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2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6053, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784024

ABSTRACT

Facing the emerging COVID viral variants and the uneven distribution of vaccine worldwide, imported pre-symptomatic COVID-19 cases play a pivotal role in border control strategies. A stochastic disease process and computer simulation experiments with Bayesian underpinning was therefore developed to model pre-symptomatic disease progression during incubation period on which we were based to provide precision strategies for containing the resultant epidemic caused by imported COVID-19 cases. We then applied the proposed model to data on 1051 imported COVID-19 cases among inbound passengers to Taiwan between March 2020 and April 2021. The overall daily rate (per 100,000) of pre-symptomatic COVID-19 cases was estimated as 106 (95% credible interval (CrI): 95-117) in March-June 2020, fell to 37 (95% CrI: 28-47) in July-September 2020 (p < 0.0001), resurged to 141 (95% CrI: 118-164) in October-December 2020 (p < 0.0001), and declined to 90 (95% CrI: 73-108) in January-April 2021 (p = 0.0004). Given the median dwelling time, over 82% cases would progress from pre-symptomatic to symptomatic phase in 5-day quarantine. The time required for quarantine given two real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests depends on the risk of departing countries, testing and quarantine strategies, and whether the passengers have vaccine jabs. Our proposed four-compartment stochastic process and computer simulation experiments design underpinning Bayesian MCMC algorithm facilitated the development of precision strategies for imported COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Computer Simulation , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan/epidemiology
3.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 69(2): 7-12, 2022 Apr.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786248

ABSTRACT

The electronic whiteboard system is an important part of smart medical care. This system has been digitized and upgraded gradually over time, and now functions as a dashboard, incorporating sound effects, touch control, image display, face recognition, and other functions that maximize usage efficiency. In hospitals, electronic whiteboards are specialized for dedicated use in one of two areas: nursing stations and wards. Those used in nursing stations may upload data into the medical information system based on departmental and institutional requirements. Systems are built to the specific needs of different clinical departments and thus differ widely in terms of settings and functionality. Therefore, hospitals should promote regular communication among doctors, nurses, and patients.


Subject(s)
Hospitals , Physicians , Communication , Electronics , Humans , Taiwan
4.
J Emerg Manag ; 20(7): 57-69, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786201

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, some nonprofit organizations (NPOs) have been struggling to maintain their operations, while others are able to coordinate with partners to provide programs and services locally and globally. This study explores how NPOs are able to survive and actively engage in local and global COVID-19 responses by investigating the organizational capacities of the Tzu Chi Foundation, a Taiwan-based international NPO. This study employs interview data and secondary data from a variety of sources to answer the research questions. Through this case study, we find that Tzu Chi Foundation's capacity to coordinate local and global COVID-19 issues quickly, broadly, and effectively can be attributed to three main factors: (1) clear mission and charismatic leadership, (2) rich experience of disaster relief and recovery strategies, and (3) committed and active volunteers. Moreover, we find that financial management capacity and adaptive capacity are two crucial kinds of capacity for enabling the Tzu Chi Foundation to survive and continuously engage in emergency responses during the pandemic. We conclude with implications for future nonprofit capacity and emergency management research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Organizations, Nonprofit , Pandemics , Taiwan
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776214

ABSTRACT

Severe pneumonia with novel pathogens, also called COVID-19, caused a pandemic in Taiwan as well as in the rest of the world in May 2021. Nurses are under great stress when caring for critically ill patients with COVID-19. This study aimed to explore the perceived stress and coping behaviors of nurses caring for critically ill patients with COVID-19 using a mixed-methods approach. We recruited 85 nurses from a special intensive care unit (ICU) of a medical center in Taiwan between May and June 2021. To gather data, we used a questionnaire on basic characteristics, the perceived stress scale (PSS-14), and the brief coping orientation to problems experienced inventory (B-COPE), then conducted a qualitative interview. The results showed that the average perceived stress level among nurses was 25.4 points, and most of them perceived moderate stress. The top three coping behaviors practiced by the nurses were active coping, planning, and acceptance. Nurses who received less perceived support from their friends or families and who had shorter working experience in nursing had significantly higher stress levels. The qualitative results revealed that the nurses' perceived stress came from fear, worry, and the increased burden caused by caring for critical patients with COVID-19. Coping behaviors included rest, seeking support, and affirmative fighting. Based on these findings, it is suggested that the support nurses receive from their families is an important predictor of perceived stress. Therefore, it is suggested that nurses be provided with more support in dealing with stress caused by caring for critical patients with COVID-19 in special ICUs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Humans , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Taiwan/epidemiology
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 849547, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776064

