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1.
J Trop Pediatr ; 68(3)2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784400

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While the number of cases of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is increasing, reported cases in Asian countries are still low, particularly in Indonesia. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of patients with MIS-C in a tertiary referral hospital in Indonesia. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with collected data of patients with MIS-C admitted to Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo from March 2020 to April 2021. RESULTS: The first case of MIS-C was detected 5 months after the first reported coronavirus disease 2019 case in Indonesia. Thirteen patients out of 158 positive admitted patients for COVID-19 were diagnosed with MIS-C during the study period. Of these 13 patients, 2 patients (15%) had a fatal outcome. Subjects were predominantly male, and the median age was 7.58 years (IQR 12.3) years. Most patients required mechanical ventilation (7 out of 13 patients) and intubation (8 out of 13 patients). Patients who needed intubation usually needed mechanical ventilation. All inflammatory markers, white blood cells, neutrophil counts, and all coagulation factor parameters (except for normal prothrombin time and activated partial prothrombin time) were elevated. The median time to MIS-C diagnosis was 2 days in the survivor group (n = 11) compared to 8.5 days in the non-survivor group (n = 2). Compared to the non-survivor group, those who survived spent more days in the hospital, received vasopressors earlier, and did not require mechanical ventilation as early as the non-survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Our work highlights the differences in MIS-C clinical course, treatment, and clinical outcomes between the two groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
2.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 22(5): 53-60, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750837

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has developed into a pandemic. A unique challenge of this pandemic has been the emergence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a rare post-infectious hyperinflammatory disorder associated with SARS-CoV-2. This syndrome is characterized by overwhelming systemic inflammation, fever, hypotension, and cardiac dysfunction. This disorder may also have features overlapping with Kawasaki disease (KD), macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), and toxic shock syndrome (TSS). The goal of this review is to outline the presenting features, presumed immunopathogenesis, management, and outcomes of patients with MIS-C. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with MIS-C present with characteristics that fall within a wide clinical spectrum. Main features include fever, gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain and diarrhea, and cardiac complications such as myocarditis and coronary artery aneurysms, although various other features have been reported. Younger children may present with features of Kawasaki-like disease, and older children are often admitted to the intensive care unit with cardiogenic shock. Current treatment guidelines recommend intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) and glucocorticoids, with utilization of biologics in refractory cases. Fortunately, the majority of patients recover, with resolution of the systemic inflammation and cardiac abnormalities. Mortality from MIS-C is rare. This review provides an overview of the presenting features, proposed pathogenesis, suggested therapies, and outcomes of MIS-C. Clinicians must have a high clinical suspicion for this disorder in children who have had recent COVID-19 infection or exposure and present with a significant inflammatory response. Understanding of this disorder continues to evolve, and prompt diagnosis and treatment allow for the best possible outcome for patients with MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
3.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 42, 2022 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Two sequelae of pediatric COVID-19 have been identified, the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and the long COVID. Long COVID is much less precisely defined and includes all the persistent or new clinical manifestations evidenced in subjects previously infected by SARS-CoV-2 beyond the period of the acute infection and that cannot be explained by an alternative diagnosis. In this Intersociety Consensus, present knowledge on pediatric long COVID as well as how to identify and manage children with long COVID are discussed. MAIN FINDINGS: Although the true prevalence of long COVID in pediatrics is not exactly determined, it seems appropriate to recommend evaluating the presence of symptoms suggestive of long COVID near the end of the acute phase of the disease, between 4 and 12 weeks from this. Long COVID in children and adolescents should be suspected in presence of persistent headache and fatigue, sleep disturbance, difficulty in concentrating, abdominal pain, myalgia or arthralgia. Persistent chest pain, stomach pain, diarrhea, heart palpitations, and skin lesions should be considered as possible symptoms of long COVID. It is recommended that the primary care pediatrician visits all subjects with a suspected or a proven diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection after 4 weeks to check for the presence of symptoms of previously unknown disease. In any case, a further check-up by the primary care pediatrician should be scheduled 3 months after the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection to confirm normality or to address emerging problems. The subjects who present symptoms of any organic problem must undergo a thorough evaluation of the same, with a possible request for clinical, laboratory and / or radiological in-depth analysis in case of need. Children and adolescents with clear symptoms of mental stress will need to be followed up by existing local services for problems of this type. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric long COVID is a relevant problem that involve a considerable proportion of children and adolescents. Prognosis of these cases is generally good as in most of them symptoms disappear spontaneously. The few children with significant medical problems should be early identified after the acute phase of the infection and adequately managed to assure complete resolution. A relevant psychological support for all the children during COVID-19 pandemic must be organized by health authorities and government that have to treat this as a public health issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Consensus , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(3)2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731266

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has caused a global pandemic with serious impact around the world. Patients most commonly present with severe lung involvement and acute respiratory failure; however, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is a known-although rare-complication. We present a case of a 49-year-old patient who presented with combined cardiogenic and vasodilatory shock and was diagnosed with MIS-A. He initially required venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and Impella for haemodynamic support but was able to be weaned off these devices with complete recovery of left ventricular systolic function. This case demonstrates that MIS-A may present as haemodynamic collapse in adults, but complete recovery is possible with proper haemodynamic support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Adult , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/diagnosis , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
6.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 102, 2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current coronavirus disease pandemic has brought recognition of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults as a de novo entity, temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viral infection in adults. Hypothesis about its true pathophysiology remains controversial. CASE REPORT: The patient was a 22-year-old African American female presenting to the emergency department with fever, sore throat, and neck swelling for the past 3 days. During her initial emergency department visit, her blood pressure was stable at 110/57 mmHg, temperature of 39.4 °C, and heart rate of 150 beats per minute. While in the emergency department, she received broad-spectrum antibiotics (vancomycin and ceftriaxone) and 30 cc/kg bolus of normal saline. Originally, she was admitted to a telemetry floor. The following night, a rapid response code was called due to hypotension. At that time, her blood pressure was 80/57 mmHg. She appeared comfortable without signs of respiratory distress. She received intravenous fluids and vasopressors, and was transferred to the intensive care unit. The patient had reported a previous coronavirus disease infection a few weeks prior. She was diagnosed and treated for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults. Intravenous immunoglobulin infusion was initiated and completed on hospital day 5. She was weaned off vasopressors by day 6, and discharged home on day 11. CONCLUSION: Our case report is an example of the presentation, diagnosis, and management of multisystem inflammatory syndrome. Our research into previous case reports illustrates the wide range of presentations, degree of end organ damage, and treatment modalities. This diagnosis needs to be considered in the presence of recent coronavirus disease infection with new-onset end organ failure, as prompt diagnosis and treatment is crucial for better outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Young Adult
7.
Pediatr Neurol ; 129: 1-6, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671017

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) involves multiple organs and shows increased inflammatory markers. Since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several studies have reported the association between severe COVID-19 and MIS-C. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) presents with thunderclap headaches and multifocal reversible vasoconstriction on imaging. RCVS is very rare in children. This article reports two cases of pediatric COVID-19 with severe MIS-C and clinical and imaging features indicative of RCVS. METHODS: Clinical, laboratory, and imaging data of the patients were reviewed. The diagnosis of RCVS was confirmed based on clinical symptomatology and brain magnetic resonance imaging findings. RESULTS: Two pediatric patients with clinical findings compatible with severe MIS-C and hemodynamic compromise presented to the hospital. During their hospitalization course, they developed thunderclap headaches and neurological deficits. Both were receiving vasoactive agents, intravenous immunoglobulin, and immunosuppressants. Imaging studies showed marked multifocal cerebral vasoconstriction in both cases and infarcts in one. The course and management of the patients will be presented. After controlling inflammation and elimination of triggers, both patients were ultimately symptom free upon discharge. Cerebral vasoconstriction had completely resolved on follow-up imaging. CONCLUSIONS: Although a variety of symptoms including headaches may be seen in pediatric COVID-19 patients with MIS-C, RCVS should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of thunderclap headache accompanied by neurological signs in these patients. Imaging findings and follow-up are also key in establishing the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnosis , Cerebrovascular Disorders/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Child , Constriction, Pathologic , Female , Headache Disorders, Primary/diagnosis , Headache Disorders, Primary/therapy , Headache Disorders, Primary/virology , Humans , Male , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
8.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 74(4): e1-e20, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669371

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To provide guidance on the management of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), a condition characterized by fever, inflammation, and multiorgan dysfunction that manifests late in the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Recommendations are also provided for children with hyperinflammation during COVID-19, the acute, infectious phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: The Task Force is composed of 9 pediatric rheumatologists and 2 adult rheumatologists, 2 pediatric cardiologists, 2 pediatric infectious disease specialists, and 1 pediatric critical care physician. Preliminary statements addressing clinical questions related to MIS-C and hyperinflammation in COVID-19 were developed based on evidence reports. Consensus was built through a modified Delphi process that involved anonymous voting and webinar discussion. A 9-point scale was used to determine the appropriateness of each statement (median scores of 1-3 for inappropriate, 4-6 for uncertain, and 7-9 for appropriate). Consensus was rated as low, moderate, or high based on dispersion of the votes. Approved guidance statements were those that were classified as appropriate with moderate or high levels of consensus, which were prespecified before voting. RESULTS: The guidance was approved in June 2020 and updated in November 2020 and October 2021, and consists of 41 final guidance statements accompanied by flow diagrams depicting the diagnostic pathway for MIS-C and recommendations for initial immunomodulatory treatment of MIS-C. CONCLUSION: Our understanding of SARS-CoV-2-related syndromes in the pediatric population continues to evolve. This guidance document reflects currently available evidence coupled with expert opinion, and will be revised as further evidence becomes available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rheumatology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , United States
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2143151, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669321

ABSTRACT

Importance: Understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection in US children has been limited by the lack of large, multicenter studies with granular data. Objective: To examine the characteristics, changes over time, outcomes, and severity risk factors of children with SARS-CoV-2 within the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C). Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort study of encounters with end dates before September 24, 2021, was conducted at 56 N3C facilities throughout the US. Participants included children younger than 19 years at initial SARS-CoV-2 testing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Case incidence and severity over time, demographic and comorbidity severity risk factors, vital sign and laboratory trajectories, clinical outcomes, and acute COVID-19 vs multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), and Delta vs pre-Delta variant differences for children with SARS-CoV-2. Results: A total of 1 068 410 children were tested for SARS-CoV-2 and 167 262 test results (15.6%) were positive (82 882 [49.6%] girls; median age, 11.9 [IQR, 6.0-16.1] years). Among the 10 245 children (6.1%) who were hospitalized, 1423 (13.9%) met the criteria for severe disease: mechanical ventilation (796 [7.8%]), vasopressor-inotropic support (868 [8.5%]), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (42 [0.4%]), or death (131 [1.3%]). Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.37; 95% CI, 1.21-1.56), Black/African American race (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06-1.47), obesity (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.01-1.41), and several pediatric complex chronic condition (PCCC) subcategories were associated with higher severity disease. Vital signs and many laboratory test values from the day of admission were predictive of peak disease severity. Variables associated with increased odds for MIS-C vs acute COVID-19 included male sex (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.33-1.90), Black/African American race (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.17-1.77), younger than 12 years (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.51-2.18), obesity (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.40-2.22), and not having a pediatric complex chronic condition (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.65-0.80). The children with MIS-C had a more inflammatory laboratory profile and severe clinical phenotype, with higher rates of invasive ventilation (117 of 707 [16.5%] vs 514 of 8241 [6.2%]; P < .001) and need for vasoactive-inotropic support (191 of 707 [27.0%] vs 426 of 8241 [5.2%]; P < .001) compared with those who had acute COVID-19. Comparing children during the Delta vs pre-Delta eras, there was no significant change in hospitalization rate (1738 [6.0%] vs 8507 [6.2%]; P = .18) and lower odds for severe disease (179 [10.3%] vs 1242 [14.6%]) (decreased by a factor of 0.67; 95% CI, 0.57-0.79; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of US children with SARS-CoV-2, there were observed differences in demographic characteristics, preexisting comorbidities, and initial vital sign and laboratory values between severity subgroups. Taken together, these results suggest that early identification of children likely to progress to severe disease could be achieved using readily available data elements from the day of admission. Further work is needed to translate this knowledge into improved outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Age Distribution , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , United States/epidemiology , Vital Signs
10.
APMIS ; 130(2): 101-110, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650387

ABSTRACT

In the milieu of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there are increasing reports of paediatric hyperinflammatory conditions (PHICs), including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), paediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) and Kawasaki disease (KD). Few analyses of PHIC prevalence in paediatric and adolescent hospitalized COVID-19 patients exist. The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to determine a pooled prevalence estimate of PHICs in paediatric and adolescent hospitalized patients admitted for treatment due to COVID-19. Individual studies were retrieved from PubMed/Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. Relevant prevalence, baseline, treatment and outcome data were extracted using a standardized datasheet. The systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted as per the PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. Overall, 14 studies with 2202 patients admitted for treatment due to COVID-19, among whom 780 were diagnosed with PHICs, were included. The crude estimate of prevalence was 35.42%, and the pooled estimate of prevalence was 29% (random pooled ES = 0.29; 95% CIs = 0.18-0.42; p < 0.0001; z = 7.45). A sizeable proportion of paediatric and adolescent hospitalized patients admitted for treatment due to COVID-19 are diagnosed with a PHIC warranting a high index of clinical suspicion for PHICs. Further studies are required to validate these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/virology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology
11.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 44(1): e134-e137, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632085

