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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2111, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692556

ABSTRACT

Alterations in the three chemosensory modalities-smell, taste, and chemesthesis-have been implicated in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), yet emerging data suggest a wide geographic and ethnic variation in the prevalence of these symptoms. Studies on chemosensory disorders in COVID-19 have predominantly focused on Caucasian populations whereas Asians remain understudied. We conducted a nationwide, multicentre cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire on a cohort of RT-PCR-confirmed adult COVID-19 patients in Malaysia between 6 June and 30 November 2020. The aim of our study was to investigate their presenting symptoms and assess their chemosensory function using self-ratings of perceived smell, taste, chemesthesis, and nasal blockage. In this cohort of 498 patients, 41.4% reported smell and/or taste loss when diagnosed with COVID-19, which was the commonest symptom. Blocked nose, loss of appetite, and gastrointestinal disturbances were independent predictors of smell and/or taste loss on multivariate analysis. Self-ratings of chemosensory function revealed a reduction in smell, taste, and chemesthesis across the entire cohort of patients that was more profound among those reporting smell and/or taste loss as their presenting symptom. Perceived nasal obstruction accounted for only a small proportion of changes in smell and taste, but not for chemesthesis, supporting viral disruption of sensorineural mechanisms as the dominant aetiology of chemosensory dysfunction. Our study suggests that chemosensory dysfunction in COVID-19 is more widespread than previously reported among Asians and may be related to the infectivity of viral strains.Study Registration: NMRR-20-934-54803 and NCT04390165.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Olfaction Disorders , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256998, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Qualitative olfactory (smell) dysfunctions are a common side effect of post-viral illness and known to impact quality of life and health status. Evidence is emerging that taste and smell loss are common symptoms of Covid-19 that may emerge and persist long after initial infection. The aim of the present study was to document the impact of post Covid-19 alterations to taste and smell. METHODS: We conducted exploratory thematic analysis of user-generated text from 9000 users of the AbScent Covid-19 Smell and Taste Loss moderated Facebook support group from March 24 to 30th September 2020. RESULTS: Participants reported difficulty explaining and managing an altered sense of taste and smell; a lack of interpersonal and professional explanation or support; altered eating; appetite loss, weight change; loss of pleasure in food, eating and social engagement; altered intimacy and an altered relationship to self and others. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest altered taste and smell with Covid-19 may lead to severe disruption to daily living that impacts on psychological well-being, physical health, relationships and sense of self. More specifically, participants reported impacts that related to reduced desire and ability to eat and prepare food; weight gain, weight loss and nutritional insufficiency; emotional wellbeing; professional practice; intimacy and social bonding; and the disruption of people's sense of reality and themselves. Our findings should inform further research and suggest areas for the training, assessment and treatment practices of health care professionals working with long Covid.


Subject(s)
Anosmia , COVID-19 , Olfactory Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders , Taste Perception , Adult , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Anosmia/psychology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Taste Disorders/psychology , Time Factors
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 612, 2021 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The unexpected outbreak of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused more than 49 million cases and an estimated 2,000,000 associated deaths worldwide. In Germany, there are currently more than 2,000,000 laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases including 51,800 deaths. However, regional differences also became apparent and with the second wave of infections, the detailed characterization of COVID-19 patients is crucial to early diagnosis and disruption of chains of infections. METHODS: Handing out detailed questionnaires to all individuals tested for COVID-19, we evaluated the clinical characteristics of negative and positive tested individuals. Expression of symptoms, symptom duration and association between predictor variables (i.e. age, gender) and a binary outcome (olfactory and gustatory dysfunction) were assessed. RESULTS: Overall, the most common symptoms among individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were fatigue, headache, and cough. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction were also reported by many SARS-CoV-2 negative individuals, more than 20% of SARS-CoV-2 negative tested individuals in our study reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunction. Independent of SARS-CoV-2 status, more females displayed symptoms of gustatory (29.8%, p = 0.0041) and olfactory dysfunction (22.9%, p = 0.0174) compared to men. CONCLUSIONS: Bringing early SARS-CoV-2 tests to the populations at risk must be a main focus for the upcoming months. The reliability of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in COVID-19 negative tested individuals requires deeper investigation in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/epidemiology , Early Diagnosis , Fatigue/epidemiology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sex Characteristics , Smell , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Young Adult
4.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(6): 103068, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210791

