Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 45
Filter
1.
N Engl J Med ; 387(6): 495-505, 2022 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031919

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Teclistamab is a T-cell-redirecting bispecific antibody that targets both CD3 expressed on the surface of T cells and B-cell maturation antigen expressed on the surface of myeloma cells. In the phase 1 dose-defining portion of the study, teclistamab showed promising efficacy in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. METHODS: In this phase 1-2 study, we enrolled patients who had relapsed or refractory myeloma after at least three therapy lines, including triple-class exposure to an immunomodulatory drug, a proteasome inhibitor, and an anti-CD38 antibody. Patients received a weekly subcutaneous injection of teclistamab (at a dose of 1.5 mg per kilogram of body weight) after receiving step-up doses of 0.06 mg and 0.3 mg per kilogram. The primary end point was the overall response (partial response or better). RESULTS: Among 165 patients who received teclistamab, 77.6% had triple-class refractory disease (median, five previous therapy lines). With a median follow-up of 14.1 months, the overall response rate was 63.0%, with 65 patients (39.4%) having a complete response or better. A total of 44 patients (26.7%) were found to have no minimal residual disease (MRD); the MRD-negativity rate among the patients with a complete response or better was 46%. The median duration of response was 18.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.9 to not estimable). The median duration of progression-free survival was 11.3 months (95% CI, 8.8 to 17.1). Common adverse events included cytokine release syndrome (in 72.1% of the patients; grade 3, 0.6%; no grade 4), neutropenia (in 70.9%; grade 3 or 4, 64.2%), anemia (in 52.1%; grade 3 or 4, 37.0%), and thrombocytopenia (in 40.0%; grade 3 or 4, 21.2%). Infections were frequent (in 76.4%; grade 3 or 4, 44.8%). Neurotoxic events occurred in 24 patients (14.5%), including immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome in 5 patients (3.0%; all grade 1 or 2). CONCLUSIONS: Teclistamab resulted in a high rate of deep and durable response in patients with triple-class-exposed relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Cytopenias and infections were common; toxic effects that were consistent with T-cell redirection were mostly grade 1 or 2. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; MajesTEC-1 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT03145181 and NCT04557098.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , B-Cell Maturation Antigen , CD3 Complex , Multiple Myeloma , Antibodies, Bispecific/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Bispecific/adverse effects , Antibodies, Bispecific/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , B-Cell Maturation Antigen/antagonists & inhibitors , CD3 Complex/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Multiple Myeloma/immunology , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Recurrence , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(23): 24943-24962, 2021 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622953

ABSTRACT

Ongoing pandemic and potential resurgence of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has prompted urgent efforts to investigate the immunological memory of convalescent patients, especially in patients with active cancers. Here we performed single-cell RNA sequencing in peripheral blood samples of 3 healthy donors (HDs), 4 COVID-19 patients (Covs) and 4 COVID-19 patients with active gynecological tumor (TCs) pre- and post- anti-tumor treatment. All Covs patients had recovered from their acute infection. Interestingly, the molecular features of PBMCs in TCs are similar to that in Covs, suggesting that convalescent COVID-19 with gynecologic tumors do not have major immunological changes and may be protected against reinfection similar to COVID-19 patients without tumors. Moreover, the chemotherapy given to these patients mainly caused neutropenia, while having little effect on the proportion and functional phenotype of T and B cells, and T cell clonal expansion. Notably, anti-PD-L1 treatment massively increased cytotoxic scores of NK cells, and T cells, and facilitated clonal expansion of T cells in these patients. It is likely that T cells could protect patients from SARS-CoV-2 virus reinfection and anti-PD-L1 treatment can enhance the anti-viral activity of the T cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Genital Neoplasms, Female/complications , Genital Neoplasms, Female/therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/drug effects , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/immunology , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
4.
Inflamm Res ; 71(2): 169-182, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615450

ABSTRACT

Ethyl pyruvate (EP) has potent influence on redox processes, cellular metabolism, and inflammation. It has been intensively studied in numerous animal models of systemic and organ-specific disorders whose pathogenesis involves a strong immune component. Here, basic chemical and biological properties of EP are discussed, with an emphasis on its redox and metabolic activity. Further, its influence on myeloid and T cells is considered, as well as on intracellular signaling beyond its effect on immune cells. Also, the effects of EP on animal models of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders are presented. Finally, a possibility to apply EP as a treatment for such diseases in humans is discussed. Scientific papers cited in this review were identified using the PubMed search engine that relies on the MEDLINE database. The reference list covers the most important findings in the field in the past twenty years.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy , Pyruvates/therapeutic use , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Myeloid Cells/drug effects , Pyruvates/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects
6.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542428