ABSTRACT

To this day, there are limited data about the effects and management of coronavirus disease infection in pediatric patients with sickle cell disease. We present the management and successful clinical course of an 8-year-old female with homozygous sickle cell disease (SS) and severe acute chest syndrome secondary to coronavirus disease 2019 infection, complicated by cortical vein thrombosis.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Anemia, Sickle Cell/pathology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Child , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
12.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 54(5): 378-383, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625713

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) triggered by a recent SARS-Cov-2 infection has been recognised worldwide. Although predominantly affecting children (MIS-C), similar presentations have been reported among adults (MIS-A). METHOD: A retrospective case series describing four critically ill patients with MIS-C/A diagnosed between January and April 2021 at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. Clinical presentation, laboratory and radiological findings, treatment and outcome are reported. RESULTS: Cases occurred in previously healthy patients with a history of laboratory-confirmed mild SARS-CoV-2 infection four to seven weeks earlier. The median age was 24 years (range 19-43) and 3/4 were male. All fulfilled suggested MIS-C/A criteria according to the US Centre for Disease Control and all required care at an intensive care unit. Treatment was initiated with intravenous immunoglobulin, interleukin-1-receptor antagonists, and pulse steroids in 3/4 cases which resulted in rapid clinical improvement. No severe complications were noticed in any case during a three-month follow-up period. CONCLUSION: MIS-C/A should be considered, irrespective of age, in patients with fever, hyperinflammation and multiple organ system involvements emerging weeks after COVID-19. Previously suggested treatment regimens for MIS-C seem to be applicable also for MIS-A.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Young Adult
13.
World J Pediatr ; 18(2): 83-90, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603411

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a serious health condition that develops from and is linked to coronavirus disease 2019. MIS-C is considered a multi-organ dysfunction involving cardiac, renal, respiratory, hematologic, gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms and groups of signs and symptoms such as rash or bilateral non-purulent conjunctivitis, hypotension or shock and acute gastrointestinal problems, which require immediate therapeutic intervention to prevent the aggravation of the patient's health condition. MIS-C is relatively new in the field of evidence-based medicine; however, there are several clinical guidelines for good clinical practice. For every disorder, the guidelines have different suggestions. Hence, based on the current status of the evidence, recommendations have been combined to form a unified guideline for therapeutic management. METHODS: This paper compares and evaluates the current MIS-C-specific clinical practice guidelines (namely, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Rheumatology, Helen DeVos Children's Hospital Foundation, Children's Hospital of The King's Daughters, and the Infectious Diseases Society of America). The compiled literature was then assessed by the authors separately, and an algorithm was proposed for each disorder, taking into consideration the various guidelines proposed for the management of the disorder. RESULTS: The features of MIS-C patients are unified; this is very helpful in managing its symptoms and decreasing mortality rates. In addition, recommendations for pharmacological treatment for MIS-C symptoms are formulated after cross-comparison across five different guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a general interpretation of the results in the context of other evidence and implications for future research. It proposes a unified guideline based on the current evidence, with the best potential to maintain suitable clinical standards in the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Child , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/therapy , Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology
15.
N Engl J Med ; 385(1): 11-22, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence is urgently needed to support treatment decisions for children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. METHODS: We performed an international observational cohort study of clinical and outcome data regarding suspected MIS-C that had been uploaded by physicians onto a Web-based database. We used inverse-probability weighting and generalized linear models to evaluate intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) as a reference, as compared with IVIG plus glucocorticoids and glucocorticoids alone. There were two primary outcomes: the first was a composite of inotropic support or mechanical ventilation by day 2 or later or death; the second was a reduction in disease severity on an ordinal scale by day 2. Secondary outcomes included treatment escalation and the time until a reduction in organ failure and inflammation. RESULTS: Data were available regarding the course of treatment for 614 children from 32 countries from June 2020 through February 2021; 490 met the World Health Organization criteria for MIS-C. Of the 614 children with suspected MIS-C, 246 received primary treatment with IVIG alone, 208 with IVIG plus glucocorticoids, and 99 with glucocorticoids alone; 22 children received other treatment combinations, including biologic agents, and 39 received no immunomodulatory therapy. Receipt of inotropic or ventilatory support or death occurred in 56 patients who received IVIG plus glucocorticoids (adjusted odds ratio for the comparison with IVIG alone, 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33 to 1.82) and in 17 patients who received glucocorticoids alone (adjusted odds ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.22 to 1.33). The adjusted odds ratios for a reduction in disease severity were similar in the two groups, as compared with IVIG alone (0.90 for IVIG plus glucocorticoids and 0.93 for glucocorticoids alone). The time until a reduction in disease severity was similar in the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that recovery from MIS-C differed after primary treatment with IVIG alone, IVIG plus glucocorticoids, or glucocorticoids alone, although significant differences may emerge as more data accrue. (Funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 Program and others; BATS ISRCTN number, ISRCTN69546370.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Confidence Intervals , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunomodulation , Male , Propensity Score , Regression Analysis , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
16.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 172, 2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a rare hyperinflammatory condition that occurs following SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is a paucity of research describing risk factors, optimal management, and outcomes of this life-threatening condition. METHODS: This is a case series of 26 patients diagnosed with MIS-C in a West Michigan pediatric tertiary care center from April 2020 to February 2021. We describe the clinical, imaging, and laboratory characteristics of these patients and detail their treatments and outcomes with comparisons between Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) and non-PICU patients. Categorical testing utilized Chi-square and Fisher's Exact tests. Comparison between groups used T-tests or Kruskal-Wallis. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (57%) required intensive care. There was no statistically significant difference in demographics between PICU and non-PICU patients, however all Black patients required intensive care. Gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 22 patients (84%). Seventeen patients (65%) had Kawasaki-like features and 12 (46%) developed coronary artery dilation. Patients requiring intensive care were less likely to have a reported history of COVID-19 disease or exposure (p = 0.0362). Statistically significant differences were also noted in peak ferritin (p = 0.0075), procalcitonin, and BNP in those who required intensive care. CONCLUSIONS: Although overlap exists with other hyperinflammatory conditions, our study provides further evidence that MIS-C is a distinct, albeit heterogenous, disorder with various degrees of cardiac involvement. Anakinra, in conjunction with steroid use, appears to be effective and safe in the treatment of MIS-C. This report identifies procalcitonin, peak ferritin, and BNP as potentially useful biomarkers for severity of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
17.
Am J Emerg Med ; 52: 184-186, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568459

