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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(8)2023 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295696

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which is still a health issue worldwide mostly due to a high rate of contagiousness conferred by the high-affinity binding between cell viral receptors, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. Therapies have been developed that rely on the use of antibodies or the induction of their production (vaccination), but despite vaccination being still largely protective, the efficacy of antibody-based therapies wanes with the advent of new viral variants. Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) therapy has shown promise for tumors and has also been proposed for COVID-19 treatment, but as recognition of CARs still relies on antibody-derived sequences, they will still be hampered by the high evasion capacity of the virus. In this manuscript, we show the results from CAR-like constructs with a recognition domain based on the ACE2 viral receptor, whose ability to bind the virus will not wane, as Spike/ACE2 interaction is pivotal for viral entry. Moreover, we have developed a CAR construct based on an affinity-optimized ACE2 and showed that both wild-type and affinity-optimized ACE2 CARs drive activation of a T cell line in response to SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein expressed on a pulmonary cell line. Our work sets the stage for the development of CAR-like constructs against infectious agents that would not be affected by viral escape mutations and could be developed as soon as the receptor is identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Protein Binding , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Carrier Proteins/metabolism
2.
Free Radic Res ; 57(1): 1-13, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271376

ABSTRACT

As T cells transit between blood, lymphoid organs, and peripheral tissues, they experience varied levels of oxygen/hypoxia in inflamed tissues, skin, intestinal lining, and secondary lymphoid organs. Critical illness among COVID-19 patients is also associated with transient hypoxia and attenuation of T cell responses. Hypoxia is the fulcrum of altered metabolism, impaired functions, and cessation of growth of a subset of T cells. However, the restoration of normal T cell functions following transient hypoxia and kinetics of their phenotype-redistribution is not completely understood. Here, we sought to understand kinetics and reversibility of dichotomous T cell responses under sustained and transient hypoxia. We found that a subset of activated T cells accumulated as lymphoblasts under hypoxia. Further, T cells showed the normal expression of activation markers CD25 and CD69 and inflammatory cytokine secretion but a subset exhibited delayed cell proliferation under hypoxia. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cytosol and mitochondria were seen during dichotomous and reversible attenuation of T cell response under hypoxia. Cell cycle analysis revealed maximum levels of cytosolic and mitochondrial ROS in dividing T cells (in S, G2, or M phase). Hypoxic T cells also showed specific attenuation of activation induced memory phenotype conversion without affecting naïve and activated T cells. Hypoxia-related attenuation of T cell proliferation was also found to be reversible in an allogeneic leukocyte specific mixed lymphocyte reaction assay. In summary, our results show that hypoxia induces a reversible delay in proliferation of a subset of T cells which is associated with obliteration of memory phenotype and specific increase in cytosolic/mitochondrial ROS levels in actively dividing subpopulation. Thus, the transient reoxygenation of hypoxic patients may restore normal T cell responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Cell Hypoxia , Hypoxia/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Cell Proliferation , Phenotype
3.
Cell Death Dis ; 14(1): 66, 2023 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221801

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatments are still urgently needed for critically and severely ill patients. Human umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) infusion has therapeutic benefits in COVID-19 patients; however, uncertain therapeutic efficacy has been reported in severe patients. In this study, we selected an appropriate cytokine, IL-18, based on the special cytokine expression profile in severe pneumonia of mice induced by H1N1virus to prime hUC-MSCs in vitro and improve the therapeutic effect of hUC-MSCs in vivo. In vitro, we demonstrated that IL-18-primed hUC-MSCs (IL18-hUCMSC) have higher proliferative ability than non-primed hUC-MSCs (hUCMSCcon). In addition, VCAM-1, MMP-1, TGF-ß1, and some chemokines (CCL2 and CXCL12 cytokines) are more highly expressed in IL18-hUCMSCs. We found that IL18-hUCMSC significantly enhanced the immunosuppressive effect on CD3+ T-cells. In vivo, we demonstrated that IL18-hUCMSC infusion could reduce the body weight loss caused by a viral infection and significantly improve the survival rate. Of note, IL18-hUCMSC can also significantly attenuate certain clinical symptoms, including reduced activity, ruffled fur, hunched backs, and lung injuries. Pathologically, IL18-hUCMSC transplantation significantly enhanced the inhibition of inflammation, viral load, fibrosis, and cell apoptosis in acute lung injuries. Notably, IL18-hUCMSC treatment has a superior inhibitory effect on T-cell exudation and proinflammatory cytokine secretion in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Altogether, IL-18 is a promising cytokine that can prime hUC-MSCs to improve the efficacy of precision therapy against viral-induced pneumonia, such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Pneumonia, Viral , Humans , Mice , Animals , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Umbilical Cord/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Immunosuppression Therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism
4.
Nature ; 609(7928): 801-807, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960390