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious lung condition characterized by severe hypoxemia leading to limitations of oxygen needed for lung function. In this study, we investigated the effect of anandamide (AEA), an endogenous cannabinoid, on Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)-mediated ARDS in female mice. Single-cell RNA sequencing data showed that the lung epithelial cells from AEA-treated mice showed increased levels of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and tight junction proteins. MiSeq sequencing data on 16S RNA and LEfSe analysis demonstrated that SEB caused significant alterations in the microbiota, with increases in pathogenic bacteria in both the lungs and the gut, while treatment with AEA reversed this effect and induced beneficial bacteria. AEA treatment suppressed inflammation both in the lungs as well as gut-associated mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). AEA triggered several bacterial species that produced increased levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including butyrate. Furthermore, administration of butyrate alone could attenuate SEB-mediated ARDS. Taken together, our data indicate that AEA treatment attenuates SEB-mediated ARDS by suppressing inflammation and preventing dysbiosis, both in the lungs and the gut, through the induction of AMPs, tight junction proteins, and SCFAs that stabilize the gut-lung microbial axis driving immune homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Arachidonic Acids/therapeutic use , Endocannabinoids/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Lung/pathology , Polyunsaturated Alkamides/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/microbiology , Animals , Arachidonic Acids/pharmacology , Butyrates/metabolism , Cecum/pathology , Cell Separation , Colon/drug effects , Colon/pathology , Discriminant Analysis , Dysbiosis/complications , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Endocannabinoids/pharmacology , Enterotoxins , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/drug effects , Lymph Nodes/drug effects , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/microbiology , Polyunsaturated Alkamides/pharmacology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524027

ABSTRACT

Severe outcomes of COVID-19 are associated with pathological response of the immune system to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Emerging evidence suggests that an interaction may exist between COVID-19 pathogenesis and a broad range of xenobiotics, resulting in significant increases in death rates in highly exposed populations. Therefore, a better understanding of the molecular basis of the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 infection and chemical exposures may open opportunities for better preventive and therapeutic interventions. We attempted to gain mechanistic knowledge on the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 infection and chemical exposures using an in silico approach, where we identified genes and molecular pathways affected by both chemical exposures and SARS-CoV-2 in human immune cells (T-cells, B-cells, NK-cells, dendritic, and monocyte cells). Our findings demonstrate for the first time that overlapping molecular mechanisms affected by a broad range of chemical exposures and COVID-19 are linked to IFN type I/II signaling pathways and the process of antigen presentation. Based on our data, we also predict that exposures to various chemical compounds will predominantly impact the population of monocytes during the response against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Xenobiotics/pharmacology , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , B-Lymphocytes/drug effects , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Signal Transduction/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
9.
JCI Insight ; 6(24)2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518198

ABSTRACT

A substantial proportion of patients who have recovered from coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) experience COVID-19-related symptoms even months after hospital discharge. We extensively immunologically characterized patients who recovered from COVID-19. In these patients, T cells were exhausted, with increased PD-1+ T cells, as compared with healthy controls. Plasma levels of IL-1ß, IL-1RA, and IL-8, among others, were also increased in patients who recovered from COVID-19. This altered immunophenotype was mirrored by a reduced ex vivo T cell response to both nonspecific and specific stimulation, revealing a dysfunctional status of T cells, including a poor response to SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Altered levels of plasma soluble PD-L1, as well as of PD1 promoter methylation and PD1-targeting miR-15-5p, in CD8+ T cells were also observed, suggesting abnormal function of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint axis. Notably, ex vivo blockade of PD-1 nearly normalized the aforementioned immunophenotype and restored T cell function, reverting the observed post-COVID-19 immune abnormalities; indeed, we also noted an increased T cell-mediated response to SARS-CoV-2 peptides. Finally, in a neutralization assay, PD-1 blockade did not alter the ability of T cells to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudotyped lentivirus infection. Immune checkpoint blockade ameliorates post-COVID-19 immune abnormalities and stimulates an anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokines/immunology , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/pharmacology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , B7-H1 Antigen/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/drug effects , DNA Methylation , Female , Humans , Immunophenotyping , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/drug effects , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/immunology , Interleukin-1beta/drug effects , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Interleukin-8/drug effects , Interleukin-8/immunology , Male , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Middle Aged , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors , Promoter Regions, Genetic
10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 731974, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485049

