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1.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 34(2): 313-316, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the prevalence of gustatory and olfactory impairment and its correlation with the severity of SARS-Cov-2 infection as per WHO guidelines. METHODS: A total of 241 patients of both gender having age from 15-80 years were included in the study. It was cross Sectional study conducted at SARS-COV-2 Isolation wards of Pakistan institute of medical science Islamabad from 15thSeptember 2020 to 15th January 2021. Convenient sampling technique was used to collect data. A proforma was designed for this purpose. Participants were divided into 3 groups on the basis of age. Group-1 (15-30 years), group-2 (31-50 years) and group 3 (51-80 years). Further the participants were graded into mild, moderate and severe stages of Sars-Cov-2 infection according to WHO guidelines. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS version 20. RESULTS: In this study 66% were male and 34% population were the female. Regarding the age groups 72% population were from the group-3. Results of study shows 47% in mild stage, 45% in moderate stage and 8% severe stage. The results regarding the Gustatory and Olfactory impairment showed that 126 had gustatory impairment while 130 patients had olfactory impairment. CONCLUSIONS: We found strong relationship of olfactory and gustatory changes associated with SARS-COV-2 patients. It is premature to conclude that taste and smell changes are strongly linked to SARS-COV-2 diagnosis. Further multi center researches are required to find out possible pathophysiological mechanism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Chem Senses ; 472022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831029

ABSTRACT

Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions (OD, GD) are prevalent symptoms following COVID-19 and persist in 6%-44% of individuals post-infection. As only few reports have described their prognosis after 6 months, our main objective was to assess the prevalence of OD and GD 11-month post-COVID-19. We also aimed to determine intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of chemosensory self-ratings for the follow-up of chemosensory sensitivity. We designed an observational study and distributed an online questionnaire assessing chemosensory function to healthcare workers with a RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection 5- and 11-month post-COVID-19. Specifically, we assessed olfaction, gustation, and trigeminal sensitivity (10-point visual analog scale) and function (4-point Likert scale). We further measured clinically relevant OD using the Chemosensory Perception Test, a psychophysical test designed to provide a reliable remote olfactory evaluation. We included a total of 366 participants (mean [SD] age of 44.8 (11.7) years old). They completed the last online questionnaire 10.6 months (0.7) after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Of all participants, 307 (83.9%) and 301 (82.2%) individuals retrospectively reported lower olfactory or gustatory sensitivity during the acute phase of COVID-19. At the time of evaluation, 184 (50.3%) and 163 (44.5%) indicated reduced chemosensory sensitivity, 32.2% reported impairment of olfactory function while 24.9% exhibited clinically relevant OD. Olfactory sensitivity had a high test-retest reliability (ICC: 0.818; 95% CI: 0.760-0.860). This study suggests that chemosensory dysfunctions persist in a third of COVID-19 patients 11 months after COVID-19. OD appears to be a common symptom of post-COVID-19 important to consider when treating patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology
3.
Wiad Lek ; 75(3): 670-677, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1824254

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To analyse the structure of sensory impairments, associated with COVID-19. To identify terms of recovery periods depending on severity of disease, age and gender of the patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Within two weeks, 2225 patients with confirmed COVID-19 completed a questionnaire, created by Google Forms. General complaints, peculiarities of sensory impairments and recovery time were specified. After exclusion criteria application, data of 2108 patients were analyzed by R Statistics Package, Student's t-test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, Fisher's exact test, Spearman's rank test. RESULTS: Results: Among patients enrolled (973 males and 1135 females, mean age 28.6±0.18) the most frequent were olfactory (91.32%) and gustatory (66.03%) dysfunctions. Olfactory manifestations were usually accompanied by gustatory disorders (73.72%). Average duration of olfactory dysfunction was 15.46±0.45 days, gustatory - 11.3±0.33, hearing - 4.3±0.16, and visual - 6.53±0.23 days. It was found a correlation between duration of olfactory and gustatory impairments (r=0.65; p < 0.001), hearing and visual disorders (r=0.49; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Olfactory and gustatory disorders are prevalent symptoms in Ukrainian population. 7.87% of respondents who had impairment of all four sensory functions had the longest recovery time. Duration of sensory impairments did not depend on age, type of treatment and severity of disease, which rises the question about the neurogenic pathway of virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7340, 2022 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821608

