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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1812, 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778602

ABSTRACT

About 10% of people infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 experience post COVID-19 disease. We analysed data from 968 adult patients (5350 person-months) with a confirmed infection enroled in the ComPaRe long COVID cohort, a disease prevalent prospective e-cohort of such patients in France. Day-by-day prevalence of post COVID-19 symptoms was determined from patients' responses to the Long COVID Symptom Tool, a validated self-reported questionnaire assessing 53 symptoms. Among patients symptomatic after 2 months, 85% still reported symptoms one year after their symptom onset. Evolution of symptoms showed a decreasing prevalence over time for 27/53 symptoms (e.g., loss of taste/smell); a stable prevalence over time for 18/53 symptoms (e.g., dyspnoea), and an increasing prevalence over time for 8/53 symptoms (e.g., paraesthesia). The disease impact on patients' lives began increasing 6 months after onset. Our results are of importance to understand the natural history of post COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology
2.
In Vivo ; 36(2): 918-924, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732568

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Smell and taste disorders are among the most common symptoms of COVID-19. However, the relationship between smell and taste disorders and systemic symptoms is not fully understood in Japan. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Questionnaires were mailed to 105 of 111 COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized at our hospital between March and July 2020 in Japan. RESULTS: A total of 74 patients (response rate: 70.5%) completed the survey. Of these, six patients (8.1%) presented with smell disorders only, 16 (21.6%) presented with taste disorders only, and 17 (23.0%) presented with both smell and taste disorders. The mean Visual Analog Scale for smell and taste was 0.5 and 20, respectively, at the time of the most severe symptoms. CONCLUSION: Among COVID-19 patients in Japan, smell and taste disorders are often followed by fever and may not be the first symptoms. Sense of smell is particularly impaired. These symptoms often improve, although they sometimes persist for a long time as sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smell , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 117: 155-161, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chemosensory disorders associated with COVID-19 have been widely discussed during the pandemic. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the risk factors for olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Three databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library) were searched for studies published between December 1, 2019, and August 31, 2021. We selected random-effects model or fixed-effects model to pool data based on heterogeneity. The results were reported as odds ratios (ORs) or standardized mean differences (SMDs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was reported as I2. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies with a total of 13,813 patients were included. The pooled data indicated that sex (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.93-2.31), age (SMD -5.80; 95% CI -13.35 to 1.75), smoking (OR 2.04; 95% CI 0.72-5.79), and comorbidity (OR 1.21; 95% CI 0.58-2.53) of patients with COVID-19 had no effect on gustatory dysfunction. Olfactory dysfunction was more likely to occur in older patients with COVID-19 (SMD, -5.22; 95% CI, -8.28 to -2.16). Patients with COVID-19 with nasal congestion (OR 3.41; 95% CI 2.30-5.06) and rhinorrhea (OR 2.35; 95% CI 1.60-3.45) were more prone to olfactory dysfunction. CONCLUSION: These findings emphasize that older patients with COVID-19 are more likely to experience olfactory dysfunction. Symptoms of nasal congestion and rhinorrhea may affect the recognition of olfactory dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2111, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692556

ABSTRACT

Alterations in the three chemosensory modalities-smell, taste, and chemesthesis-have been implicated in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), yet emerging data suggest a wide geographic and ethnic variation in the prevalence of these symptoms. Studies on chemosensory disorders in COVID-19 have predominantly focused on Caucasian populations whereas Asians remain understudied. We conducted a nationwide, multicentre cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire on a cohort of RT-PCR-confirmed adult COVID-19 patients in Malaysia between 6 June and 30 November 2020. The aim of our study was to investigate their presenting symptoms and assess their chemosensory function using self-ratings of perceived smell, taste, chemesthesis, and nasal blockage. In this cohort of 498 patients, 41.4% reported smell and/or taste loss when diagnosed with COVID-19, which was the commonest symptom. Blocked nose, loss of appetite, and gastrointestinal disturbances were independent predictors of smell and/or taste loss on multivariate analysis. Self-ratings of chemosensory function revealed a reduction in smell, taste, and chemesthesis across the entire cohort of patients that was more profound among those reporting smell and/or taste loss as their presenting symptom. Perceived nasal obstruction accounted for only a small proportion of changes in smell and taste, but not for chemesthesis, supporting viral disruption of sensorineural mechanisms as the dominant aetiology of chemosensory dysfunction. Our study suggests that chemosensory dysfunction in COVID-19 is more widespread than previously reported among Asians and may be related to the infectivity of viral strains.Study Registration: NMRR-20-934-54803 and NCT04390165.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Olfaction Disorders , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology
5.
Infect Dis Now ; 51(5): 440-444, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574088