ABSTRACT

The effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) exist on a spectrum. Clinical symptoms of smell and taste dysfunction are prominent features of COVID-19. The objective of this study was to elucidate the factors associated with smell and taste dysfunction amongst hospitalized COVID-19 patients. A retrospective review of a multi-hospital health network's COVID-19 database between March and June 2020 was performed. Patients with self-reported smell or taste loss were included. Demographic information, patient comorbidities, and mortality data was obtained. There were 2892 patients included in this analysis and 117 reported smell or taste loss (4.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4%-4.8%). The proportion of females with smell or taste loss was significantly higher than males (6.3% vs. 2.5%, P < 0.001), whereas no differences existed between ethnicity or smoking status. When compared with age of 30-40 years, the age group of 10-20 years were most likely to present with smell or taste dysfunction (odds ratio [OR] 6.59, 95% CI 1.32-26.12; P = 0.01). The majority of specific comorbidities were not associated with increased incidence of smell or taste dysfunction. Outpatient healthcare workers were more likely to present with smell or taste loss (OR 3.2, CI 1.8-5.47; P < 0.001). The mortality rate among COVID-19 patients with smell or taste dysfunction was significantly lower than those without (0% vs. 20.3%; P < 0.001). Smell or taste loss is more prevalent in women, younger age groups, and healthier individuals. It may be associated with lower mortality and a milder disease trajectory compared to the overall cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Hospitalization , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Smell/physiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Taste/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/mortality , Young Adult
5.
Neurosci Lett ; 748: 135694, 2021 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188917

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 often complain of smell and taste disorders (STD). STD emerge early in the course of the disease, seem to be more common in SARS-CoV-2 infection than in other upper respiratory tract infections, and could in some cases persist for long after resolution of respiratory symptoms. Current evidence suggests that STD probably result from a loss of function of olfactory sensory neurons and taste buds, mainly caused by infection, inflammation, and subsequent dysfunction of supporting non-neuronal cells in the mucosa. However, the possible occurrence of other mechanisms leading to chemosensory dysfunction has also been hypothesized, and contrasting data have been reported regarding the direct infection of sensory neurons by SARS-CoV-2. In this mini-review, we summarize the currently available literature on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and outcomes of STD in COVID-19 and discuss possible future directions of research on this topic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Taste Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mouth Mucosa/immunology , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Olfactory Mucosa/immunology , Olfactory Mucosa/pathology , Olfactory Receptor Neurons/immunology , Olfactory Receptor Neurons/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Smell/physiology , Taste/physiology , Taste Buds/immunology , Taste Buds/pathology , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology
7.
Neuroepidemiology ; 55(2): 154-161, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166623

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Smell and taste loss are characteristic symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: We conducted an observational, retrospective study on 376 patients with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to the San Gerardo Hospital in Monza, Italy, from March to July 2020. All patients answered a phone questionnaire providing information on age, sex, smoking status, and clinical characteristics. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated through logistic regression models including relevant covariates. RESULTS: The prevalence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions in COVID-19 patients was 33.5 and 35.6%, respectively. Olfactory dysfunctions were significantly directly associated with current smoking and history of allergy, the multivariable ORs being 6.53 (95% CI 1.16-36.86) for current smokers versus never smokers, and 1.89 (95% CI 1.05-3.39) for those with an allergy compared to those without any allergy. Respiratory allergy in particular was significantly associated with olfactory dysfunctions (multivariable OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.02-5.17). Significant inverse associations were observed for patients aged 60 years or more (multivariable OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.19-0.57) and hospitalization (multivariable OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06-0.89). Considering gustatory dysfunctions, after allowance of other variables a significant direct association was found for respiratory allergies (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.03-4.86), and an inverse association was found only for hospitalization (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.76). CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that current smoking and history of allergy (particularly respiratory) significantly increase the risk for smell loss in COVID-19 patients; the latter is also significantly associated to taste loss. Hospitalization has an inverse association with the risk of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions, suggesting that these may be symptoms characteristics of less severe SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Respiratory Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , Anosmia/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology
8.
Can Respir J ; 2021: 6692409, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093889