ABSTRACT

Gustatory (GD) and olfactory (OD) dysfunctions are the most frequent neurological manifestations of COVID-19. We used mental imagery as an experimental psychological paradigm to access olfactory and gustatory brain representations in 80 Italian COVID-19 adult patients (68.75% reported both OD and GD). COVID-19 patients with OD + GD have a significantly and selectively decreased vividness of odor and taste imagery, indicating that COVID-19 has an effect on their chemosensory mental representations. OD + GD length and type influenced the status of mental chemosensory representations. OD + GD were become all COVID-19 negative at the time of testing. Data suggest that patients are not explicitly aware of long-term altered chemosensory processing. However, differences emerge when their chemosensory function is implicitly assessed using self-ratings. Among patients developing OD + GD, self-ratings of chemosensory function (taste, flavor) were significantly lower as compared to those who did not. At the level of mental representation, such differences can be further detected, in terms of a reduced ability to mentally activate an odor or taste mental image. Our study shows that COVID-19 infection not only frequently causes hyposmia and dysgeusia, but that may also alter the mental representations responsible for olfactory and gustatory perception.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste Disorders/etiology
5.
J Int Med Res ; 50(5): 3000605221096280, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820035

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the role of objective olfactory dysfunction (OD) and gustatory dysfunction (GD) testing among patients with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who presented with respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A prospective, blinded, observational study was conducted in the emergency units of two tertiary hospitals. Participants were asked to identify scents in the pocket smell test (PST) and flavors in four different solutions in the gustatory dysfunction test (GDT). We assessed the level of agreement between objective findings and self-reported symptoms. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of chemosensory dysfunction for diagnosing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. RESULTS: Of 250 participants, 74 (29.6%) were SARS-CoV-2-positive. There was slight agreement between self-reported symptoms and objective findings (kappa = 0.13 and 0.10 for OD and GD, respectively). OD assessed by the PST was independently associated with COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio = 1.89, 95% confidence interval, 1.04-3.46). This association was stronger when OD was combined with objective GD, cough, and fever (adjusted odds ratio = 7.33, 95% confidence interval, 1.17-45.84). CONCLUSIONS: Neither the PST nor GDT alone are useful screening tools for COVID-19. However, a diagnostic scale based on objective OD, GD, fever, and cough may help triage patients with suspected COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Ageusia/diagnosis , Anosmia/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fever/diagnosis , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/diagnosis
6.
Front Neural Circuits ; 16: 862005, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809448

ABSTRACT

Chemosensory systems are deemed marginal in human pathology. In appraising their role, we aim at suggesting a paradigm shift based on the available clinical and experimental data that will be discussed. Taste and olfaction are polymodal sensory systems, providing inputs to many brain structures that regulate crucial visceral functions, including metabolism but also endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, and immune systems. Moreover, other visceral chemosensory systems monitor different essential chemical parameters of "milieu intérieur," transmitting their data to the brain areas receiving taste and olfactory inputs; hence, they participate in regulating the same vital functions. These chemosensory cells share many molecular features with olfactory or taste receptor cells, thus they may be affected by the same pathological events. In most COVID-19 patients, taste and olfaction are disturbed. This may represent only a small portion of a broadly diffuse chemosensory incapacitation. Indeed, many COVID-19 peculiar symptoms may be explained by the impairment of visceral chemosensory systems, for example, silent hypoxia, diarrhea, and the "cytokine storm". Dysregulation of chemosensory systems may underlie the much higher mortality rate of COVID-19 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) compared to ARDSs of different origins. In chronic non-infectious diseases like hypertension, diabetes, or cancer, the impairment of taste and/or olfaction has been consistently reported. This may signal diffuse chemosensory failure, possibly worsening the prognosis of these patients. Incapacitation of one or few chemosensory systems has negligible effects on survival under ordinary life conditions but, under stress, like metabolic imbalance or COVID-19 pneumonia, the impairment of multiple chemosensory systems may lead to dire consequences during the course of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Smell , Taste/physiology , Taste Disorders/diagnosis
7.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(4): 11-12, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801503