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics, evolution and risk factors for long-term persistence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions (OGD) in COVID-19 outpatients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study in SARS-CoV-2 infected outpatients with OGD. Weekly phone interviews were set up starting from COVID-19 onset symptoms and over the course of 60 days, using standardized questionnaires that included a detailed description of general symptoms and OGD. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with complete recovery of OGD at D30. Rate and time to recovery of OGD, as well as risk factors for late recovery (>30 days), were evaluated using Cox regression models. RESULTS: Ninety-eight outpatients were included. The median time to onset of OGD after first COVID-19 symptoms was 2 days (IQR 0-4). The 30-day recovery rate from OGD was 67.5% (95% CI 57.1-75.4) and the estimated median time of OGD recovery was 20 days (95% CI 13-26). Risk factors for late recovery of OGD were a complete loss of smell or taste at diagnosis (HR=0.26, 95% CI 0.12-0.56, P=0.0005) and age over 40 years (HR=0.56, 95% CI 0.36-0.89, P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with complete loss of smell or taste and over age 40 are more likely to develop persistent OGD and should rapidly receive sensorial rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Adult , Ambulatory Care , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Taste Disorders/epidemiology
6.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(11): 1010-1018, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569186

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the association between olfactory dysfunction or taste impairment and disease severity and radiological findings in coronavirus disease-2019. The secondary goal was to assess the prevalence, severity and course of olfactory dysfunction or taste impairment in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. METHOD: This prospective observational cohort study evaluated patients hospitalised with coronavirus disease 2019 between April 1 and 1 May 2020. Olfactory dysfunction and taste impairment were evaluated by two questionnaires. Chest computed tomography findings and coronavirus disease-2019 severity were assessed. RESULTS: Among 133 patients, 23.3 per cent and 30.8 per cent experienced olfactory dysfunction and taste impairment, respectively, and 17.2 per cent experienced both. The mean age was 56.03 years, and 64.7 per cent were male and 35.3 per cent were female. No statistically significant association was found between olfactory dysfunction (p = 0.706) and taste impairment (p = 0.35) with either disease severity or chest computed tomography grading. CONCLUSION: Olfactory dysfunction or taste impairment does not have prognostic importance in patients with coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Taste Disorders/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(5): 2296-2303, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566692

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: This study aims to evaluate of olfactory and gustatory functions of COVID-19 patients and possible risk factors for olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions. Materials and methods: The cross-sectional study included adult patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 in Gazi University Hospital between April 2020 and June 2020. Volunteered patients participated in a survey in which olfactory and gustatory functions and various clinical information were questioned. Sinonasal Outcome Test-22 was also administrated to all patients. Results: A hundred and seventy-one patients participated in this study. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions rates were 10.5% (n: 18) and 10.5% (n: 18), respectively. Patients without any symptom other than smell and taste dysfunctions were clustered as group 1 and patients who are clinically symptomatic were clustered as group 2. Olfactory dysfunction occurred in 8% of group 1 and 17.4% of group 2 (p = 0.072). Gustatory dysfunction rate of smokers was 19.7% and significantly higher than gustatory dysfunction rate of nonsmokers (5.5%) (p = 0.007). Twenty-seven-point-eight percent of the patients with olfactory dysfunction (n = 5) were male and 72.2% (n: 13) were female. Sex did not show significant effect on rate of olfactory dysfunction. Twenty-five patients participated in psychophysical olfactory function test. No participant reported olfactory dysfunction at the time of test. Of the participants, 64% (n: 16) were normosmic and 36% (n: 9) were hyposmic according to Sniffin' Stick test. Conclusion: Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions are more common in patients who are clinically symptomatic than those diagnosed during contact tracing. Objective tests may show that frequency of olfactory dysfunction is greater than frequency of self-reported olfactory dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103259, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446373

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to comprehensively evaluate olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions during the COVID-19 pandemic regarding onset, course, associated symptoms, prognosis and relation to patients' demographics, treatment received and other symptoms. PATIENTS& METHODS: This is a prospective study conducted on patients proven to be infected with COVID-19 and with olfactory/gustatory dysfunction symptoms. Detailed history was taken from each patient about the onset of this dysfunction, associated symptoms. Then follow-up survey was done after 6 months to evaluate the prognosis. RESULTS: 1031 patients were included in the study, aged 18 to 69 years old, with 31.8% were male. Olfactory/gustatory dysfunctions occurred after other COVID-19 symptoms in 43.5% of cases, occurred suddenly in 80.4% and gradually in 19.6%. These dysfunctions were anosmia & ageusia in 50.2%, hyposmia & hypogeusia in 23.3%, anosmia alone in 17.7%, phantosmia in 18%, Parosmia in 28.4%. In terms of recovery 6-month follow up, 680 patients (66%) recovered completely, 22.1% recovered partially while 11.9% did not recover. Most improvement occurred in the first two weeks. Headache, malaise, nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea were the commonest COVID-19 symptoms associated. CONCLUSION: Most recovery of olfactory/gustatory dysfunction in COVID-19 infection occurs at the first two weeks and is unrelated to patient demographics, treatment or olfactory training. Parosmia is an independent predictor for complete recovery, while phantosmia is significantly associated with lower probability of complete recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology
9.
Rhinology ; 59(6): 517-527, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Using an age and gender matched-pair case-control study, we aimed to estimate the long-term prevalence of psychophysical olfactory, gustatory , and chemesthesis impairment at least one year after SARS-CoV-2 infection considering the background of chemosensory dysfunction in non-COVID-19 population. METHODOLOGY: This case-controlled study included 100 patients who were home-isolated for mildly symptomatic COVID-19 between March and April 2020. One control regularly tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection and always tested negative was matched to each case according to gender and age. Chemosensory function was investigated by a comprehensive psychophysical evaluation including ortho- and retronasal olfaction and an extensive assessment of gustatory function. Differences in chemosensory parameters were evaluated through either Fisher’s exact test or Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: The psychophysical assessment of chemosensory function took place after a median of 401 days from the first SARS-CoV-2 positive swab. The evaluation of orthonasal smell identified 46% and 10% of cases and controls, respectively, having olfactory dysfunction, with 7% of COVID-19 cases being functionally anosmic. Testing of gustatory function revealed a 27% of cases versus 10% of controls showing a gustatory impairment. Nasal trigeminal sensitivity was significantly lower in cases compared to controls. Persistent chemosensory impairment was associated with emotional distress and depression. CONCLUSION: More than one year after the onset of COVID-19, cases exhibited an excess of olfactory, gustatory , and chemesthesis disturbances compared to matched-pair controls with these symptoms being associated to emotional distress and depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Case-Control Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology
10.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 51, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416822

ABSTRACT

To determine the prevalence and clinical features of olfactory and taste disorders among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in China. A cross-sectional study was performed in Wuhan from April 3, 2020 to April 15, 2020. A total of 187 patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) completed face-to-face interviews or telephone follow-ups. We found that the prevalence of olfactory and taste disorders was significantly lower in the Chinese cohort than in foreign COVID-19 cohorts. Females were more prone to olfactory and taste disorders. In some patients, olfactory and taste disorders precede other symptoms and can be used as early screening and warning signs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Smell , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17504, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392890

ABSTRACT

Chemosensory impairments have been established as a specific indicator of COVID-19. They affect most patients and may persist long past the resolution of respiratory symptoms, representing an unprecedented medical challenge. Since the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic started, we now know much more about smell, taste, and chemesthesis loss associated with COVID-19. However, the temporal dynamics and characteristics of recovery are still unknown. Here, capitalizing on data from the Global Consortium for Chemosensory Research (GCCR) crowdsourced survey, we assessed chemosensory abilities after the resolution of respiratory symptoms in participants diagnosed with COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic in Italy. This analysis led to the identification of two patterns of chemosensory recovery, partial and substantial, which were found to be associated with differential age, degrees of chemosensory loss, and regional patterns. Uncovering the self-reported phenomenology of recovery from smell, taste, and chemesthetic disorders is the first, yet essential step, to provide healthcare professionals with the tools to take purposeful and targeted action to address chemosensory disorders and their severe discomfort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Clinical Decision-Making , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Self Report , Taste Disorders/etiology , Young Adult
14.
Fam Pract ; 38(Suppl 1): i37-i44, 2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376295

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The early identification of COVID-19 patients is of outmost importance in the current pandemic. As with other pathogens, presenting symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 may vary, depending on sociodemographic factors. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients by age/gender and to assess whether the diagnostic performance of these symptoms varied according to these variables. METHODS: We analysed data from a cross-sectional study involving primary care patients undergoing RT-PCR testing in Lyon, France. Among patients who tested positive, we examined whether there was an association between age/gender and various symptoms. In addition, we calculated the diagnostic performance of the most specific symptoms (smell/taste disorder). RESULTS: Among 1543 consecutive patients, 253 tested positive (16%). There were significant age/gender-related differences in symptoms. In middle-aged women, the diagnostic performance of smell/taste disorders were AUC = 0.65 [95%CI 0.59-0.71] and PPV = 72% [95%CI 53-87%], that is higher than in the entire sample (smell/taste disorders: AUC = 0.59 [95%CI 0.57-0.62] and PPV = 57% [95%CI 47-67%]. In contrast, the negative predictive values of smell/taste disorders were similar in both groups (85% [95%CI 81-89%] for middle-age women and 86% [95%CI 85-88%] for the entire sample). CONCLUSION: We found significant age/gender-related differences in the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients. Screening strategies based on smell/taste disorders performed better in middle-aged women, but could not ensure a diagnosis of COVID-19 in any subgroup of patients. Future diagnostic strategies should use age/gender differentiated approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Primary Health Care , Self Report , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
15.
Chem Senses ; 462021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369067

ABSTRACT

Several studies have revealed either self-reported chemosensory alterations in large groups or objective quantified chemosensory impairments in smaller populations of patients diagnosed with COVID-19. However, due to the great variability in published results regarding COVID-19-induced chemosensory impairments and their follow-up, prognosis for chemosensory functions in patients with such complaints remains unclear. Our objective is to describe the various chemosensory alterations associated with COVID-19 and their prevalence and evolution after infection. A cross-sectional study of 704 healthcare workers with a RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between 2020 February 28 and 2020 June 14 was conducted 3-7 months after onset of symptoms. Data were collected with an online questionnaire. Outcomes included differences in reported chemosensory self-assessment of olfactory, gustatory, and trigeminal functions across time points and Chemosensory Perception Test scores from an easy-to-use at-home self-administered chemosensory test. Among the 704 participants, 593 (84.2%) were women, the mean (SD) age was 42 (12) years, and the questionnaire was answered on average 4.8 (0.8) months after COVID-19. During COVID-19, a decrease in olfactory, gustatory, and trigeminal sensitivities was reported by 81.3%, 81.5%, and 48.0%, respectively. Three to 7 months later, reduced sensitivity was still reported by 52.0%, 41.9%, and 23.3%, respectively. Chemosensory Perception Test scores indicate that 19.5% of participants had objective olfactory impairment. These data suggest a significant proportion of COVID-19 cases have persistent chemosensory impairments at 3-7 months after their infection, but the majority of those who had completely lost their olfactory, gustatory, and trigeminal sensitivities have improved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Time Factors
16.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 46(6): 1331-1338, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345940

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between viral load and the incidence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction (OD and GD), the incidence of respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and the recovery of OD and GD in COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This study was conducted on 599 outpatients' cases in Golestan province between February and June 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence, severity (complete or partial) and recovery time of OD and GD and their associations with cycle threshold (CT) values of SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction were assessed. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 38.27 ± 13.62 years. The incidence of general symptoms included myalgia 70.1%, headache 51.8%, fever 47.7% and dyspnoea 21.4%. 41.9% of patients had gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain 26.5%, diarrhoea 25.2%, nausea 20.5% and vomiting 12.9%. 12.2% of patients had comorbidity. The trimester recovery rates of OD and GD were 93.94% and 94.74% respectively. The mean recovery time of OD and GD was 14.56 ± 13.37 and 13.8 ± 3.77 days respectively. The mean CT value in all patients was 27.45 ± 4.55. There were significant associations between the mean of CT value with headache (p = 0.04), GD (p = 0.002) and OD (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The finding of this study indicates a possible association between viral load with incidence of OD and GD in COVID-19 patient's cases and assures the recovery of OD/GD in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Viral Load , Adult , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Incidence , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/virology
17.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(5): 2296-2303, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337771