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate changes in pulmonary function and computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the recovery period. COVID-19 patients underwent symptom assessment, pulmonary function tests, and high-resolution chest CT 6 months after discharge from the hospital. Of the 54 patients enrolled, 31 and 23 were in the moderate and severe group, respectively. The main symptoms 6 months after discharge were fatigue and exertional dyspnea, experienced by 24.1% and 18.5% of patients, respectively, followed by smell and taste dysfunction (9.3%) and cough (5.6%). One patient dropped out of the pulmonary function tests. Of the remaining 54 patients, 41.5% had pulmonary dysfunction. Specifically, 7.5% presented with restrictive ventilatory dysfunction (forced vital capacity <80% of the predicted value), 18.9% presented with small airway dysfunction, and 32.1% presented with pulmonary diffusion impairment (diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide <80% of the predicted value). Of the 54 patients enrolled, six patients dropped out of the chest CT tests. Eleven of the remaining 48 patients presented with abnormal lung CT findings 6 months after discharge. Patients with residual lung lesions were more common in the severe group (52.6%) than in the moderate group (3.4%); a higher proportion of patients had involvement of both lungs (42.1% vs. 3.4%) in the severe group. The residual lung lesions were mainly ground-glass opacities (20.8%) and linear opacities (14.6%). Semiquantitative visual scoring of the CT findings revealed significantly higher scores in the left, right, and both lungs in the severe group than in the moderate group. COVID-19 patients 6 months after discharge mostly presented with fatigue and exertional dyspnea, and their pulmonary dysfunction was mostly characterized by pulmonary diffusion impairment. As revealed by chest CT, the severe group had a higher prevalence of residual lesions than the moderate group, and the residual lesions mostly manifested as ground-glass opacities and linear opacities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cough/physiopathology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Peak Expiratory Flow Rate , Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity , Recovery of Function , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vital Capacity
9.
Ann Neurol ; 89(3): 598-603, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086259

ABSTRACT

We diagnosed 11 Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) cases among 71,904 COVID patients attended at 61 Spanish emergency departments (EDs) during the 2-month pandemic peak. The relative frequency of GBS among ED patients was higher in COVID (0.15‰) than non-COVID (0.02‰) patients (odds ratio [OR] = 6.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.18-12.5), as was the standardized incidence (9.44 and 0.69 cases/100,000 inhabitant-years, respectively, OR = 13.5, 95% CI = 9.87-18.4). Regarding clinical characteristics, olfactory-gustatory disorders were more frequent in COVID-GBS than non-COVID-GBS (OR = 27.59, 95% CI = 1.296-587) and COVID-non-GBS (OR = 7.875, 95% CI = 1.587-39.09) patients. Although COVID-GBS patients were more frequently admitted to intensive care, mortality was not increased versus control groups. Our results suggest SARS-CoV-2 could be another viral infection causing GBS. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:598-603.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology
10.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 21(3): 229-244, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075605