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global pandemic which has infected more than 100 million individuals and having taken a big toll on the world in terms of morbidity and mortality. The disease may progress in some patients from an influenza like illness to sever acute respiratory illness. Diagnosis of COVID 19 by RTPCR supported by radiological evidence, Material: In this prospective observational study, 60 COVID- 19 positive patients and 60 COVID negative/ suspect patients respectively were enrolled from march 2020 to July 2020 in Bowring and lady Curzon Hospital, Bangalore and they were assessed for taste and smell sensations based on SQOD- NS and questions based on smell and taste component of NHNE survey, symptomatic patients were followed up and duration needed for recovery of symptoms was analysed for P value, chi-square value, other relevant blood and radiological investigations were done. Observation: 1. To compare the olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions in COVID suspects and patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection. 2. To assess utility of hypoguesia and hyposmia as discriminant clinical features that might be used for the diagnosis of COVID-19 in patients with ILI. Conclusion: We concluded that patients with COVID 19 positive status had severe spectrum of olfactory dysfunction like anosmia, hyposmia and they will have long recovery time compared to COVID negative /suspect patients .Taste perception was more impaired in COVID positive patients compared to COVID negative /suspects.Covid positive patients had higher sQOD-NS score compared to COVID negative patients and significant associations are seen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Anosmia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , India , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology
8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1812, 2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778602

ABSTRACT

About 10% of people infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 experience post COVID-19 disease. We analysed data from 968 adult patients (5350 person-months) with a confirmed infection enroled in the ComPaRe long COVID cohort, a disease prevalent prospective e-cohort of such patients in France. Day-by-day prevalence of post COVID-19 symptoms was determined from patients' responses to the Long COVID Symptom Tool, a validated self-reported questionnaire assessing 53 symptoms. Among patients symptomatic after 2 months, 85% still reported symptoms one year after their symptom onset. Evolution of symptoms showed a decreasing prevalence over time for 27/53 symptoms (e.g., loss of taste/smell); a stable prevalence over time for 18/53 symptoms (e.g., dyspnoea), and an increasing prevalence over time for 8/53 symptoms (e.g., paraesthesia). The disease impact on patients' lives began increasing 6 months after onset. Our results are of importance to understand the natural history of post COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology
11.
In Vivo ; 36(2): 918-924, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732568

