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1.
In Vivo ; 36(2): 918-924, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732568

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Smell and taste disorders are among the most common symptoms of COVID-19. However, the relationship between smell and taste disorders and systemic symptoms is not fully understood in Japan. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Questionnaires were mailed to 105 of 111 COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized at our hospital between March and July 2020 in Japan. RESULTS: A total of 74 patients (response rate: 70.5%) completed the survey. Of these, six patients (8.1%) presented with smell disorders only, 16 (21.6%) presented with taste disorders only, and 17 (23.0%) presented with both smell and taste disorders. The mean Visual Analog Scale for smell and taste was 0.5 and 20, respectively, at the time of the most severe symptoms. CONCLUSION: Among COVID-19 patients in Japan, smell and taste disorders are often followed by fever and may not be the first symptoms. Sense of smell is particularly impaired. These symptoms often improve, although they sometimes persist for a long time as sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smell , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology
2.
Rhinology ; 60(2): 128-138, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Self-reported smell loss is a prominent symptom of COVID-19 infection and a potentially useful clinical tool for remote pre-screening of this disease. However, pre-existing chemosensory dysfunction with obesity may diminish the usefulness of self-reported smell loss in this vulnerable group. Here we aim to compare COVID-19 related chemosensory alterations in participants with and without obesity and determine if self-reported smell loss is predictive of lab-based COVID-19 diagnosis in both groups in the context of restrictive clinical data collection. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this secondary analysis of a cross-sectional global dataset, we compared self-reported chemosensory ability in participants with a respiratory illness reporting a positive (C19+; n = 5156) or a negative (C19-; n = 659) COVID-19 laboratory test outcome, who also self-reported to have obesity (C19+; n = 433, C19-; n = 86) or not. RESULTS: Participants with obesity and without obesity reported a similar decline in smell, taste, and chemesthesis during illness. In C19+ participants with obesity, we observed a greater relative prevalence of non-chemosensory symptoms, including respiratory and GI symptoms. Critically, we found that the model previously proposed also predicts C19+ diagnosis in participants with obesity. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that COVID-19 respondents with obesity experience a similar self-reported chemosensory loss as those without obesity. In both groups self-reported chemosensory symptoms are similarly predictive of COVID-19 infection, thus highlighting the potential of collecting self-report of symptoms and comorbidities remotely when clinical observations are restrictive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Obesity/complications , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Smell , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology
3.
Laryngoscope ; 132(5): 1082-1087, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705743

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Gustatory function during COVID-19 is self-reported by around 50% of patients. However, only a few studies assessed gustation using psychophysical testing during acute infection. The objective of this study is to test gustatory function on threshold tests in the very first days of COVID-19. METHODS: Psychophysical testing consisted of validated and blinded tests for olfaction (NHANES Pocket Smell Test) and gustation (Taste Strips Test). These test kits were sent to home-quarantined patients and self-administered using a detailed instruction sheet. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were included in this study. Testing was performed 6.5 ± 2.7 days after sampling of respiratory swabs. At this time 37% of patients stated to currently experience a gustatory impairment. The mean Taste Strips score was 10.0 ± 3.4 with 28% scoring in the range of hypogeusia. Interestingly, no significant difference in the results of gustatory testing could be observed between the group with subjectively preserved gustation and the group with self-rated taste impairment. CONCLUSION: During the very first days of COVID-19, psychophysical gustatory testing revealed hypogeusia in 28%. This is far lower than patients' self-reports. Different from previous studies, we did not find clear evidence for an impairment of only certain taste qualities. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 132:1082-1087, 2022.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dysgeusia , Humans , Nutrition Surveys , Smell , Taste , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2111, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692556