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Olfactory dysfunction (OD) can be a single and early prominent symptom of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-COV-2 infection unlike middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS) and SARS. OD data are very informative but many are not peer-reviewed, often inconclusive and may reveal variable and sometimes contradictory results. This is often due to incongruent data of subjective and objective OD testing. Mechanistic pathways of OD and taste dysfunction (TD) are slowly unveiling, not infrequently extrapolated from historical models of SARS and MERS and are still partly unclear. RECENT FINDINGS: We reviewed the literature on OD and TD during the COVID-19 pandemic analyzing current data on pathogenesis and clinical correlates including prevalence, recovery rates, risk factors, and predictive power. Also, we evaluated various methods of subjective and objective olfactory testing and discussed challenges in management of patients with OD and rhinitis during the pandemic. SUMMARY: Subjective evaluation of smell disturbances during COVID-19 pandemic likely underestimates true prevalence, severity, and recovery rates of OD when compared to objective testing. OD is predictive of COVID-19 infection, more so when associated with TD. Recognizing inherent limitations of both subjective and objective OD and TD testing enables us better to manage chemosensory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. Besides, current mechanistic data suggest neurotropism of COVID-19 for olfactory neuro-epithelium and a potential role of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Future studies are needed to explore further the neurogenic inflammation in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anosmia , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Anosmia/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Taste Disorders/therapy
11.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 142: 110626, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065193

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence, clinical course and outcomes of olfactory and taste dysfunction in COVID-19 positive adolescents. METHODS: This prospective study was carried out from May to August 2020. The adolescents, aged 10-19 years, who were detected COVID-19 positive by RT-PCR with mild to moderate disease were included in the study. The following epidemiological and clinical outcomes were studied: age, sex, general symptoms, olfactory and taste dysfunction. RESULTS: Out of 141 patients included in the study, there were 83 males (58.9%) and 58 females (41.1%). The age varied from 10 to 19 years with an average of 15.2 years. Forty patients (28.4%) had olfactory or taste dysfunction. Out of these 40 patients, 28 patients (19.8%) had both olfactory and taste dysfunction. Of the 34 patients (24.1%) who complained of olfactory dysfunction, 16 patients complained of hyposmia and 18 patients complained of anosmia. Dysgeusia was reported by 34 patients (24.1%). The duration of OTD varied from 2 to 15 days with an average of 5.7 days. CONCLUSION: Loss of smell and taste are common symptoms in COVID-19 positive adolescents. It recovers spontaneously within a few weeks, along with the resolution of other symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Adolescent , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Child , Disease Progression , Dysgeusia/etiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Young Adult
12.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(4): e40, 2021 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction are frequently reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the reported prevalence of olfactory and/or gustatory dysfunction varies widely, and the reason for the inter-study differences is unclear. Hence, in this meta-analysis, we performed subgroup analyses to investigate the factors that contribute to the inter-study variability in the prevalence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction. METHODS: Out of 943 citations, we included 55 eligible studies with 13,527 patients with COVID-19 for a meta-analysis. Calculating the data extracted from each study, the weighted summary prevalence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction was estimated using a Freeman-Tukey transformation with models based on random-effects assumptions. A meta-analysis of variance compared the prevalence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction according to regional, chronological, demographic, and methodologic factors, respectively. RESULTS: The overall pooled prevalence rates of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction were 51.4% and 47.5%, respectively, in the random-effect model. In subgroup analyses, the prevalence rates of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction were significantly different among four geographical regions (both P < 0.001, respectively). Although the prevalence rates of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction did not significantly differ according to the time of enrollment, the subgroup analyses including only studies from the same geographical region (Europe) revealed a significant difference in olfactory dysfunction according to the time of enrollment. CONCLUSION: The regional and chronological differences in the prevalence rates of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions partly explain the wide inter-study variability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Taste Disorders/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Europe , Geography , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , Reproducibility of Results , Smell , Taste Disorders/epidemiology
13.
Semin Perinatol ; 44(7): 151284, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030195