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Smell and taste disorders are among the most common symptoms of COVID-19. However, the relationship between smell and taste disorders and systemic symptoms is not fully understood in Japan. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Questionnaires were mailed to 105 of 111 COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized at our hospital between March and July 2020 in Japan. RESULTS: A total of 74 patients (response rate: 70.5%) completed the survey. Of these, six patients (8.1%) presented with smell disorders only, 16 (21.6%) presented with taste disorders only, and 17 (23.0%) presented with both smell and taste disorders. The mean Visual Analog Scale for smell and taste was 0.5 and 20, respectively, at the time of the most severe symptoms. CONCLUSION: Among COVID-19 patients in Japan, smell and taste disorders are often followed by fever and may not be the first symptoms. Sense of smell is particularly impaired. These symptoms often improve, although they sometimes persist for a long time as sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smell , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 117: 155-161, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chemosensory disorders associated with COVID-19 have been widely discussed during the pandemic. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the risk factors for olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Three databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library) were searched for studies published between December 1, 2019, and August 31, 2021. We selected random-effects model or fixed-effects model to pool data based on heterogeneity. The results were reported as odds ratios (ORs) or standardized mean differences (SMDs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was reported as I2. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies with a total of 13,813 patients were included. The pooled data indicated that sex (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.93-2.31), age (SMD -5.80; 95% CI -13.35 to 1.75), smoking (OR 2.04; 95% CI 0.72-5.79), and comorbidity (OR 1.21; 95% CI 0.58-2.53) of patients with COVID-19 had no effect on gustatory dysfunction. Olfactory dysfunction was more likely to occur in older patients with COVID-19 (SMD, -5.22; 95% CI, -8.28 to -2.16). Patients with COVID-19 with nasal congestion (OR 3.41; 95% CI 2.30-5.06) and rhinorrhea (OR 2.35; 95% CI 1.60-3.45) were more prone to olfactory dysfunction. CONCLUSION: These findings emphasize that older patients with COVID-19 are more likely to experience olfactory dysfunction. Symptoms of nasal congestion and rhinorrhea may affect the recognition of olfactory dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology
13.
Rhinology ; 60(2): 128-138, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Self-reported smell loss is a prominent symptom of COVID-19 infection and a potentially useful clinical tool for remote pre-screening of this disease. However, pre-existing chemosensory dysfunction with obesity may diminish the usefulness of self-reported smell loss in this vulnerable group. Here we aim to compare COVID-19 related chemosensory alterations in participants with and without obesity and determine if self-reported smell loss is predictive of lab-based COVID-19 diagnosis in both groups in the context of restrictive clinical data collection. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this secondary analysis of a cross-sectional global dataset, we compared self-reported chemosensory ability in participants with a respiratory illness reporting a positive (C19+; n = 5156) or a negative (C19-; n = 659) COVID-19 laboratory test outcome, who also self-reported to have obesity (C19+; n = 433, C19-; n = 86) or not. RESULTS: Participants with obesity and without obesity reported a similar decline in smell, taste, and chemesthesis during illness. In C19+ participants with obesity, we observed a greater relative prevalence of non-chemosensory symptoms, including respiratory and GI symptoms. Critically, we found that the model previously proposed also predicts C19+ diagnosis in participants with obesity. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that COVID-19 respondents with obesity experience a similar self-reported chemosensory loss as those without obesity. In both groups self-reported chemosensory symptoms are similarly predictive of COVID-19 infection, thus highlighting the potential of collecting self-report of symptoms and comorbidities remotely when clinical observations are restrictive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Obesity/complications , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Smell , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology
14.
J Evid Based Dent Pract ; 22(1): 101687, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707004

ABSTRACT

ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: J. Amorim dos Santos, A.G.C. Normando, R.L.Carvalho da Silva, A.C. Acevedo G. De Luca Canto, N. Sugaya, A.R. Santos-Silva , E.N.S. Guerra (2021). ``Oral Manifestations in Patients with COVID-19: A Living Systematic Review.'' J Dent Res 100(2): 141-154. SOURCE OF FUNDING: Non-profit, Foundations, etc.? National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, Ministry of Education, Brazil and the Department of Research and Innovation, University of Brasilia, Brazil. TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis of data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Xerostomia , Brazil , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders , Xerostomia/etiology
15.
Laryngoscope ; 132(5): 1082-1087, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705743