ABSTRACT

Anorexia and fasting are host adaptations to acute infection, and induce a metabolic switch towards ketogenesis and the production of ketone bodies, including ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB)1-6. However, whether ketogenesis metabolically influences the immune response in pulmonary infections remains unclear. Here we show that the production of BHB is impaired in individuals with SARS-CoV-2-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but not in those with  influenza-induced ARDS. We found that BHB promotes both the survival of and the production of interferon-γ by CD4+ T cells. Applying a metabolic-tracing analysis, we established that BHB provides an alternative carbon source to fuel oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and the production of bioenergetic amino acids and glutathione, which is important for maintaining the redox balance. T cells from patients with SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS were exhausted and skewed towards glycolysis, but could be metabolically reprogrammed by BHB to perform OXPHOS, thereby increasing their functionality. Finally, we show in mice that a ketogenic diet and the delivery of BHB as a ketone ester drink restores CD4+ T cell metabolism and function in severe respiratory infections, ultimately reducing the mortality of mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. Altogether, our data reveal that BHB is an alternative source of carbon that promotes T cell responses in pulmonary viral infections, and highlight impaired ketogenesis as a potential confounding factor in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Energy Metabolism , Ketones , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid/biosynthesis , 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid/metabolism , Amino Acids/biosynthesis , Amino Acids/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Diet, Ketogenic , Esters/metabolism , Glutathione/biosynthesis , Glutathione/metabolism , Glycolysis , Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis , Ketone Bodies/metabolism , Ketones/metabolism , Mice , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Oxidation-Reduction , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/pathology
5.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(26): e2201883, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905774

ABSTRACT

Severe infectious diseases, such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can induce hypercytokinemia and multiple organ failure. In spite of the growing demand for peptide therapeutics against infectious diseases, current small molecule-based strategies still require frequent administration due to limited half-life and enzymatic digestion in blood. To overcome this challenge, a strategy to continuously express multi-level therapeutic peptide drugs on the surface of immune cells, is established. Here, chimeric T cells stably expressing therapeutic peptides are presented for treatment of severe infectious diseases. Using lentiviral system, T cells are engineered to express multi-level therapeutic peptides with matrix metallopeptidases- (MMP-) and tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme- (TACE-) responsive cleavage sites on the surface. The enzymatic cleavage releases γ-carboxyglutamic acid of protein C (PC-Gla) domain and thrombin receptor agonist peptide (TRAP), which activate endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), respectively. These chimeric T cells prevent vascular damage in tissue-engineered blood vessel and suppress hypercytokinemia and lung tissue damages in vivo, demonstrating promise for use of engineered T cells against sepsis and other infectious-related diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, CD/pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Peptides/metabolism , Receptor, PAR-1/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
6.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 87(6): 566-576, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896044

ABSTRACT

Despite numerous data on the absence or weak expression of the main functional receptor of SARS-CoV-2 angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) by T cells, it was recently demonstrated that the new coronavirus can efficiently infect T lymphocytes. Here, we analyze the data on the alternative (ACE2-independent) pathways of cell infection, identified T cell subpopulations that serve as the most plausible targets of SARS-CoV-2, discuss the mechanisms of virus-cell interaction, including both infectious and non-infectious pathways of T lymphocyte regulation, and estimate the role of the virus-dependent damage of T lymphocytes in COVID-19 pathogenesis. Particular attention is paid to regulatory T cells as potential targets of SARS-CoV-2, as well as to the possible involvement of exosomes in the sensitivity of peripheral T cells to the virus.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
7.
Cancer Discov ; 12(4): 892-894, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854525