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing a worldwide epidemic. It spreads very fast and hits people of all ages, especially patients with underlying diseases such as diabetes. In this review, we focus on the influences of diabetes on the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the involved mechanisms including lung dysfunction, immune disorder, abnormal expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), overactivation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, and increased furin level. On the other hand, SARS-CoV-2 may trigger the development of diabetes. It causes the damage of pancreatic ß cells, which is probably mediated by ACE2 protein in the islets. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 may aggravate insulin resistance through attacking other metabolic organs. Of note, certain anti-diabetic drugs (OADs), such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) activator and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, have been shown to upregulate ACE2 in animal models, which may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, Metformin, as a first-line medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), may be a potential drug benefiting diabetic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, probably via a suppression of mTOR signaling together with its anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis function in lung. Remarkably, another kind of OADs, dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor, may also exert beneficial effects in this respect, probably via a prevention of SARS-CoV-2 binding to cells. Thus, it is of significant to identify appropriate OADs for the treatment of diabetes in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/pharmacology , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
12.
Elife ; 102021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464010

ABSTRACT

While mRNA vaccines are proving highly efficacious against SARS-CoV-2, it is important to determine how booster doses and prior infection influence the immune defense they elicit, and whether they protect against variants. Focusing on the T cell response, we conducted a longitudinal study of infection-naïve and COVID-19 convalescent donors before vaccination and after their first and second vaccine doses, using a high-parameter CyTOF analysis to phenotype their SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells. Vaccine-elicited spike-specific T cells responded similarly to stimulation by spike epitopes from the ancestral, B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variant strains, both in terms of cell numbers and phenotypes. In infection-naïve individuals, the second dose boosted the quantity and altered the phenotypic properties of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells, while in convalescents the second dose changed neither. Spike-specific T cells from convalescent vaccinees differed strikingly from those of infection-naïve vaccinees, with phenotypic features suggesting superior long-term persistence and ability to home to the respiratory tract including the nasopharynx. These results provide reassurance that vaccine-elicited T cells respond robustly to emerging viral variants, confirm that convalescents may not need a second vaccine dose, and suggest that vaccinated convalescents may have more persistent nasopharynx-homing SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells compared to their infection-naïve counterparts.


Vaccination is one of the best ways to prevent severe COVID-19. Two doses of mRNA vaccine protect against serious illness caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. They do this, in part, by encouraging the immune system to make specialised proteins known as antibodies that recognise the virus. Most of the vaccine research so far has focussed on these antibodies, but they are only one part of the immune response. Vaccines also activate immune cells called T cells. These cells have two main roles, coordinating the immune response and killing cells infected with viruses. It is likely that they play a key role in preventing severe COVID-19. There are many kinds of T cells, each with a different role. Currently, the identity and characteristics of the T cells that protect against COVID-19 is unclear. Different types of T cells have unique proteins on their surface. Examining these proteins can reveal details about how the T cells work, which part of the virus they recognise, and which part of the body they protect. A tool called cytometry by time of flight allows researchers to measure these proteins, one cell at a time. Using this technique, Neidleman, Luo et al. investigated T cells from 11 people before vaccination and after their first and second doses. Five people had never had COVID-19 before, and six had already recovered from COVID-19. Neidleman, Luo et al. found that the T cells recognizing SARS-CoV-2 in the two groups differed. In people who had never had COVID-19 before, the second dose of vaccine improved the quality and quantity of the T cells. The same was not true for people who had already recovered from COVID-19. However, although their T cells did not improve further after a second vaccine dose, they did show signs that they might offer more protection overall. The proteins on the cells suggest that they might last longer, and that they might specifically protect the nose, throat and lungs. Neidleman, Luo et al. also found that, for both groups, T cells activated by vaccination responded in the same way to different variants of the virus. This work highlights the importance of getting both vaccine doses for people who have never had COVID-19. It also suggests that vaccination in people who have had COVID-19 may generate better T cells. Larger studies could show whether these patterns remain true across the wider population. If so, it is possible that delivering vaccines to the nose or throat could boost immunity by mimicking natural infection. This might encourage T cells to make the surface proteins that allow them to home to these areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/pharmacology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Young Adult
14.
Bioorg Chem ; 116: 105346, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401246