ABSTRACT

Fatal vehicle crashes (FVCs) are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Professional drivers often drive under dangerous conditions; however, knowledge of the risk factors for FVCs among professional drivers remain scant. We investigated whether professional drivers have a higher risk of FVCs than non-professional drivers and sought to clarify potential risk factors for FVCs among professional drivers. We analyzed nationwide incidence rates of FVCs as preliminary data. Furthermore, by using these data, we created a 1:4 professionals/non-professionals preliminary study to compare with the risk factors between professional and non-professional drivers. In Taiwan, the average crude incidence rate of FVCs for 2003-2016 among professional drivers was 1.09 per 1,000 person-years; professional drivers had a higher percentage of FVCs than non-professional drivers among all motor vehicle crashes. In the 14-year preliminary study with frequency-matched non-professional drivers, the risk of FVCs among professional drivers was significantly associated with a previous history of involvement in motor vehicle crashes (adjustment odds ratio [OR] = 2.157; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.896-2.453), previous history of benzodiazepine use (adjustment OR = 1.385; 95% CI, 1.215-1.579), and speeding (adjustment OR = 1.009; 95% CI, 1.006-1.013). The findings have value to policymakers seeking to curtail FVCs.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Automobile Driving , Accidents, Traffic/mortality , Humans , Incidence , Occupations , Taiwan/epidemiology
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 838661, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776044

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new diabetes distress scale suitable for Chinese and Taiwanese culture. Methods: This study collected the current diabetes distress measurement tools, re-organized current definitions about the domains of diabetes distress, and then developed a new tool. Three hundred and ninety-five participants from four hospitals in northern Taiwan were recruited by cluster randomized sampling for validity test. Results: We found the new diabetes distress scale had appropriate reliability and validity, including an acceptable model fit for the 12-item scale. Conclusions: This new diabetes distress scale might be more directly related to emotional distress issues blood glucose control, improve the clinical conspicuity of diabetes distress, and even benefit the overall care of diabetic patients in Taiwan. Further studies about the validity and reliability of this new tool in a nationwide setting are needed.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Cultural Competency , Humans , Psychological Distress , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Taiwan
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 778736, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775985

ABSTRACT

A key component of integrated vector management strategies is the efficient implementation of mosquito traps for surveillance and control. Numerous trap types have been created with distinct designs and capture mechanisms, but identification of the most effective trap type is critical for effective implementation. For dengue vector surveillance, previous studies have demonstrated that active traps utilizing CO2 attractant are more effective than passive traps for capturing Aedes mosquitoes. However, maintaining CO2 supply in traps is so labor intensive as to be likely unfeasible in crowded residential areas, and it is unclear how much more effective active traps lacking attractants are than purely passive traps. In this study, we analyzed Aedes capture data collected in 2019 from six urban areas in Kaohsiung City to compare Aedes mosquito catch rates between (passive) gravitraps and (active) fan-traps. The average gravitrap index (GI) and fan-trap index (FI) values were 0.68 and 3.39 respectively at peak catch times from June to August 2019, with consistently higher FI values calculated in all areas studied. We compared trap indices to reported cases of dengue fever and correlated them with weekly fluctuations in temperature and rainfall. We found that FI trends aligned more closely with case numbers and rainfall than GI values, supporting the use of fan-traps for Aedes mosquito surveillance and control as part of broader vector management strategies. Furthermore, combining fan-trap catch data with rapid testing for dengue infections may improve the early identification and prevention of future disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Mosquito Control , Animals , Mosquito Vectors , Taiwan
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 726924, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775963