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Fahrner and colleagues investigated the immune response of patients with cancer and cancer-free individuals to SARS-CoV-2 and found that a propensity toward an IL5-predominant Th2/Tc2 response was predictive of susceptibility to infection. The results of this study also suggest that a cellular response against the Spike 1 protein receptor binding domain (S1-RBD) region of the SARS-CoV-2 proteome contributes to protection and that mutations in this region may drive viral evolution and immune escape. See related article by Fahrner et al., p. 958 (8).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(37)2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768982

ABSTRACT

Adaptive immune recognition is mediated by the binding of peptide-human leukocyte antigen complexes by T cells. Positive selection of T cells in the thymus is a fundamental step in the generation of a responding T cell repertoire: only those T cells survive that recognize human peptides presented on the surface of cortical thymic epithelial cells. We propose that while this step is essential for optimal immune function, the process results in a defective T cell repertoire because it is mediated by self-peptides. To test our hypothesis, we focused on amino acid motifs of peptides in contact with T cell receptors. We found that motifs rarely or not found in the human proteome are unlikely to be recognized by the immune system just like the ones that are not expressed in cortical thymic epithelial cells or not presented on their surface. Peptides carrying such motifs were especially dissimilar to human proteins. Importantly, we present our main findings on two independent T cell activation datasets and directly demonstrate the absence of naïve T cells in the repertoire of healthy individuals. We also show that T cell cross-reactivity is unable to compensate for the absence of positively selected T cells. Additionally, we show that the proposed mechanism could influence the risk for different infectious diseases. In sum, our results suggest a side effect of T cell positive selection, which could explain the nonresponsiveness to many nonself peptides and could improve the understanding of adaptive immune recognition.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Self Tolerance/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Databases, Factual , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Peptides/immunology , Peptides/metabolism , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
9.
Elife ; 112022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761118

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to rage around the world. At the same time, despite strong public health measures and high vaccination rates in some countries, a post-COVID-19 syndrome has emerged which lacks a clear definition, prevalence, or etiology. However, fatigue, dyspnea, brain fog, and lack of smell and/or taste are often characteristic of patients with this syndrome. These are evident more than a month after infection, and are labeled as Post-Acute Sequelae of CoV-2 (PASC) or commonly referred to as long-COVID. Metabolic dysfunction (i.e., obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus) is a predisposing risk factor for severe acute COVID-19, and there is emerging evidence that this factor plus a chronic inflammatory state may predispose to PASC. In this article, we explore the potential pathogenic metabolic mechanisms that could underly both severe acute COVID-19 and PASC, and then consider how these might be targeted for future therapeutic approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Disease Susceptibility , Energy Metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Disease Management , Glucose/metabolism , Glucose Intolerance , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Islets of Langerhans/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/therapy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
10.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 83, 2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740428

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 induced marked lymphopenia in severe patients with COVID-19. However, whether lymphocytes are targets of viral infection is yet to be determined, although SARS-CoV-2 RNA or antigen has been identified in T cells from patients. Here, we confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 viral antigen could be detected in patient peripheral blood cells (PBCs) or postmortem lung T cells, and the infectious virus could also be detected from viral antigen-positive PBCs. We next prove that SARS-CoV-2 infects T lymphocytes, preferably activated CD4 + T cells in vitro. Upon infection, viral RNA, subgenomic RNA, viral protein or viral particle can be detected in the T cells. Furthermore, we show that the infection is spike-ACE2/TMPRSS2-independent through using ACE2 knockdown or receptor blocking experiments. Next, we demonstrate that viral antigen-positive T cells from patient undergone pronounced apoptosis. In vitro infection of T cells induced cell death that is likely in mitochondria ROS-HIF-1a-dependent pathways. Finally, we demonstrated that LFA-1, the protein exclusively expresses in multiple leukocytes, is more likely the entry molecule that mediated SARS-CoV-2 infection in T cells, compared to a list of other known receptors. Collectively, this work confirmed a SARS-CoV-2 infection of T cells, in a spike-ACE2-independent manner, which shed novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2-induced lymphopenia in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Vero Cells
11.
J Infect Dis ; 225(5): 810-819, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722486