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Gustatory function during COVID-19 is self-reported by around 50% of patients. However, only a few studies assessed gustation using psychophysical testing during acute infection. The objective of this study is to test gustatory function on threshold tests in the very first days of COVID-19. METHODS: Psychophysical testing consisted of validated and blinded tests for olfaction (NHANES Pocket Smell Test) and gustation (Taste Strips Test). These test kits were sent to home-quarantined patients and self-administered using a detailed instruction sheet. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were included in this study. Testing was performed 6.5 ± 2.7 days after sampling of respiratory swabs. At this time 37% of patients stated to currently experience a gustatory impairment. The mean Taste Strips score was 10.0 ± 3.4 with 28% scoring in the range of hypogeusia. Interestingly, no significant difference in the results of gustatory testing could be observed between the group with subjectively preserved gustation and the group with self-rated taste impairment. CONCLUSION: During the very first days of COVID-19, psychophysical gustatory testing revealed hypogeusia in 28%. This is far lower than patients' self-reports. Different from previous studies, we did not find clear evidence for an impairment of only certain taste qualities. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 132:1082-1087, 2022.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dysgeusia , Humans , Nutrition Surveys , Smell , Taste , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2111, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692556

ABSTRACT

Alterations in the three chemosensory modalities-smell, taste, and chemesthesis-have been implicated in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), yet emerging data suggest a wide geographic and ethnic variation in the prevalence of these symptoms. Studies on chemosensory disorders in COVID-19 have predominantly focused on Caucasian populations whereas Asians remain understudied. We conducted a nationwide, multicentre cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire on a cohort of RT-PCR-confirmed adult COVID-19 patients in Malaysia between 6 June and 30 November 2020. The aim of our study was to investigate their presenting symptoms and assess their chemosensory function using self-ratings of perceived smell, taste, chemesthesis, and nasal blockage. In this cohort of 498 patients, 41.4% reported smell and/or taste loss when diagnosed with COVID-19, which was the commonest symptom. Blocked nose, loss of appetite, and gastrointestinal disturbances were independent predictors of smell and/or taste loss on multivariate analysis. Self-ratings of chemosensory function revealed a reduction in smell, taste, and chemesthesis across the entire cohort of patients that was more profound among those reporting smell and/or taste loss as their presenting symptom. Perceived nasal obstruction accounted for only a small proportion of changes in smell and taste, but not for chemesthesis, supporting viral disruption of sensorineural mechanisms as the dominant aetiology of chemosensory dysfunction. Our study suggests that chemosensory dysfunction in COVID-19 is more widespread than previously reported among Asians and may be related to the infectivity of viral strains.Study Registration: NMRR-20-934-54803 and NCT04390165.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Olfaction Disorders , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology
17.
Neurocase ; 28(1): 72-76, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649550

ABSTRACT

A large number of patients with COVID-19 will suffer from long-term smell and taste disorders (STD). These STD symptoms could have a significant impact on patients with an eating disorder (ED). To highlight this issue, a case is presented of a patient with bulimia nervosa who experienced COVID-19-relate STD symptoms. Clinicians should reassess patients with an ED who suffer from COVID-19 with STD symptomatology and potentially redirect treatment. More research is needed on STD symptoms in patients with an ED to improve our knowledge on the role of smell and taste in disordered eating behaviors and improve treatment guidelines.


Subject(s)
Bulimia Nervosa , COVID-19 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Bulimia Nervosa/complications , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/complications , Smell , Taste , Taste Disorders/etiology
18.
HNO ; 70(2): 157-166, 2022 Feb.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626152

ABSTRACT

This manuscript aims to provide an overview of the etiology and diagnosis of olfactory and gustatory disorders. Not only are they common with about 5% of the population affected, but olfactory and gustatory disorders have recently gained attention in light of the rising SARS-CoV­2 pandemic: sudden loss of smell and/or taste is regarded as one of the cardinal symptoms. Furthermore, in the early diagnostics of neurodegenerative diseases, olfactory disorders are of great importance. Patients with olfactory dysfunction often show signs of depression. The impact of olfactory/gustatory disorders is thus considerable, but therapeutic options are unfortunately still limited. Following a description of the etiology, the diagnostic and therapeutic options are discussed on the basis of current literature. Potential future treatments are also addressed, e.g. autologous mucosal grafts or olfactory implants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/therapy
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