ABSTRACT

Alterations in the three chemosensory modalities-smell, taste, and chemesthesis-have been implicated in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), yet emerging data suggest a wide geographic and ethnic variation in the prevalence of these symptoms. Studies on chemosensory disorders in COVID-19 have predominantly focused on Caucasian populations whereas Asians remain understudied. We conducted a nationwide, multicentre cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire on a cohort of RT-PCR-confirmed adult COVID-19 patients in Malaysia between 6 June and 30 November 2020. The aim of our study was to investigate their presenting symptoms and assess their chemosensory function using self-ratings of perceived smell, taste, chemesthesis, and nasal blockage. In this cohort of 498 patients, 41.4% reported smell and/or taste loss when diagnosed with COVID-19, which was the commonest symptom. Blocked nose, loss of appetite, and gastrointestinal disturbances were independent predictors of smell and/or taste loss on multivariate analysis. Self-ratings of chemosensory function revealed a reduction in smell, taste, and chemesthesis across the entire cohort of patients that was more profound among those reporting smell and/or taste loss as their presenting symptom. Perceived nasal obstruction accounted for only a small proportion of changes in smell and taste, but not for chemesthesis, supporting viral disruption of sensorineural mechanisms as the dominant aetiology of chemosensory dysfunction. Our study suggests that chemosensory dysfunction in COVID-19 is more widespread than previously reported among Asians and may be related to the infectivity of viral strains.Study Registration: NMRR-20-934-54803 and NCT04390165.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Olfaction Disorders , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology
5.
HNO ; 70(2): 157-166, 2022 Feb.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626152

ABSTRACT

This manuscript aims to provide an overview of the etiology and diagnosis of olfactory and gustatory disorders. Not only are they common with about 5% of the population affected, but olfactory and gustatory disorders have recently gained attention in light of the rising SARS-CoV­2 pandemic: sudden loss of smell and/or taste is regarded as one of the cardinal symptoms. Furthermore, in the early diagnostics of neurodegenerative diseases, olfactory disorders are of great importance. Patients with olfactory dysfunction often show signs of depression. The impact of olfactory/gustatory disorders is thus considerable, but therapeutic options are unfortunately still limited. Following a description of the etiology, the diagnostic and therapeutic options are discussed on the basis of current literature. Potential future treatments are also addressed, e.g. autologous mucosal grafts or olfactory implants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/therapy
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(20): 6431-6438, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503075

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can cause smell and taste dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the general community's interest in smell dysfunction (SD) and taste dysfunction (TD) using Google Trends to compare results with more common symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, such as fever and cough. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relative Search Volumes (RSVs) for the English terms "Smell", "Taste", "Fever" and "Cough", filtered by the category "Health", were collected from 2018 through 2020. Moreover, RSVs using synonyms of "Taste" and "Smell" in 5 European languages were analyzed. RESULTS: The worldwide mean RSVs for "Fever", "Cough", "Smell", and "Taste" during 2020 were 49%, 34%, 8% and 9%, respectively. RSVs associated with the search terms "Fever" and "Cough" showed a peak between February and March 2020, as did "Smell" and "Taste". Even though RSVs were much lower, they were highly correlated (r=0.890). RSVs obtained from "Smell" and "Taste" in five European languages (German, English, French, Italian and Spanish) had similar temporal trends. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show the level of the general population's interest for early symptoms, suggesting that their interest in SARS-CoV-2 infection symptoms, such as SD and TD, was scarce but peaked during the pandemic outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Consumer Health Information , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Humans
8.
Neurol Sci ; 42(12): 4921-4926, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Qualitative smell/taste disorders (such as phantosmia, parosmia, phantogeusia, and parageusia) have not yet been fully characterized in patients who had COVID-19, whereas quantitative disturbances (i.e., reduction/loss of smell/taste) have been widely investigated. OBJECTIVE: To simultaneously assess the presence of both quantitative and qualitative smell/taste dysfunctions in patients who suffered from COVID-19. METHODS: We enrolled 17 consecutive patients who suffered from COVID-19 over the last 6 months and 21 healthy controls, matched for sex and age. After a negative nasopharyngeal swab, the Sniffin' Sticks Test and the Taste Strips were used to assess olfactory and taste function, respectively. At the same time, the presence of phantosmia, parosmia, phantogeusia, and parageusia was investigated with a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: Qualitative disturbances of smell and/or taste were found in 6/17 (35.3%) patients. Phantosmia was reported in 2/17 (11.8%) patients and parosmia in 4/17 (23.5%). There were no significant differences in smell test scores between patients who reported phantosmia and/or parosmia and patients who did not. Phantogeusia was described in 3/17 (17.6%) patients, and parageusia was identified in 4/17 (23.5%) patients. All tested patients were normogeusic. CONCLUSION: Around one-third of patients who recover from COVID-19 may have persistent qualitative dysfunction in smell/taste domains. Detection of phantogeusia in long-term COVID-19 patients represents a further novel finding. Further investigation is needed to better characterize the pathophysiology of phantosmia, parosmia, phantogeusia, and parageusia in patients who had COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology
12.
13.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 207: 106760, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267627

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the literature on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing in patients with altered olfactory/gustatory function due to COVID-19 for evidence of viral neuroinvasion. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of Medline and Embase to identify publications that described at least one patient with COVID-19 who had altered olfactory/gustatory function and had CSF testing performed. The search ranged from December 1, 2019 to November 18, 2020. RESULTS: We identified 51 publications that described 70 patients who met inclusion criteria. Of 51 patients who had CSF SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing, 3 (6%) patients had positive results and 1 (2%) patient had indeterminate results. Cycle threshold (Ct; the number of amplification cycles required for the target gene to exceed the threshold, which is inversely related to viral load) was not provided for the patients with a positive PCR. The patient with indeterminate results had a Ct of 37 initially, then no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA on repeat testing. Of 6 patients who had CSF SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing, 3 (50%) were positive. Testing to distinguish intrathecal antibody synthesis from transudation of antibodies to the CSF via breakdown of the blood-brain barrier was performed in 1/3 (33%) patients; this demonstrated antibody transmission to the CSF via transudation. CONCLUSION: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in CSF via PCR or evaluation for intrathecal antibody synthesis appears to be rare in patients with altered olfactory/gustatory function. While pathology studies are needed, our review suggests it is unlikely that these symptoms are related to viral neuroinvasion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/cerebrospinal fluid , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/cerebrospinal fluid , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/diagnosis
14.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 279(1): 515-520, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219011

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to estimate the 1 year prevalence and recovery rate of self-reported chemosensory dysfunction in a series of subjects with previous mild-to-moderate symptomatic COVID-19. METHODS: Prospective study based on the SNOT-22, item "sense of smell or taste" and additional outcomes. RESULTS: 268/315 patients (85.1%) completing the survey at baseline also completed the follow-up interview. The 12 months prevalence of self-reported COVID-19 associated chemosensory dysfunction was 21.3% (95% CI 16.5-26.7%). Of the 187 patients who complained of COVID-19 associated chemosensory dysfunction at baseline, 130 (69.5%; 95% CI 62.4-76.0%) reported complete resolution of smell or taste impairment, 41 (21.9%) reported a decrease in the severity, and 16 (8.6%) reported the symptom was unchanged or worse 1 year after onset. The risk of persistence was higher for patients reporting a baseline SNOT-22 score ≥ 4 (OR = 3.32; 95% CI 1.32-8.36) as well as for those requiring ≥ 22 days for a negative swab (OR = 2.18; 95% CI 1.12-4.27). CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of patients with previous mild-to-moderate symptomatic COVID-19 characterized by new onset of chemosensory dysfunction still complained on altered sense of smell or taste 1 year after the onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Smell , Taste , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology
15.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(5): 436-441, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199243

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term recovery rate for coronavirus disease 2019 related chemosensory disturbances has not yet been clarified. METHODS: Olfactory and gustatory functions were assessed with psychophysical tests in patients in the first seven days from coronavirus disease 2019 onset and one, two, three and six months after the first evaluation. RESULTS: A total of 300 patients completed the study. The improvement in olfactory function was significant at the two-month follow up. At the end of the observation period, 27 per cent of the patients still experienced a persistent olfactory disturbance, including anosmia in 5 per cent of cases. As for taste, the improvement in the psychophysical scores was significant only between the baseline and the 30-day control. At the 6-month evaluation, 10 per cent of the patients presented with a persistent gustatory disturbance with an incidence of complete ageusia of 1 per cent. CONCLUSION: Six months after the onset of coronavirus disease 2019, about 6 per cent of patients still had a severe persistent olfactory or gustatory disturbance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Psychophysics/methods , Recovery of Function/physiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Adult , Ageusia/epidemiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Smell/physiology , Taste/physiology , Taste Disorders/diagnosis
16.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(4): 103065, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193211