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is not completely understood. SARS-CoV-2 infection frequently causes significant immune function consequences including reduced T cell numbers and enhanced T cell exhaustion that contribute to disease severity. The extent to which T cell effects are directly mediated through infection or indirectly result from infection of respiratory-associated cells is unclear. We show that primary human T cells express sufficient levels of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, to mediate viral binding and entry into T cells. We further show that T cells exposed to SARS-CoV-2 particles demonstrate reduced proliferation and apoptosis compared to uninfected controls, indicating that direct interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with T cells may alter T cell growth, activation, and survival. Regulation of T cell activation and/or turnover by SARS-CoV-2 may contribute to impaired T cell function observed in patients with severe disease.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715409

ABSTRACT

We propose a new hypothesis that explains the maintenance and evolution of MHC polymorphism. It is based on two phenomena: the constitution of the repertoire of naive T lymphocytes and the evolution of the pathogen and its impact on the immune memory of T lymphocytes. Concerning the latter, pathogen evolution will have a different impact on reinfection depending on the MHC allomorph. If a mutation occurs in a given region, in the case of MHC allotypes, which do not recognize the peptide in this region, the mutation will have no impact on the memory repertoire. In the case where the MHC allomorph binds to the ancestral peptides and not to the mutated peptide, that individual will have a higher chance of being reinfected. This difference in fitness will lead to a variation of the allele frequency in the next generation. Data from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic already support a significant part of this hypothesis and following up on these data may enable it to be confirmed. This hypothesis could explain why some individuals after vaccination respond less well than others to variants and leads to predict the probability of reinfection after a first infection depending upon the variant and the HLA allomorph.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , HLA Antigens/immunology , Polymorphism, Genetic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Gene Frequency , HLA Antigens/genetics , HLA Antigens/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Mutation/genetics , Mutation/immunology , Pandemics , Peptides/immunology , Peptides/metabolism , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 700705, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686468

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), arose late in 2019, with disease pathology ranging from asymptomatic to severe respiratory distress with multi-organ failure requiring mechanical ventilator support. It has been found that SARS-CoV-2 infection drives intracellular complement activation in lung cells that tracks with disease severity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible remain unclear. To shed light on the potential mechanisms, we examined publicly available RNA-Sequencing data using CIBERSORTx and conducted a Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to address this knowledge gap. In complement to these findings, we used bioinformatics tools to analyze publicly available RNA sequencing data and found that upregulation of complement may be leading to a downregulation of T-cell activity in lungs of severe COVID-19 patients. Thus, targeting treatments aimed at the modulation of classical complement and T-cell activity may help alleviate the proinflammatory effects of COVID-19, reduce lung pathology, and increase the survival of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Complement Activation/genetics , Complement System Proteins/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Lung/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics , Humans , Intracellular Space/genetics , Lung/immunology , Lung/microbiology , Lymphocyte Count , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism
14.
Cell ; 185(5): 896-915.e19, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670278

ABSTRACT

The emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) threaten the effectiveness of current COVID-19 vaccines administered intramuscularly and designed to only target the spike protein. There is a pressing need to develop next-generation vaccine strategies for broader and long-lasting protection. Using adenoviral vectors (Ad) of human and chimpanzee origin, we evaluated Ad-vectored trivalent COVID-19 vaccines expressing spike-1, nucleocapsid, and RdRp antigens in murine models. We show that single-dose intranasal immunization, particularly with chimpanzee Ad-vectored vaccine, is superior to intramuscular immunization in induction of the tripartite protective immunity consisting of local and systemic antibody responses, mucosal tissue-resident memory T cells and mucosal trained innate immunity. We further show that intranasal immunization provides protection against both the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and two VOC, B.1.1.7 and B.1.351. Our findings indicate that respiratory mucosal delivery of Ad-vectored multivalent vaccine represents an effective next-generation COVID-19 vaccine strategy to induce all-around mucosal immunity against current and future VOC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Mucosal , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Genetic Vectors/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neutralization Tests , Nucleocapsid/genetics , Nucleocapsid/immunology , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , Pan troglodytes , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
15.
Nat Immunol ; 23(2): 186-193, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671600