ABSTRACT

Starting from the antimalarial drugs chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, we conducted a structural optimization on the side chain of chloroquine by introducing amino substituted longer chains thus leading to a series of novel aminochloroquine derivatives. Anti-infectious effects against SARS-Cov2 spike glycoprotein as well as immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activities of the new compounds were evaluated. Distinguished immunosuppressive activities on the responses of T cell, B cell and macrophages upon mitogen and pathogenic signaling were manifested. Compounds 9-11 displayed the most promising inhibitory effects both on cellular proliferation and on the production of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-17, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-1ß and TNF-α, which might be insightful in the pursuit of treatment for immune disorders and inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Amines/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chloroquine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Amines/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/chemical synthesis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Chloroquine/chemical synthesis , Chloroquine/chemistry , Cytokines/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
15.
Sci Adv ; 7(34)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365116

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread worldwide, yet the role of antiviral T cell immunity during infection and the contribution of immune checkpoints remain unclear. By prospectively following a cohort of 292 patients with melanoma, half of which treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), we identified 15 patients with acute or convalescent COVID-19 and investigated their transcriptomic, proteomic, and cellular profiles. We found that ICI treatment was not associated with severe COVID-19 and did not alter the induction of inflammatory and type I interferon responses. In-depth phenotyping demonstrated expansion of CD8 effector memory T cells, enhanced T cell activation, and impaired plasmablast induction in ICI-treated COVID-19 patients. The evaluation of specific adaptive immunity in convalescent patients showed higher spike (S), nucleoprotein (N), and membrane (M) antigen-specific T cell responses and similar induction of spike-specific antibody responses. Our findings provide evidence that ICI during COVID-19 enhanced T cell immunity without exacerbating inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/immunology , Melanoma/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Immunologic Memory/drug effects , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Melanoma/complications , Melanoma/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/virology
16.
Clin Immunol ; 231: 108828, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363931

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is characterized by a dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines ultimately resulting a cytokine storm that can result in significant morbidity and mortality. We developed an in-vitro assay using activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or CD3 + CD28 to examine secretion of cytokines from antigen presenting cells (APCs) and T cells, respectively, in donor patients with a history of COVID-19 (convalescent) and uninfected negative controls. We hypothesized that a novel antioxidant called Tempol may decrease cytokines from activated peripheral blood cells from both COVID-19 patients and normal donors. Preincubation of immune cells with Tempol resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in multiple T cell and APC-derived cytokines from both cells of COVID-19 (n = 7) and uninfected donors (n = 7). These preliminary results suggest that Tempol has strong in-vitro anti-cytokine activity and supports additional studies examining the use of Tempol for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Cyclic N-Oxides/pharmacology , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Antigen-Presenting Cells/metabolism , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/drug effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Spin Labels , T-Lymphocytes/physiology
17.
Adv Mater ; 33(40): e2102528, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358054

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cell (DC) vaccines are used for cancer and infectious diseases, albeit with limited efficacy. Modulating the formation of DC-T-cell synapses may greatly increase their efficacy. The effects of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets on DCs and DC-T-cell synapse formation are evaluated. In particular, size-dependent interactions are observed between GO nanosheets and DCs. GOs with diameters of >1 µm (L-GOs) demonstrate strong adherence to the DC surface, inducing cytoskeletal reorganization via the RhoA-ROCK-MLC pathway, while relatively small GOs (≈500 nm) are predominantly internalized by DCs. Furthermore, L-GO treatment enhances DC-T-cell synapse formation via cytoskeleton-dependent membrane positioning of integrin ICAM-1. L-GO acts as a "nanozipper," facilitating the aggregation of DC-T-cell clusters to produce a stable microenvironment for T cell activation. Importantly, L-GO-adjuvanted DCs promote robust cytotoxic T cell immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 spike 1, leading to >99.7% viral RNA clearance in mice infected with a clinically isolated SARS-CoV-2 strain. These findings highlight the potential value of nanomaterials as DC vaccine adjuvants for modulating DC-T-cell synapse formation and provide a basis for the development of effective COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Graphite/therapeutic use , Nanostructures/therapeutic use , Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemistry , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Graphite/chemistry , Humans , Mice , Nanostructures/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
18.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 110(8): 1142-1149, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303315