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic poses unique challenges to the medical community as the optimal treatment has not been determined and is often at the discretion of institutional guidelines. Pregnancy has previously been described as a high-risk state in the context of infectious diseases, given a particular susceptibility to pathogens and adverse outcomes. Although ongoing studies have provided insight on the course of this disease in the adult population, the implications of COVID-19 on pregnancy remains an understudied area. The objective of this study is to review the literature and describe clinical presentations among pregnant women afflicted with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Asymptomatic Infections , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Cardiomyopathies/physiopathology , Central Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Female , HELLP Syndrome/metabolism , Humans , Hypercapnia , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Hypoxia/therapy , Liver Diseases/metabolism , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Mass Screening , Myalgia/physiopathology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pre-Eclampsia/metabolism , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/metabolism , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Taste Disorders/physiopathology
14.
Acta Otolaryngol ; 141(3): 299-302, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023995

ABSTRACT

Background: It has been noted that olfactory and gustatory disturbances may precede or accompany the typical features of COVID-19, such as fever and cough. Hence, a high index of suspicion is required when patients report sudden loss of smell or taste, in order to facilitate timely diagnosis and isolation.Aims/objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of olfactory and gustatory disturbances in COVID-19 positive patients from a cohort representative of Melbourne, Australia.Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted on patients who tested positive for COVID-19. Standardised phone consultations and online follow-up questionnaires were performed to assess clinical features of COVID-19, with a focus on smell and taste disorders.Results: The most frequent symptoms experienced were taste and smell disturbances with 74% experiencing either smell or taste disturbance or both. Post-recovery, 34% of patients continued to experience ongoing hyposmia and 2% anosmia, whereas 28% continued to suffer from hypogeusia or ageusia.Conclusion and significance: This study presents the high rates of improvement of both olfactory and gustatory disturbance in a short-lived period. It also highlights the importance of these symptoms in prompting appropriate testing, quarantine precautions, initiate early olfactory retraining and the potential for continued sensory disturbance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Smell/physiology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Victoria/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
Laryngoscope ; 131(5): 1095-1100, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009082

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: With the COVID-19 pandemic, chemosensory dysfunction are among the most prevalent symptoms. Most reports are subjective evaluations, which have been suggested to be unreliable. The objective is to test chemosensory dysfunction and recovery based on extensive psychophysical tests in COVID-19 during the course of the disease. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: A total of 111 patients from four centers participated in the study. All tested positive for SARS-COV-2 with RT-PCR. They were tested within 3 days of diagnosis and 28 to 169 days after infection. Testing included extensive olfactory testing with the Sniffin' Sticks test for threshold, discrimination and identification abilities, and with the Taste Sprays and Taste Strips for gustatory function for quasi-threshold and taste identification abilities. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in olfactory function during and after infection. During infection 21% were anosmic, 49% hyposmic, and 30% normosmic. After infection only 1% were anosmic, 26% hyposmic, and 73% normosmic. For gustatory function, there was a difference for all taste qualities, but significantly in sour, bitter, and total score. Twenty-six percent had gustatory dysfunction during infection and 6.5% had gustatory dysfunction after infection. Combining all tests 22% had combined olfactory and gustatory dysfunction during infection. After infection no patients had combined dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Chemosensory dysfunction is very common in COVID-19, either as isolated smell or taste dysfunction or a combined dysfunction. Most people regain their chemosensory function within the first 28 days, but a quarter of the patients show persisting dysfunction, which should be referred to specialist smell and taste clinics for rehabilitation of chemosensory function. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 131:1095-1100, 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Psychophysics/methods , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/rehabilitation , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Olfactory Perception/physiology , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Taste Disorders/rehabilitation , Taste Disorders/virology , Taste Perception/physiology
16.
Ann Neurol ; 89(3): 598-603, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995848