ABSTRACT

The adaptive immune response is a major determinant of the clinical outcome after SARS-CoV-2 infection and underpins vaccine efficacy. T cell responses develop early and correlate with protection but are relatively impaired in severe disease and are associated with intense activation and lymphopenia. A subset of T cells primed against seasonal coronaviruses cross reacts with SARS-CoV-2 and may contribute to clinical protection, particularly in early life. T cell memory encompasses broad recognition of viral proteins, estimated at around 30 epitopes within each individual, and seems to be well sustained so far. This breadth of recognition can limit the impact of individual viral mutations and is likely to underpin protection against severe disease from viral variants, including Omicron. Current COVID-19 vaccines elicit robust T cell responses that likely contribute to remarkable protection against hospitalization or death, and novel or heterologous regimens offer the potential to further enhance cellular responses. T cell immunity plays a central role in the control of SARS-CoV-2 and its importance may have been relatively underestimated thus far.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Lymphocyte Activation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Animals , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cross Reactions , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/virology
16.
Cell Death Differ ; 29(8): 1486-1499, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641945

ABSTRACT

Severe SARS-CoV-2 infections are characterized by lymphopenia, but the mechanisms involved are still elusive. Based on our knowledge of HIV pathophysiology, we hypothesized that SARS-CoV-2 infection-mediated lymphopenia could also be related to T cell apoptosis. By comparing intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU COVID-19 patients with age-matched healthy donors, we found a strong positive correlation between plasma levels of soluble FasL (sFasL) and T cell surface expression of Fas/CD95 with the propensity of T cells to die and CD4 T cell counts. Plasma levels of sFasL and T cell death are correlated with CXCL10 which is part of the signature of 4 biomarkers of disease severity (ROC, 0.98). We also found that members of the Bcl-2 family had modulated in the T cells of COVID-19 patients. More importantly, we demonstrated that the pan-caspase inhibitor, Q-VD, prevents T cell death by apoptosis and enhances Th1 transcripts. Altogether, our results are compatible with a model in which T-cell apoptosis accounts for T lymphopenia in individuals with severe COVID-19. Therefore, a strategy aimed at blocking caspase activation could be beneficial for preventing immunodeficiency in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphopenia , Apoptosis , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Caspases/metabolism , Fas Ligand Protein , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , fas Receptor/metabolism
17.
Nat Immunol ; 23(2): 210-216, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625648

ABSTRACT

A proportion of patients surviving acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection develop post-acute COVID syndrome (long COVID (LC)) lasting longer than 12 weeks. Here, we studied individuals with LC compared to age- and gender-matched recovered individuals without LC, unexposed donors and individuals infected with other coronaviruses. Patients with LC had highly activated innate immune cells, lacked naive T and B cells and showed elevated expression of type I IFN (IFN-ß) and type III IFN (IFN-λ1) that remained persistently high at 8 months after infection. Using a log-linear classification model, we defined an optimal set of analytes that had the strongest association with LC among the 28 analytes measured. Combinations of the inflammatory mediators IFN-ß, PTX3, IFN-γ, IFN-λ2/3 and IL-6 associated with LC with 78.5-81.6% accuracy. This work defines immunological parameters associated with LC and suggests future opportunities for prevention and treatment.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/virology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/blood , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Time Factors , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
18.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 153, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616980

ABSTRACT

Anti-viral immunity continuously declines over time after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we characterize the dynamics of anti-viral immunity during long-term follow-up and after BNT162b2 mRNA-vaccination in convalescents after asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection. Virus-specific and virus-neutralizing antibody titers rapidly declined in convalescents over 9 months after infection, whereas virus-specific cytokine-producing polyfunctional T cells persisted, among which IL-2-producing T cells correlated with virus-neutralizing antibody titers. Among convalescents, 5% of individuals failed to mount long-lasting immunity after infection and showed a delayed response to vaccination compared to 1% of naïve vaccinees, but successfully responded to prime/boost vaccination. During the follow-up period, 8% of convalescents showed a selective increase in virus-neutralizing antibody titers without accompanying increased frequencies of circulating SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells. The same convalescents, however, responded to vaccination with simultaneous increase in antibody and T cell immunity revealing the strength of mRNA-vaccination to increase virus-specific immunity in convalescents.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , Nucleocapsid/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Flow Cytometry/methods , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Interleukin-2/immunology , Interleukin-2/metabolism , Kinetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Time Factors , Vaccination/methods
19.
Cells ; 11(1)2021 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580992

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. T cells play an essential role in the body's fighting against the virus invasion, and the T cell receptor (TCR) is crucial in T cell-mediated virus recognition and clearance. However, little has been known about the features of T cell response in convalescent COVID-19 patients. In this study, using 5'RACE technology and PacBio sequencing, we analyzed the TCR repertoire of COVID-19 patients after recovery for 2 weeks and 6 months compared with the healthy donors. The TCR clustering and CDR3 annotation were exploited to discover groups of patient-specific TCR clonotypes with potential SARS-CoV-2 antigen specificities. We first identified CD4+ and CD8+ T cell clones with certain clonal expansion after infection, and then observed the preferential recombination usage of V(D) J gene segments in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of COVID-19 patients with different convalescent stages. More important, the TRBV6-5-TRBD2-TRBJ2-7 combination with high frequency was shared between CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells of different COVID-19 patients. Finally, we found the dominant characteristic motifs of the CDR3 sequence between recovered COVID-19 and healthy control. Our study provides novel insights on TCR in COVID-19 with different convalescent phases, contributing to our understanding of the immune response induced by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Immunity/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Aged , Amino Acid Sequence , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Complementarity Determining Regions/genetics , Complementarity Determining Regions/immunology , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/virology
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 287: 114965, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587284

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Coronavirus and influenza virus infection seriously threaten human health. Cangma Huadu Granules (CMHD) is an in-hospital preparation composed of eight traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), which has been clinically used against COVID-19 in China and may be a promising candidate for the treatment of influenza. However, the role of its treatment urgently needs to be studied. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of CMHD on pneumonia induced by coronavirus (HCoV-229E) and influenza A virus (H1N1/FM1) in mice and explore its mechanism of anti-infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were infected with HCoV-229E or H1N1/FM1 virus through the nasal cavity. CMHD (12.1, 6.05 and 3.03 g/kg/d) or the positive control drugs were administered intragastrically. The lung index and histopathological changes were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of CMHD. The expression of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-4 in Serum and the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood were detected to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and immune regulation effects of CMHD, respectively. Furthermore, the levels of p-NF-κBp65/ NF-κB p65, which was the key targets of the NF-κB pathway was analyzed. RESULTS: In HCoV-229E-induced pneumonia, the lung index was markedly reduced, and lung pathology was improved in mice that treated with CMHD (12.1, 6.05 g/kg/d). Meanwhile, the expression of TNF-α, IL-6 were obviously inhibited, but the expression of IL-4 was significantly increased in CMHD groups. Compared with the model group, CMHD could also markedly upregulate the level of CD4+ and CD8+. Furthermore, CMHD has a markedly effect on inhibit the expression of p-NF-κB p65/NF-κB p65 in the lung. In H1N1-induced pneumonia, the lung index of mice in the CMHD (12.1 g/kg/d) treatment group was lower than that in the model group, and less inflammatory infiltration could be seen in the lung pathological. Moreover, CMHD could also obviously decrease the expression of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, but significantly increase the expression of IL-4. Except for that, CMHD could also markedly downregulate the level of CD4+ and upregulate the level of CD8+ compared with the model group. In addition, CMHD has a markedly effect on inhibit the expression of p-NF-κB p65/NF-κB p65 in the lung. CONCLUSION: CMHD can significantly combats viral infections caused by HCoV-229E and H1N1, and the mechanism may be related to its multiple functions of anti-inflammatory, immunity regulating and inhibiting NF-κB signal transduction pathway.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Female , Immunity/drug effects , Male , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred ICR , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Transcription Factor RelA/metabolism
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