ABSTRACT

Background: Taiwan faced a surge of COVID-19 infections in May 2021. Because new cases were quickly increasing, parents called for school closures. A national parent group used an online survey to collect opinions about upcoming school closings planned by the Ministry of Education. This study evaluated the results of the survey for all respondents and investigated the level of viral transmission following school closures among students in Taiwan. Methods: An online survey titled "Survey of Opinions of School Closures during the Current COVID-19 Outbreak" (SOSC-COVID-19) was designed by the national parent association and then distributed to members of the community throughout Taiwan via local parent groups from May 17 to 18, 2021. The survey included an open-ended respondents' opinions about school closures. Differences among regions and socioeconomic scores (SES) were analyzed with chi-square tests. Results: A total of 8,703 completed survey forms data were analyzed. Nearly all respondents (7,973, 91.6%) approved of school closures; there were no differences of opinions inside and outside municipalities or by regional SES scores. Only 8.4% of respondents were opposed to any type of school closure, believing parents should decide whether their child attended school, which also did not vary with region or SES score. Qualitative feedback from parent and teacher responders indicated students' health and economic impacts were additional concerns that influenced their choice of whether the government or parents should decide about school closures. On the afternoon of May 18, 2021, the government of Taiwan closed all schools. Although a spike in new cases of COVID-19 occurred among students 10 days after school closures, over the next 40 days new cases declined, falling to zero by July 5th. Conclusions: Despite the inability of nationwide school closures to completely halt transmission of the virus within families during the COVID-19 outbreak, school closures helped to impede transmission between students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Schools , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taiwan/epidemiology
10.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 69(2): 89-96, 2022 Apr.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761100

ABSTRACT

Societal ageing, the rising prevalence of chronic diseases, and the COVID-19 pandemic have changed the global healthcare environment dramatically. These challenges have significantly burdened community medical and healthcare systems and complicated the work of public health nursing. As an important care provider on the frontlines of primary care, public health nurses (PHNs) must keep up with the current state of the medical environment and statistical data interpretation, scientific data translation, community resource sharing, and telehealth applications. These demands have greatly impacted the traditional routines and existing professional core competencies of PHNs. Discussions among 12 Taiwanese public healthcare experts and the definition of public health nursing capacity from World Health Organization were considered in this review. In addition to reflecting on social changes and the professional development of public health nursing, eight prospective recommendations were provided in this review to enhance the professional competence of PHNs and better prepare them for future changes in the health environment and primary healthcare. The suggestions provide a reference for updating the position statement of PHNs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses, Public Health , Humans , Pandemics , Professional Competence , Prospective Studies , Taiwan
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(2): e0010134, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV) infection may be associated with increased risks of major adverse cardiovascular effect (MACE), but a large-scale study evaluating the association between DENV infection and MACEs is still lacking. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All laboratory confirmed dengue cases in Taiwan during 2009 and 2015 were included by CDC notifiable database. The self-controlled case-series design was used to evaluate the association between DENV infection and MACE (including acute myocardial infarction [AMI], heart failure and stroke). The "risk interval" was defined as the first 7 days after the diagnosis of DENV infection and the "control interval" as 1 year before and 1 year after the risk interval. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for MACE were estimated by conditional Poisson regression. Finally, the primary outcome of the incidence of MACEs within one year of dengue was observed in 1,247 patients. The IRR of MACEs was 17.9 (95% CI 15.80-20.37) during the first week after the onset of DENV infection observed from 1,244 eligible patients. IRR were significantly higher for hemorrhagic stroke (10.9, 95% CI 6.80-17.49), ischemic stroke (15.56, 95% CI 12.44-19.47), AMI (13.53, 95% CI 10.13-18.06), and heart failure (27.24, 95% CI 22.67-32.73). No increased IRR was observed after day 14. CONCLUSIONS: The risks for MACEs are significantly higher in the immediate time period after dengue infection. Since dengue infection is potentially preventable by early recognition and vaccination, the dengue-associated MACE should be taken into consideration when making public health management policies.


Subject(s)
Dengue/complications , Heart Failure/complications , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Stroke/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue Virus , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Stroke/epidemiology , Taiwan/epidemiology
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 271, 2022 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745483

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 outbreak in Taiwan between May 11 and June 20, 2021, the observed fatality rate (FR) was 5.3%, higher than the global average at 2.1%. The high number of reported deaths suggests that many patients were not treated promptly or effectively. However, many unexplained deaths were subsequently identified as cases, indicating a few undetected cases, resulting in a higher estimate of FR. Whether the true FR is exceedingly high and what factors determine the detection of cases remain unknown. Estimating the true number of total infected cases (i.e. including undetected cases) can allow an accurate estimation of FR and effective reproduction number ([Formula: see text]). METHODS: We aimed at quantifying the time-varying FR and [Formula: see text] using the estimated true numbers of cases; and, exploring the relationship between the true case number and test and trace data. After adjusting for reporting delays, we developed a model to estimate the number of undetected cases using reported deaths that were and were not previously detected. The daily FR and [Formula: see text] were calculated using the true number of cases. Afterwards, a logistic regression model was used to assess the impact of daily testing and tracing data on the detection ratio of deaths. RESULTS: The estimated true daily case number at the peak of the outbreak on May 22 was 897, which was 24.3% higher than the reported number, but the difference became less than 4% on June 9 and afterwards. After taking account of undetected cases, our estimated mean FR (4.7%) was still high but the daily rate showed a large decrease from 6.5% on May 19 to 2.8% on June 6. [Formula: see text] reached a maximum value of 6.4 on May 11, compared to 6.0 estimated using the reported case number. The decreasing proportion of undetected cases was found to be associated with the increases in the ratio of the number of tests conducted to reported cases, and the proportion of cases that are contact traced before symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing testing capacity and contact tracing coverage without delays not only improve parameter estimation by reducing hidden cases but may also reduce fatality rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Taiwan/epidemiology
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742439

