related disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) can be associated with high death rates in COVID-19 patients. It is possible to find a prothrombotic state also in Long-COVID-19. Early administration of anticoagulants in COVID-19 was suggested in order to improve patient outcomes, although exact criteria for their application were not well-established. Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) was commonly adopted for counteracting DIC and venous thromboembolism (VTE), due to its pharmacodynamics and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the efficacy of anticoagulant therapy for COVID-19-associated DIC is still a matter of debate. Thrombin and Factor Xa (FXa) are well-known components of the coagulation cascade. The FXa is known to strongly promote inflammation as the consequence of increased cytokine expression. Endothelial cells and mononuclear leucocytes release cytokines, growth factors, and adhesion molecules due to thrombin activation. On the other hand, cytokines can activate coagulation. The cross-talk between coagulation and inflammation is mediated via protease-activated receptors (PARs). These receptors might become potential targets to be considered for counteracting the clinical expressions of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 is effectively able to activate local and circulating coagulation factors, thus inducing the generation of disseminated coagula. LMWH may be considered as the new frontier in the treatment of COVID-19 and Long-COVID-19. Indeed, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) may be an alternative option for both early and later treatment of COVID-19 patients due to their ability to inhibit PARs. The aim of this report was to evaluate the role of anticoagulants-and DOACs in particular in COVID-19 and Long-COVID-19 patients. We report the case of a COVID-19 patient who, after administration of enoxaparin developed DIC secondary to virosis and positivity for platelet factor 4 (PF4) and a case of Long-COVID with high residual cardiovascular risk and persistence of blood chemistry of inflammation and procoagulative state.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Endothelial Cells , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/immunology
16.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 68(5): 1011-1027, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415698

ABSTRACT

A multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MISC) can result from COVID-19 infection in previously healthy children and adolescents. It is potentially life threatening and is treated initially with intravenous immunoglobulin and aspirin but may require anti-inflammatory monoclonal antibody treatment in severe cases. SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause macrophage activation syndrome, chilblains, and flares of existing rheumatologic diseases. The pandemic has led to later presentation of some rheumatologic conditions as parents and patients have avoided health care settings. PubMed and Google scholar have been utilized to review the literature on the rheumatologic conditions resulting from COVID-19 and the current treatment options.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Adolescent , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child , Humans , Rheumatic Diseases/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology
18.
Crit Care Med ; 50(1): e40-e51, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356720

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multicenter data on the characteristics and outcomes of children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics, ICU admissions, and outcomes among children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 using Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study: Coronavirus Disease 2019 registry. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Society of Critical Care Medicine Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (Coronavirus Disease 2019) registry. PATIENTS: Children (< 18 yr) hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 at participating hospitals from February 2020 to January 2021. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was ICU admission. Secondary outcomes included hospital and ICU duration of stay and ICU, hospital, and 28-day mortality. A total of 874 children with coronavirus disease 2019 were reported to Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry from 51 participating centers, majority in the United States. Median age was 8 years (interquartile range, 1.25-14 yr) with a male:female ratio of 1:2. A majority were non-Hispanic (492/874; 62.9%). Median body mass index (n = 817) was 19.4 kg/m2 (16-25.8 kg/m2), with 110 (13.4%) overweight and 300 (36.6%) obese. A majority (67%) presented with fever, and 43.2% had comorbidities. A total of 238 of 838 (28.2%) met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 404 of 874 (46.2%) were admitted to the ICU. In multivariate logistic regression, age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and pre-existing seizure disorder were independently associated with a greater odds of ICU admission. Hospital mortality was 16 of 874 (1.8%). Median (interquartile range) duration of ICU (n = 379) and hospital (n = 857) stay were 3.9 days (2-7.7 d) and 4 days (1.9-7.5 d), respectively. For patients with 28-day data, survival was 679 of 787, 86.3% with 13.4% lost to follow-up, and 0.3% deceased. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational, multicenter registry of children with coronavirus disease 2019, ICU admission was common. Older age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and seizure disorder were independently associated with ICU admission, and mortality was lower among children than mortality reported in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
19.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(4): S198-S211, 2021 08.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325948

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus declared by the WHO in March 11th 2020, affects a small number of pediatric patients, who mostly present mild respiratory compromise and favorable evolution. However began to be observed in previously healthy children, an increase in cases defined as "Multisystemic Inflammatory Syndrome" (MIS-C) or "Kawasaki-like" post-COVID 19 (KLC) that evolve to shock and require hospitalization in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. MIS-C and KL-C are characterized by fever; signs of inflammation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and cardiovascular dysfunction, associated with sever forms of presentation with higher incidence of hypotension and/or shock. In the laboratory, markers of inflammation, hypercoagulability and myocardial damage are observed. Firstline drug treatment consists of intravenous immunoglobulin plus oral acetylsalicylic acid. A multidisciplinary approach is recommended for an accurate diagnosis and an early and effective treatment, in order to reduce morbidity and mortality.


La pandemia ocasionada por el nuevo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), declarada por la Organización Mundial de la Salud OMS) en marzo de 2020, afecta a un reducido número de pacientes pediátricos, quienes presentan, en su mayoría, compromiso respiratorio leve y evolución favorable. Sin embargo, en niños previamente sanos, comenzó a observarse un aumento de casos definidos como síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico (SIM-C) o similar a Kawasaki (Kawasaki-like) asociado a la enfermedad por el nuevo coronavirus (COVID-19) (KL-C) que evolucionan al shock y requieren internación en la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Los cuadros de SIM-C y los KL-C se caracterizan por fiebre, signos de inflamación, síntomas gastrointestinales y disfunción cardiovascular; las formas graves de presentación tienen mayor incidencia de hipotensión y/o shock. En el laboratorio se observan marcadores de inflamación, hipercoagulabilidad y daño miocárdico. El tratamiento farmacológico de primera línea consiste en la administración de inmunoglobulina por vía intravenosa más ácido acetilsalicílico por vía oral. Se recomienda un abordaje multidisciplinario para un diagnóstico certero y un tratamiento temprano y eficaz para disminuir la morbimortalidad.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Adolescent , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Combined Modality Therapy , Critical Care/methods , Diagnosis, Differential , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology
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