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: This study aims to evaluate of olfactory and gustatory functions of COVID-19 patients and possible risk factors for olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions. Materials and methods: The cross-sectional study included adult patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19 in Gazi University Hospital between April 2020 and June 2020. Volunteered patients participated in a survey in which olfactory and gustatory functions and various clinical information were questioned. Sinonasal Outcome Test-22 was also administrated to all patients. Results: A hundred and seventy-one patients participated in this study. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions rates were 10.5% (n: 18) and 10.5% (n: 18), respectively. Patients without any symptom other than smell and taste dysfunctions were clustered as group 1 and patients who are clinically symptomatic were clustered as group 2. Olfactory dysfunction occurred in 8% of group 1 and 17.4% of group 2 (p = 0.072). Gustatory dysfunction rate of smokers was 19.7% and significantly higher than gustatory dysfunction rate of nonsmokers (5.5%) (p = 0.007). Twenty-seven-point-eight percent of the patients with olfactory dysfunction (n = 5) were male and 72.2% (n: 13) were female. Sex did not show significant effect on rate of olfactory dysfunction. Twenty-five patients participated in psychophysical olfactory function test. No participant reported olfactory dysfunction at the time of test. Of the participants, 64% (n: 16) were normosmic and 36% (n: 9) were hyposmic according to Sniffin' Stick test. Conclusion: Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions are more common in patients who are clinically symptomatic than those diagnosed during contact tracing. Objective tests may show that frequency of olfactory dysfunction is greater than frequency of self-reported olfactory dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
Auris Nasus Larynx ; 49(2): 165-175, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309146

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Loss of smell or taste are early symptoms of COVID-19. Given the high asymptomatic rate of COVID-19, as well as unreliable temperature checking and contact history taking, it is important to understand the role of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction (OGD) in the diagnosis of COVID-19. The aim of this study is to determine how initial symptoms of OGD can be used to screen patients for COVID-19 laboratory testing. METHODS: We followed recommendations from the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement to conduct this systematic review study. We used OGD-related key words to search for literature published between January 1, 2020 and September 30, 2020 on Pubmed, Ovid Medline databases. We estimated the prevalence of OGD and compared it with that of other OGD-related symptoms. The weighted summary proportion under the fixed and random effects model was assessed using MedCalc statistical software. Whenever there was heterogeneity, a random effects model was selected. Publication bias was assessed by funnel plot asymmetry and Egger's regression test. RESULTS: A total of 25 articles (evidence level III:5; IV:20) were identified and reviewed. Data synthesis of 19 articles revealed that the pooled prevalence of olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19 is 53.56% (range 5.6-100%, 95% CI 40.25-66.61%). The pooled prevalence of gustatory dysfunction in COVID-19 is 43.93% (range 1.5-85.18%, 95% CI 28.72-59.74%), just behind fever (62.22%, range 18.18-95.83%, 95% CI 54.82-69.33%), cough (64.74%, range 38.89-87.5%, 95% CI 57.97-71.22%), and fatigue (56.74%, range 6.25-93.62%, 95% CI 32.53-79.35%). The prevalence of gustatory dysfunction in subgroup with objective evaluation is lower than those without (9.91% vs. 49.21%, relive risk 2.82, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Our updated systematic review attests that OGD is an important early symptom of COVID-19 infection. Screening for OGD should be further emphasized to prioritize patients for laboratory test.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 612, 2021 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The unexpected outbreak of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused more than 49 million cases and an estimated 2,000,000 associated deaths worldwide. In Germany, there are currently more than 2,000,000 laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases including 51,800 deaths. However, regional differences also became apparent and with the second wave of infections, the detailed characterization of COVID-19 patients is crucial to early diagnosis and disruption of chains of infections. METHODS: Handing out detailed questionnaires to all individuals tested for COVID-19, we evaluated the clinical characteristics of negative and positive tested individuals. Expression of symptoms, symptom duration and association between predictor variables (i.e. age, gender) and a binary outcome (olfactory and gustatory dysfunction) were assessed. RESULTS: Overall, the most common symptoms among individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were fatigue, headache, and cough. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction were also reported by many SARS-CoV-2 negative individuals, more than 20% of SARS-CoV-2 negative tested individuals in our study reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunction. Independent of SARS-CoV-2 status, more females displayed symptoms of gustatory (29.8%, p = 0.0041) and olfactory dysfunction (22.9%, p = 0.0174) compared to men. CONCLUSIONS: Bringing early SARS-CoV-2 tests to the populations at risk must be a main focus for the upcoming months. The reliability of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in COVID-19 negative tested individuals requires deeper investigation in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/epidemiology , Early Diagnosis , Fatigue/epidemiology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sex Characteristics , Smell , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Young Adult
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