ABSTRACT

Taiwan has been a world leader in controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recently, the Taiwan Government launched its COVID-19 tracing app, 'Taiwan Social Distancing App'; however, the effectiveness of this tracing app depends on its acceptance and uptake among the general population. We measured the acceptance of three hypothetical tracing technologies (telecommunication network tracing, a government app, and the Apple and Google Bluetooth exposure notification system) in four nationally representative Taiwanese samples. Using Bayesian methods, we found a high acceptance of all three tracking technologies, with acceptance increasing with the inclusion of additional privacy measures. Modeling revealed that acceptance increased with the perceived technology benefits, trust in the providers' intent, data security and privacy measures, the level of ongoing control, and one's level of education. Acceptance decreased with data sensitivity perceptions and a perceived low policy compliance by others among the general public. We consider the policy implications of these results for Taiwan during the COVID-19 pandemic and in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan/epidemiology , Technology
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736906

ABSTRACT

In the tourism and hospitality industry, ensuring the well-being of visitors is essential to achieving a competitive tourist destination. This objective is even more pressing in the gastronomy sector. Surprisingly, the scientific literature on this topic is scarce and relies on questionnaire surveys and interviews as a data source. After scrutinizing the 13 articles on gastronomy tourism and well-being indexed in the Web of Science or in Scopus, this study proposes two new lines of research interrelated by the concept of gastronomic image. These exploit the content shared online by consumers in order to assess subjective well-being derived from quality gastronomic experiences. The first is a framework for the customer-perceived image based on Grönroos's service quality model, and the second is a conceptual model based on Morris's semiotics to measure gastronomic image. Through mixed methodologies, i.e., qualitative in the first research line and quantitative in the second, the study applies the theoretical framework to Michelin-starred restaurants in two tourist regions with similar features but with different gastronomic cultures-Taiwan (Asia) and Catalonia (Europe)-using as a data source all the online travel reviews (OTRs) written in English about these restaurants shared on the TripAdvisor portal. Comparing the three categories of restaurants in both regions, the results show branding and marketing problems and significant differences in the popularity of restaurants and the satisfaction and well-being of diners. There is a positive relationship between the category of restaurants according to the number of Michelin stars and their popularity according to the number of OTRs, as well as with the satisfaction and well-being of diners, except for a 3-star restaurant that is the worst-rated. These outcomes from the demand side can be useful to stakeholders to design or improve gastronomic products and services.


Subject(s)
Restaurants , Tourism , Spain , Taiwan , Travel
16.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0263688, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 surge in Taiwan, the Far East Memorial Hospital established a system including a centralized quarantine unit and triage admission protocol to facilitate acute care surgical inpatient services, prevent nosocomial COVID-19 infection and maintain the efficiency and quality of health care service during the pandemics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients undergoing acute care surgery. The triage admission protocol was based on rapid antigen tests, Liat® PCR and RT-PCT tests. Type of surgical procedure, patient characteristics, and efficacy indices of the centralized quarantine unit and emergency department (ED) were collected and analyzed before (Phase I: May 11 to July 2, 2021) and after (Phase II: July 3 to July 31, 2021) the system started. RESULTS: A total of 287 patients (105 in Phase I and 182 in Phase II) were enrolled. Nosocomial COVID-19 infection occur in 27 patients in phase I but zero in phase II. More patients received traumatological, orthopedic, and neurologic surgeries in phase II than in phase I. The patients' surgical risk classification, median total hospital stay, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, intraoperative blood loss, operation time, and the number of patients requiring postoperative ICU care were similar in both groups. The duration of ED stay and waiting time for acute care surgery were longer in Phase II (397 vs. 532 minutes, p < 0.0001). The duration of ED stay was positively correlated with the number of surgical patients visiting the ED (median = 66 patients, Spearman's ρ = 0.207) and the occupancy ratio in the centralized quarantine unit on that day (median = 90.63%, Spearman's ρ = 0.191). CONCLUSIONS: The triage admission protocol provided resilient quarantine needs and sustainable acute care surgical services during the COVID-19 pandemic. The efficiency was related to the number of medical staff dedicated to the centralized quarantine unit and number of surgical patients visited in ED.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/methods , Triage/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Admission/standards , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Taiwan/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Time-to-Treatment , Young Adult
17.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264976, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731603