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Immunocompromised patients have been excluded from studies of SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNA vaccines. The immune response to vaccines against other infectious agents has been shown to be blunted in such patients. We aimed to analyse the humoral and cellular response to prime-boost vaccination with the BNT162b2 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech) in cardiothoracic transplant recipients. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 50 transplant patients [1-3 years post heart (42), lung (7), or heart-lung (1) transplant, mean age 55 ± 10 years] and a control group of 50 healthy staff members were included. Blood samples were analysed 21 days after the prime and the boosting dose, respectively, to quantify anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) immunoglobulin titres (tested by Abbott, Euroimmun and RocheElecsys Immunoassays, each) and the functional inhibitory capacity of neutralizing antibodies (Genscript). To test for a specific T-cell response, heparinized whole blood was stimulated with SARS-CoV-2 specific peptides, covering domains of the viral spike, nucleocapsid and membrane protein, and the interferon-γ release was measured (QuantiFERON Monitor ELISA, Qiagen). The vast majority of transplant patients (90%) showed neither a detectable humoral nor a T-cell response three weeks after the completed two-dose BNT162b2 vaccination; these results are in sharp contrast to the robust immunogenicity seen in the control group: 98% exhibited seroconversion after the prime dose already, with a further significant increase of IgG titres after the booster dose (average > tenfold increase), a more than 90% inhibition capability of neutralizing antibodies as well as evidence of a T-cell responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of poor immune responses to a two-dose BNT162b2 vaccination in cardiothoracic transplant patients have a significant impact for organ transplant recipients specifically and possibly for immunocompromised patients in general. It urges for a review of future vaccine strategies in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Female , Heart-Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Transplant Recipients , Vaccination , Young Adult
19.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 21(8): 475-484, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294475

ABSTRACT

Most COVID-19 vaccines are designed to elicit immune responses, ideally neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Several vaccines, including mRNA, adenoviral-vectored, protein subunit and whole-cell inactivated virus vaccines, have now reported efficacy in phase III trials and have received emergency approval in many countries. The two mRNA vaccines approved to date show efficacy even after only one dose, when non-NAbs and moderate T helper 1 cell responses are detectable, but almost no NAbs. After a single dose, the adenovirus vaccines elicit polyfunctional antibodies that are capable of mediating virus neutralization and of driving other antibody-dependent effector functions, as well as potent T cell responses. These data suggest that protection may require low levels of NAbs and might involve other immune effector mechanisms including non-NAbs, T cells and innate immune mechanisms. Identifying the mechanisms of protection as well as correlates of protection is crucially important to inform further vaccine development and guide the use of licensed COVID-19 vaccines worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Immunity/drug effects , Immunity/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Treatment Outcome
20.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0251731, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285198

ABSTRACT

Immunotherapy using checkpoint blockade (ICB) with antibodies such as anti-PD-1 has revolutionised the treatment of many cancers. Despite its use to treat COVID-19 patients and autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, the effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on cancer immunotherapy has not been examined. In this study, remarkably, we find that HCQ alone, or in combination with azithromycin (AZ), at doses used to treat patients, decreased the therapeutic benefit of anti-PD-1 in cancer immunotherapy. No deleterious effect was seen on untreated tumors. Mechanistically, HCQ and HCQ/AZ inhibited PD-L1 expression on tumor cells, while specifically targeting the anti-PD-1 induced increase in progenitor CD8+CD44+PD-1+TCF1+ tumor infiltrating T cells (TILs) and the generation of CD8+CD44+PD-1+ effectors. Surprisingly, it also impaired the appearance of a subset of terminally exhausted CD8+ TILs. No effect was seen on the presence of CD4+ T cells, FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), thymic subsets, B cells, antibody production, myeloid cells, or the vasculature of mice. This study indicates for the first time that HCQ and HCQ/AZ negatively impact the ability of anti-PD-1 checkpoint blockade to promote tumor rejection.


Subject(s)
Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/pharmacology , Immunotherapy , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/immunology , Animals , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Drug Antagonism , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/immunology , Melanoma/pathology , Mice , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL