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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(1)2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638046

ABSTRACT

We present an unusual case of takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) following administration of the second dose of the DNA ChadOX1 nCOV-19 (AZD122) vaccination. This woman in her early 50s presented to the emergency department 8 days following her vaccine with central chest pain. Initial investigations revealed a raised troponin and evolving T wave inversion on ECG. Acute coronary syndrome management was commenced. Further investigations revealed non-obstructive coronary arteries on coronary angiography and imaging revealed hypokinesia of the anterior and anterior-septal walls in the apex and midcavity level, myocardial oedema and no infarction, all in keeping with TTC. Given the large-scale roll out of vaccinations during the COVID-19 pandemic better understanding of potential adverse events is essential. This is the first case report of TTC following a second dose of the DNA ChadOX1 nCOV-19 (AZD122) vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9959, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225515

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic impacting nearly 170 countries/regions and millions of patients worldwide. Patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) still need to be treated at percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) centers with relevant safety measures. This retrospective study was conducted to assess the therapeutic outcomes of PCI performed under the safety measures and normal conditions. AMI patients undergoing PCI between January 24 to April 30, 2020 were performed under safety measures for COVID-19. Patients received pulmonary computed tomography (CT) and underwent PCI in negative pressure ICU. Cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) staff and physicians worked with level III personal protection. Demographic and clinical data, such as door-to-balloon (DTB) time, operation time, complications for patients in this period (COVID-19 group) and the same period in 2019 (2019 group) were retrieved and analyzed. COVID-19 and 2019 groups had 37 and 96 patients, respectively. There was no significant difference in age, gender, BMI and comorbidity between the two groups. DTB time and operation time were similar between the two groups (60.0 ± 12.39 vs 58.83 ± 12.85 min, p = 0.636; 61.46 ± 9.91 vs 62.55 ± 10.72 min, p = 0.592). Hospital stay time in COVID-19 group was significantly shorter (6.78 ± 2.14 vs 8.85 ± 2.64 days, p < 0.001). The incidences of malignant arrhythmia and Takotsubo Syndrome in COVID-19 group were higher than 2019 group significantly (16.22% vs 5.21%, p = 0.039; 10.81% vs 1.04% p = 0.008). During hospitalization and 3-month follow-up, the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events and mortality in the two groups were statistically similar (35.13% vs 14.58%, p = 0.094; 16.22% vs 8.33%, p = 0.184). The risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) was associated with cardiogenic shock (OR, 11.53; 95% CI, 2.888-46.036; p = 0.001), malignant arrhythmias (OR, 7.176; 95% CI, 1.893-27.203; p = 0.004) and advanced age (≥ 75 years) (OR, 6.718; 95% CI, 1.738-25.964; p = 0.006). Cardiogenic shock (OR, 17.663; 95% CI, 5.5-56.762; p < 0.001) and malignant arrhythmias (OR, 4.659; 95% CI, 1.481-14.653; p = 0.008) were also associated with death of 3 months. Our analysis showed that safety measures undertaken in this hospital, including screening of COVID-19 infection and use of personal protection equipment for conducting PCI did not compromise the surgical outcome as compared with PCI under normal condition, although there were slight increases in incidence of malignant arrhythmia and Takotsubo Syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Treatment Outcome , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Shock, Cardiogenic/epidemiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/epidemiology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology
9.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 18, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175699

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic of SARS-COV 2 infection (Covid-19) is challenging health systems and communities worldwide. At the individual level, the main biological system involved in Covid-19 is the respiratory system. Respiratory complications range from mild flu-like illness symptoms to a fatal respiratory distress syndrome or a severe and fulminant pneumonia. Critically, the presence of a pre-existing cardiovascular disease or its risk factors, such as hypertension or type II diabetes mellitus, increases the chance of having severe complications (including death) if infected by the virus. In addition, the infection can worsen an existing cardiovascular disease or precipitate new ones. This paper presents a contemporary review of cardiovascular complications of Covid-19. It also specifically examines the impact of the disease on those already vulnerable and on the poorly resourced health systems of Africa as well as the potential broader consequences on the socio-economic health of this region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/economics , Acute Coronary Syndrome/etiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/physiopathology , Africa , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/economics , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/economics , Cardiovascular Diseases/economics , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Economic Factors , Economic Recession , Gross Domestic Product , Health Resources/economics , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Heart Failure/economics , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Inflammation , Myocardial Ischemia/economics , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Myocarditis/economics , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Socioeconomic Factors , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/economics , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology
11.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 91(3)2021 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148322

ABSTRACT

Although the most frequent presentation of the novel Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory syndrome, cardiac involvement is being increasingly recognized. One such entity is takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We sought to review the various cases of takotsubo cardiomyopathy reported during the COVID-19 pandemic and consolidate the information available on its clinical features, evaluation and treatment. We performed a PubMed search using the MeSH terms "Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy" or "Stress Cardiomyopathy" and "COVID-19", and identified 16 case reports, two case series, and one retrospective cohort study. There was a total of 24 reported patients with COVID-19 infection, who developed takotsubo cardiomyopathy, and two patients without COVID-19 who developed takotsubo cardiomyopathy due to the emotional stress associated with the global pandemic. The mean age of the patients was 67.19 years (SD 15.83) and 16(59.3%) were women. Chest pain was reported in only ten patients (38.46 %) and ST-elevation was seen in 11 patients (42.3%). While most patients had typical takotsubo cardiomyopathy, four patients had inverted(reverse) takotsubo cardiomyopathy, two had bi-ventricular involvement, one had median takotsubo and another had global takotsubo with apical sparing variant. Most patients had a positive outcome with complete or near-complete reversal of cardiac dysfunction at the time of discharge. Five deaths (19.23%) were reported. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a rare, but increasingly reported reversible cardiomyopathy that can be seen in patients with COVID-19 infection and the diagnosis must be actively sought for in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy , Aged , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/epidemiology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology
12.
Cardiol Rev ; 29(3): 143-149, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148006

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 has affected the health of people across the globe. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have a significant relationship with COVID-19, both as a risk factor and prognostic indicator, and as a complication of the disease itself. In addition to predisposing to CVD complications, the ongoing pandemic has severely affected the delivery of timely and appropriate care for cardiovascular conditions resulting in increased mortality. The etiology behind the cardiac injury associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 is likely varied, including coronary artery disease, microvascular thrombosis, myocarditis, and stress cardiomyopathy. Further large-scale investigations are needed to better determine the underlying mechanism of myocardial infarction and other cardiac injury in COVID-19 patients and to determine the incidence of each type of cardiac injury in this patient population. Telemedicine and remote monitoring technologies can play an important role in optimizing outcomes in patients with established CVD. In this article, we summarize the various impacts that COVID-19 has on the cardiovascular system, including myocardial infarction, myocarditis, stress cardiomyopathy, thrombosis, and stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Thrombosis/etiology , Coronary Thrombosis/physiopathology , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Microvessels , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/physiopathology
13.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 46(3): 100763, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064981

ABSTRACT

Incidence of cardiovascular complications has increased during the COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic, both population-wide and in patients diagnosed with the disease. This increase has presented complications in patient care, leading to increased hospitalizations, adverse outcomes, and medical costs. A condition of interest is takotsubo syndrome, which may be associated with the novel coronavirus. To understand this connection, a narrative review was performed by analyzing primary studies and case reports available. The findings showed increased incidence of takotsubo cardiomyopathy in both the general population and COVID-19 patients. Proposed mechanisms for the linkage include generalized increases in psychological distress, the cytokine storm, increased sympathetic responses in COVID-19 patients, and microvascular dysfunction. Moreover, natural disasters are noted as likely being associated with increases of takotsubo syndrome. As the pandemic continues, treating COVID-19 as a systemic condition is imperative, with the increase in takotsubo syndrome marking a significant impact of the novel coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Incidence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/epidemiology
14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054632

ABSTRACT

We report an interesting case of a 38-year-old woman presenting with reverse Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) secondary to an Addisonian crisis, her second such episode. A few years prior, she had presented with typical TTS in the setting of Addisonian crisis; diagnostic work-up revealing Auto-Immune Polyglandular Syndrome Type II (APS II). We believe this to be the first case report of typical and variant phenotypes of TTS in a patient with APS II. The pathogenic link between these two conditions is explored. In patients presenting with Addisonian crises and refractory shock, the possibility of concurrent TTS should be considered. TTS muddies the diagnostic waters and poses therapeutic challenges as outlined.


Subject(s)
Addison Disease/drug therapy , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Medication Adherence , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology , Addison Disease/complications , Adult , Disease Progression , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Hypothyroidism/complications , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/complications , Recurrence , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology , Thyroxine/therapeutic use
15.
J Card Surg ; 36(2): 764-769, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991582

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had far-reaching consequences beyond the disease itself, including economic, social, political, religious, and psychological implications. This novel coronavirus has been shown to have cardiovascular manifestations in the form of arrhythmias, conduction disturbances, myocarditis, stress cardiomyopathy, myocardial injury and myocardial ischemia or infarction from increased microvascular and/or macrovascular coagulopathy. However, in addition to these direct effects, we are now starting to recognize indirect cardiovascular effects of COVID-19 in the form of increased incidence of Takutsobo cardiomyopathy in patients without any evidence of coronavirus infection presumably due to the increased psychological stress of social isolation and societal turbulence. In this case series, we present two post-menopausal women, presenting with chest pain and acute coronary syndrome, who are finally diagnosed with stress cardiomyopathy, triggered by increased emotional stress-related to the pandemic. There is data from a retrospective cohort analysis showing a fourfold increase in the incidence of acute coronary syndrome resulting from stress cardiomyopathy during the pandemic period compared to similar times periods before the pandemic. Hence, health care providers need to be cognizant of the emotional ramifications of the ongoing pandemic in the form of increased risk of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Moreover, urgent measures need to be taken to help the at-risk population cope with the ongoing stressors to help decrease the incidence of this cardiomyopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Electrocardiography , Psychological Distress , Stress, Psychological/complications , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/diagnosis , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/psychology
16.
Med Hypotheses ; 146: 110454, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969557

ABSTRACT

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTS), known as stress cardiomyopathy, is a rare disorder characterized by acute and transient left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction, often associated with a stressful, emotional or physical event. TTS may be closely related to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the ongoing pandemic. The enormous emotional stress caused by the pandemic and respiratory infections caused by SARS-CoV-2 could be potential triggers for TTS. The case series cited above implicates that TTS should be considered in the differential diagnosis across the entire spectrum of myocardial injury in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Myocardial damage associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection is usually attributed to sepsis, hypoxemia, coronary artery disease, and myocarditis. We hypothesize that TTS may also play a role among these lesions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Cardiovascular , Risk Factors , Stress, Physiological , Stress, Psychological , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/psychology
17.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 51: 107314, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947147

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can involve several organs and systems, often with indirect and poorly clarified mechanisms. Different presentations of myocardial injury have been reported, with variable degrees of severity, often impacting on the prognosis of COVID-19 patients. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying cardiac damage in SARS-CoV-2 infection are under active investigation. We report the clinical and autopsy findings of a fatal case of Takotsubo Syndrome occurring in an 83-year-old patient with COVID-19 pneumonia. The patient was admitted to Emergency Department with dyspnea, fever and diarrhea. A naso-pharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2 was positive. In the following week his conditions worsened, requiring intubation and deep sedation. While in the ICU, the patient suddenly showed ST segment elevation. Left ventricular angiography showed decreased with hypercontractile ventricular bases and mid-apical ballooning, consistent with diagnosis of Takotsubo syndrome. Shortly after the patient was pulseless. After extensive resuscitation maneuvers, the patient was declared dead. Autopsy revealed a subepicardial hematoma, in absence of myocardial rupture. On histology, the myocardium showed diffuse edema, multiple foci of contraction band necrosis in both ventricles and occasional coagulative necrosis of single cardiac myocytes. Abundant macrophages CD68+ were detected in the myocardial interstitium. The finding of diffuse contraction band necrosis supports the pathogenic role of increased catecholamine levels; the presence of a significant interstitial inflammatory infiltrate, made up by macrophages, remains of uncertain significance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myocardium/pathology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Biopsy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/pathology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/therapy
18.
Med Hypotheses ; 146: 110410, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939152

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic that has affected millions of individuals worldwide. Prior studies suggest that COVID-19 may be associated with an increased risk for various cardiovascular disorders, such as myocardial injury, arrhythmia, acute coronary syndrome, and venous thromboembolism. Early reports of non-COVID-19 patients have described the concurrence of takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) and spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD). However, the interplay between COVID-19, TTC and SCAD has not been well established. We herein propose two sets of two-hit hypotheses for the development of SCAD and TTC in the context of COVID-19. The first two-hit hypothesis explains the development of SCAD, in which TTC-associated formation of vulnerable coronary substrate serves as the first hit (predisposing factor), and COVID-19-associated inflammation and vascular disruption serves as the second hit (precipitating factor). The second two-hit hypothesis is proposed to explain the development of TTC, in which SCAD-associated formation of vulnerable myocardial substrate serves as the first hit, and COVID-19-associated sympathetic overactivity serves as the second hit. Under this conceptual framework, COVID-19 poses a double threat for the development of SCAD (among patients with underlying TTC) as well as TTC (among patients with underlying SCAD), thereby forming a reciprocal causation. This hypothesis provides a rationale for the joint assessment of TTC and SCAD in COVID-19 patients with pertinent cardiovascular manifestations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/etiology , Models, Cardiovascular , SARS-CoV-2 , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology , Vascular Diseases/congenital , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Causality , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/epidemiology , Vascular Diseases/epidemiology , Vascular Diseases/etiology
19.
J Cardiol ; 77(4): 361-369, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-856882

ABSTRACT

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy or takotsubo syndrome (TTS) has become a well-known disease not only in Japan but also in the rest of the world. Early reports suggested that TTS is a self-limiting disease with better prognosis than acute coronary syndrome. However, recent data showed that TTS is not a benign disease as compared with acute coronary syndrome. In addition to the apical ballooning, several other types of wall motion abnormalities have been classified as variants of TTS. In particular, right ventricular involvement, or biventricular TTS, is not uncommon and is associated with poor in-hospital as well as long-term outcomes. With respect to the pathophysiology, modulation (desensitization) of the beta-adrenergic receptor is suspected as a possible mechanism for transiently depressed myocardial contraction. Although specific treatments to improve prognosis of TTS are still uncertain, observational data suggest favorable impact of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Finally, in the era of COVID-19, we should pay attention to a variety of cardiovascular conditions related to COVID-19. TTS is one of these conditions that can be triggered by both emotional and physical impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Humans , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/physiopathology
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