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the recovery of loss of smell and taste among recovered COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional follow-up study is a sequel to a study by Biadsee et al. Among the previous study population of 128 non-hospitalized patients, positive for COVID-19 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), 97 patients participated in a survey designed for this study. Information and data regarding loss of smell and taste, rate of recovery, xerostomia, and additional symptoms; (Cough, Myalgia, Weakness, Rhinorrhea, Nasal congestion) were collected. RESULTS: A total of 43 men and 54 women were included. Mean age was 37.5 years (range 19-74). Mean follow-up was 229 days (range 191-253). Sixty-five patients reported gustatory dysfunction during the disease of which 61.5% reported full recovery, 38.5% partial recovery. Of 65 patients who reported olfactory impairment during the disease, 52% had full recovery and 48% reported partial recovery of olfactory function. Complete recovery of olfactory function was positively associated with full recovery of gustatory function (p = 0.01). Gender did not significantly affect the recovery of OD and GD (p = 0.45, p = 0.90, respectively). Patients who experienced olfactory dysfunction as an initial symptom had lower rates of olfactory complete recovery (p = 0.043). CONCLUSION: After a mean follow-up of 229 days, complete recovery of smell and taste functions occurred in 52% and 61.5%, respectively. However, dysfunction persisted in 48%-38.5% of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Israel , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , Recovery of Function , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Time Factors , Young Adult
17.
Neurosci Lett ; 748: 135694, 2021 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188917

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 often complain of smell and taste disorders (STD). STD emerge early in the course of the disease, seem to be more common in SARS-CoV-2 infection than in other upper respiratory tract infections, and could in some cases persist for long after resolution of respiratory symptoms. Current evidence suggests that STD probably result from a loss of function of olfactory sensory neurons and taste buds, mainly caused by infection, inflammation, and subsequent dysfunction of supporting non-neuronal cells in the mucosa. However, the possible occurrence of other mechanisms leading to chemosensory dysfunction has also been hypothesized, and contrasting data have been reported regarding the direct infection of sensory neurons by SARS-CoV-2. In this mini-review, we summarize the currently available literature on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and outcomes of STD in COVID-19 and discuss possible future directions of research on this topic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Taste Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mouth Mucosa/immunology , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Olfactory Mucosa/immunology , Olfactory Mucosa/pathology , Olfactory Receptor Neurons/immunology , Olfactory Receptor Neurons/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Smell/physiology , Taste/physiology , Taste Buds/immunology , Taste Buds/pathology , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology
19.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal ; 26(5): e568-e575, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of coronavirus disease 19 (Covid-19) on the oral cavity by evaluating the oral findings in the patients who recovered after treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study involved confirmed Covid-19 patients whose treatment completed at least two weeks ago. A questionnaire consist of eight parts was applied to explore the oral findings after Covid-19. Also stimulated salivary flow rate was evaluated with a salivary flow test. RESULTS: 177 patients reached and 107 of them participate in the study. Regarding gender significant differences were found in terms of the presence of taste impairment after treatment (p=0.007), the degree of taste (p=0.021) and smell (p=0.010) impairment. 18 % (5/27) of the patients evaluated were showed hyposalivation. No significant differences were observed regarding salivary flow between males (mean±SD: 1.14±0.65) and females (mean±SD: 1.12±0.43), (p=0.928); among the patients having treatment at home (mean±SD: 1.03±0.48) or hospital (mean±SD: 1.33±0.65), (p=0.187). In some of the patients' taste [15], smell [23] impairment, and xerostomia [43] still observed at least two weeks after the treatment is completed. CONCLUSIONS: The most frequent finding in patients after the treatment was xerostomia. Taste and smell impairments were more frequently observed in females.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Xerostomia , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology , Xerostomia/diagnosis , Xerostomia/etiology
20.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 278(12): 4831-4837, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152003

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The study aimed to determine the incidence and long-term evolution of COVID-related olfactory (OD) and gustatory (GD) dysfunction, the recovery timeline, and the association with other symptoms. The secondary objective was to identify the predictive clinical factors for the evolution of these symptoms. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was conducted from March 15 to October 15, 2020, in health workers with COVID-19 related symptoms in a tertiary care hospital. 320 patients were included after 6 months of follow-up: 195 in the case group and 125 in the control group. Olfactory dysfunction (OD), dysosmia, and gustatory dysfunction (GD) onset and recovery rate after 6 months follow-up are analyzed in both groups. RESULTS: There were 125 (64.1%) in case group patients with OD and 118 (60.5%) with GD. Total or partial recovery OD and GD was found in 89%, mainly in the first 2 months. In the control group, there were 14 (11.2%) patients with OD and 33 (26.4%) patients with GD, with 100% of total/partial recovery. CONCLUSION: In both groups, OD and GD showed high-resolution rates during the first two months after the onset of symptoms. Nevertheless, 11% of the case group patients did not show any recovery, and the partial resolution was present in 30% of our patients, at the 6 months follow-up. We found a high correlation between OD and GD, both in the appearance of symptoms and in their recovery. Nasal obstruction and dyspnea have been identified as risk factors for the persistence of symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Case-Control Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology
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