ABSTRACT

Return visits (RV) to a pediatric emergency department (PED) can be secondary to illness progression, parental concerns, call backs or rarely due to a diagnostic error during the first visit. Fever accounts for nearly half of these RVs and is also one of the most common presenting complaints of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID- 19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children. Although majority of children with COVID 19 have a mild illness, severe complications such as Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) can occur. These children are often critically ill with a mortality rate of 2-4%. Initial symptoms of MIS- C are non- specific and mimic other viral illness making early diagnosis challenging. We report five patients who were evaluated for fever and discharged from our PED and were subsequently diagnosed with MIS-C (n = 3) or Kawasaki Disease (n = 2) during their RV within 7 days. All patients presented with fever during the initial visit and three of the five children had gastrointestinal symptoms. They were all noted have persistent tachycardia during the index visit. Three patients presented in cardiogenic shock and echocardiographic abnormalities were noted in four patients during the RV. Significant interventions were required in majority of these children (PICU admission: 4, inotropes: 3, mechanical ventilation:2). Clinicians need to maintain a high index of suspicion for diagnosis of MIS-C especially in those who present with persistent fever and have abnormal vital signs during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fever/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Adolescent , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Infant , Male , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Tachycardia/virology , Ventricular Dysfunction/virology
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(22): 7115-7126, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1552078

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is to date a global pandemic that can affect all age groups; gastrointestinal symptoms are quite common in patients with COVID-19 and a new clinical entity defined as Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) has been described in children and adolescents previously affected by COVID-19. Presenting symptoms of this new disease include high fever and severe abdominal pain that can mimic more common causes of abdominal pain; patients can rapidly deteriorate presenting severe cardiac dysfunction and multiorgan failure. Some fatalities due to this serious illness have been reported. We describe the case of a ten-year-old patient presenting with persistent high fever associated with continuous and worsening abdominal pain. Various hypotheses were performed during his diagnostic workup and an initial appendectomy was performed in the suspect of acute appendicitis. As his clinical picture deteriorated, the child was subsequently diagnosed and successfully treated as a case of MIS-C. The objective of this case report and brief review of abdominal pain in children throughout the age groups is to provide the emergency pediatrician with updated suggestions in diagnosing abdominal pain in children during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Pediatric Emergency Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Combined Modality Therapy , Conjunctivitis/etiology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/therapy , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Mucositis/etiology , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Pediatric Emergency Medicine/trends , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Steroids/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
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