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on ophthalmic outpatient numbers and ophthalmic diagnosis distribution in a community hospital (Taipei City Hospital Zhongxiao Branch) in Taiwan. The COVID-19 pandemic period in Taiwan was defined as May 1 to July 31, 2021. Demographic data, including age, gender, and top 10 diagnoses from ophthalmic outpatients during this period, were collected. A corresponding control group from the same time in 2020 was also collected. The distribution of different diagnoses was analyzed, and the data of 10 most prominent diagnoses with decreased percentage of case numbers during the COVID-19 pandemic period were obtained. The number of cases during the COVID-19 pandemic decreased by 46.9% compared to the control group. The top three most common diagnoses were dry eye syndrome, glaucoma, and macular diseases. The 10 most prominent diagnoses with decreased number of cases during the COVID-19 pandemic were cataract, refraction & accommodation, macular degeneration, conjunctivitis, retinal detachment, vitreous body disorders, ophthalmic complications of diabetes mellitus, glaucoma, dry eye, and retinal vein occlusion. Identifying and treating these patients as scheduled may yield the highest cost-benefit effect in preventing visual loss during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Cataract/diagnosis , Cataract/epidemiology , Dry Eye Syndromes/diagnosis , Dry Eye Syndromes/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/diagnosis , Female , Hospitals, Community , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Taiwan/epidemiology
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(12)2020 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725660

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted many aspects of people's lives all over the world. This Facebook survey study aimed to investigate the COVID-19-related factors that were associated with sleep disturbance and suicidal thoughts among members of the public during the COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan. The online survey recruited 1970 participants through a Facebook advertisement. Their self-reported experience of sleep disturbance and suicidal thoughts in the previous week were collected along with a number of COVID-19-related factors, including level of worry, change in social interaction and daily lives, any academic/occupational interference, levels of social and specific support, and self-reported physical health. In total, 55.8% of the participants reported sleep disturbance, and 10.8% reported having suicidal thoughts in the previous week. Multiple COVID-19-related factors were associated with sleep disturbance and suicidal thoughts in the COVID-19 pandemic. Increased worry about COVID-19, more severe impact of COVID-19 on social interaction, lower perceived social support, more severe academic/occupational interference due to COVID-19, lower COVID-19-specified support, and poorer self-reported physical health were significantly associated with sleep disturbance. Less handwashing, lower perceived social support, lower COVID-19-specified support, poorer self-reported physical health, and younger age were significantly associated with suicidal thoughts. Further investigation is needed to understand the changes in mental health among the public since the mitigation of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation , Adult , Anxiety , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Social Media , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taiwan/epidemiology
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(9)2020 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725605

ABSTRACT

In the early stages of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, containment of disease importation from epidemic areas was essential for outbreak control. This study is based on publicly accessible data on confirmed COVID-19 cases in Taiwan extracted from the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control website. We analysed the characteristics, infection source, symptom presentation, and route of identification of the 321 imported cases that were identified from 21 January to 6 April 2020. They were mostly returned Taiwanese citizens who had travelled to one or more of 37 countries for tourism, business, work, or study. Half of these cases developed symptoms before arrival, most of the remainder developed symptoms 1-13 days (mean 4.0 days) after arrival, and 3.4% never developed symptoms. Three-quarters of the cases had respiratory symptoms, 44.9% had fever, 13.1% lost smell or taste, and 7.2% had diarrhoea. Body temperature and symptom screening at airports identified 32.7% of the cases. Of the remainder, 27.7% were identified during home quarantining, 16.2% were identified via contact tracing, and 23.4% were reported by hospitals. Under the strict enforcement of these measures, the incidence of locally acquired COVID-19 cases in Taiwan remains sporadic. In conclusion, proactive border control measures are effective for preventing community transmission of this disease.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Fever of Unknown Origin/diagnosis , Mass Screening/methods , Pneumonia, Viral , Travel , Airports , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Population Surveillance , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Sentinel Surveillance , Social Isolation , Taiwan/epidemiology , Travel Medicine
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