ABSTRACT

We diagnosed 11 Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) cases among 71,904 COVID patients attended at 61 Spanish emergency departments (EDs) during the 2-month pandemic peak. The relative frequency of GBS among ED patients was higher in COVID (0.15‰) than non-COVID (0.02‰) patients (odds ratio [OR] = 6.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.18-12.5), as was the standardized incidence (9.44 and 0.69 cases/100,000 inhabitant-years, respectively, OR = 13.5, 95% CI = 9.87-18.4). Regarding clinical characteristics, olfactory-gustatory disorders were more frequent in COVID-GBS than non-COVID-GBS (OR = 27.59, 95% CI = 1.296-587) and COVID-non-GBS (OR = 7.875, 95% CI = 1.587-39.09) patients. Although COVID-GBS patients were more frequently admitted to intensive care, mortality was not increased versus control groups. Our results suggest SARS-CoV-2 could be another viral infection causing GBS. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:598-603.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology
17.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(24): 13044-13048, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000849

ABSTRACT

As a severe and highly contagious infection, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) affects all aspects of society and has become a global public health problem. Because of the complexity of the pathology of COVID-19, it is difficult to treat. An increasing number of reports have indicated that COVID-19 may have neurological complications, including stroke. The nervous system complications of COVID-19 have gradually attracted research attention. In this review, we summarize the latest findings related to COVID 19, elaborate on the possible mechanism of COVID 19 related onset of stroke, and summarize current treatment options because an improved understanding and appropriate treatments may improve the prognosis of patients with COVID-19-related stroke.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Stroke/physiopathology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Cytokines/immunology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Humans , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , Stockings, Compression , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/immunology , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 100: 507-512, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-982692

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan using a telephone interview. METHODS: This retrospective telephone survey investigated 196 consecutive patients with COVID-19 at 3 months after discharge from two hospitals in Wuhan, China. The characteristics of the patient's disease course and time to recovery from olfactory and/or gustatory dysfunction (OD and/or GD) were collected by telephone interview. Demographic data were collected from the patient medical records. RESULTS: A total of 196 patients with COVID-19 completed the study. The most prevalent general symptoms were fever, cough, and fatigue. Overall, 19.9% of the patients reported OD and/or GD. In 87.2% of these cases, OD or GD appeared after the general symptoms. The time to recovery from OD and/or GD was more than 4 weeks in 51.4% of the patients. Patients with COVID-19 and OD and/or GD had significantly higher rates of cardiovascular disease than patients without OD and/or GD (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Recovery from chemosensory dysfunction (OD and/or GD) was slow, with over half of the patients taking more than 4 weeks to recover. Cardiovascular disease might be related to the development of olfactory or taste disorders in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/physiopathology
20.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(41): e375, 2020 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction has been reported as characteristic symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study evaluated olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in mild COVID-19 patients using validated assessment methods. METHODS: A prospective surveillance study was conducted for mild COVID-19 patients who were isolated at the Gyeonggi International Living and Treatment Support Center (LTSC), Korea. Olfactory function was assessed using the Korean version of the Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders (QOD) and Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CC-SIT). Gustatory function was assessed using an 11-point Likert scale and 6-n-propylthiouracil, phenylthiocarbamide, and control strips. All patients underwent nasal and oral cavity endoscopic examination. RESULTS: Of the 62 patients at the LTSC, 15 patients (24.2%) complained of olfactory or gustatory dysfunction on admission. Four of 10 patients who underwent functional evaluation did not have general symptoms and 2 were asymptomatic. The mean short version of QOD-negative statements and QOD-visual analogue scale scores were 13 ± 6 and 4.7 ± 3.6, respectively. The mean CC-SIT score was 8 ± 2. No patients showed anatomical abnormalities associated with olfactory dysfunction on endoscopic examination. The mean Likert scale score for function was 8 ± 2, and there were no abnormal lesions in the oral cavity of any patient. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction was 24.2% in mild COVID-19 patients. All patients had hyposmia due to sensorineural olfactory dysfunction, which was confirmed using validated olfactory and gustatory evaluation methods and endoscopic examination. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction may be characteristic indicators of mild COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Symptom Assessment/methods , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cultural Characteristics , Endoscopy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prospective Studies , Quarantine , Reproducibility of Results , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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