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2.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(11): 1010-1018, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569186

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the association between olfactory dysfunction or taste impairment and disease severity and radiological findings in coronavirus disease-2019. The secondary goal was to assess the prevalence, severity and course of olfactory dysfunction or taste impairment in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. METHOD: This prospective observational cohort study evaluated patients hospitalised with coronavirus disease 2019 between April 1 and 1 May 2020. Olfactory dysfunction and taste impairment were evaluated by two questionnaires. Chest computed tomography findings and coronavirus disease-2019 severity were assessed. RESULTS: Among 133 patients, 23.3 per cent and 30.8 per cent experienced olfactory dysfunction and taste impairment, respectively, and 17.2 per cent experienced both. The mean age was 56.03 years, and 64.7 per cent were male and 35.3 per cent were female. No statistically significant association was found between olfactory dysfunction (p = 0.706) and taste impairment (p = 0.35) with either disease severity or chest computed tomography grading. CONCLUSION: Olfactory dysfunction or taste impairment does not have prognostic importance in patients with coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Taste Disorders/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103259, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446373

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to comprehensively evaluate olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions during the COVID-19 pandemic regarding onset, course, associated symptoms, prognosis and relation to patients' demographics, treatment received and other symptoms. PATIENTS& METHODS: This is a prospective study conducted on patients proven to be infected with COVID-19 and with olfactory/gustatory dysfunction symptoms. Detailed history was taken from each patient about the onset of this dysfunction, associated symptoms. Then follow-up survey was done after 6 months to evaluate the prognosis. RESULTS: 1031 patients were included in the study, aged 18 to 69 years old, with 31.8% were male. Olfactory/gustatory dysfunctions occurred after other COVID-19 symptoms in 43.5% of cases, occurred suddenly in 80.4% and gradually in 19.6%. These dysfunctions were anosmia & ageusia in 50.2%, hyposmia & hypogeusia in 23.3%, anosmia alone in 17.7%, phantosmia in 18%, Parosmia in 28.4%. In terms of recovery 6-month follow up, 680 patients (66%) recovered completely, 22.1% recovered partially while 11.9% did not recover. Most improvement occurred in the first two weeks. Headache, malaise, nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea were the commonest COVID-19 symptoms associated. CONCLUSION: Most recovery of olfactory/gustatory dysfunction in COVID-19 infection occurs at the first two weeks and is unrelated to patient demographics, treatment or olfactory training. Parosmia is an independent predictor for complete recovery, while phantosmia is significantly associated with lower probability of complete recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology
4.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103170, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347477

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: New-onset olfactory and gustatory dysfunction (OGD) represents a well-acknowledged COVID-19 red flag. Nevertheless, its clinical, virological and serological features are still a matter of debate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this cohort study, 170 consecutive subjects with new-onset OGD were consecutively recruited. Otolaryngological examination, OGD subjective grading, nasopharyngeal swabs (NS) for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection and serum samples (SS) collection for SARS-CoV-2 IgG quantification were conducted at baseline and after one (T1), two (T2) and four weeks (T3). RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed in 79% of patients. Specifically, 43% of positive patients were detected only by SS analysis. The OGD was the only clinical complaint in 10% of cases. Concurrent sinonasal symptoms were reported by 45% of patients. Subjective improvement at T3 was reported by 97% of patients, with 40% recovering completely. Hormonal disorders and RNA detectability in NS were the only variables associated with OGD severity. Recovery rate was higher in case of seasonal influenza vaccination, lower in patients with systemic involvement and severe OGD. Not RNA levels nor IgG titers were correlated with recovery. CONCLUSION: Clinical, virological and serological features of COVID-19 related OGD were monitored longitudinally, offering valuable hints for future research on the relationship between host characteristics and chemosensory dysfunctions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/immunology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/immunology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adult , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
5.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 46(6): 1331-1338, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345940

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between viral load and the incidence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction (OD and GD), the incidence of respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and the recovery of OD and GD in COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This study was conducted on 599 outpatients' cases in Golestan province between February and June 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence, severity (complete or partial) and recovery time of OD and GD and their associations with cycle threshold (CT) values of SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction were assessed. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 38.27 ± 13.62 years. The incidence of general symptoms included myalgia 70.1%, headache 51.8%, fever 47.7% and dyspnoea 21.4%. 41.9% of patients had gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain 26.5%, diarrhoea 25.2%, nausea 20.5% and vomiting 12.9%. 12.2% of patients had comorbidity. The trimester recovery rates of OD and GD were 93.94% and 94.74% respectively. The mean recovery time of OD and GD was 14.56 ± 13.37 and 13.8 ± 3.77 days respectively. The mean CT value in all patients was 27.45 ± 4.55. There were significant associations between the mean of CT value with headache (p = 0.04), GD (p = 0.002) and OD (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The finding of this study indicates a possible association between viral load with incidence of OD and GD in COVID-19 patient's cases and assures the recovery of OD/GD in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Viral Load , Adult , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Incidence , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/virology
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 612, 2021 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The unexpected outbreak of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused more than 49 million cases and an estimated 2,000,000 associated deaths worldwide. In Germany, there are currently more than 2,000,000 laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases including 51,800 deaths. However, regional differences also became apparent and with the second wave of infections, the detailed characterization of COVID-19 patients is crucial to early diagnosis and disruption of chains of infections. METHODS: Handing out detailed questionnaires to all individuals tested for COVID-19, we evaluated the clinical characteristics of negative and positive tested individuals. Expression of symptoms, symptom duration and association between predictor variables (i.e. age, gender) and a binary outcome (olfactory and gustatory dysfunction) were assessed. RESULTS: Overall, the most common symptoms among individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were fatigue, headache, and cough. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction were also reported by many SARS-CoV-2 negative individuals, more than 20% of SARS-CoV-2 negative tested individuals in our study reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunction. Independent of SARS-CoV-2 status, more females displayed symptoms of gustatory (29.8%, p = 0.0041) and olfactory dysfunction (22.9%, p = 0.0174) compared to men. CONCLUSIONS: Bringing early SARS-CoV-2 tests to the populations at risk must be a main focus for the upcoming months. The reliability of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in COVID-19 negative tested individuals requires deeper investigation in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/epidemiology , Early Diagnosis , Fatigue/epidemiology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sex Characteristics , Smell , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Young Adult
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 983-994, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196427

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical features of mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a sample of Italian patients and to investigate the occurrence of smell and taste disorders. Infected individuals with suspected (clinical diagnosis) or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection were recruited. Patients completed a survey-based questionnaire with the aim of assessing their epidemiological and clinical characteristics, general otorhinolaryngological symptoms, and smell and taste disorders. A total of 294 patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 completed the survey (147 females). The most prevalent general symptoms included fever, myalgia, cough, and headache. A total of 70.4% and 59.2% of patients reported smell and taste disorders, respectively. A significant association between the two above-mentioned disorders was found (rs: 0.412; P < .001). Smell disorders occurred before the other symptoms in 11.6% of patients and was not significantly associated with nasal obstruction or rhinorrhea. Interestingly, our statistical analysis did not show any significant difference, either for general symptoms or otorhinolaryngological features, between the clinical diagnosis group and the laboratory-confirmed diagnosis (polymerase chain reaction) group. The structural equation model confirmed significant standardized paths (P < .05) between general symptoms, comorbidities, and general otorhinolaryngological complaints in the absence of a significant correlation between these elements and smell and taste alterations. The prevalence of smell and taste disorders in mild-to-moderate Italian COVID-19 patients is significant both in suspected and laboratory-confirmed cases and reveals a strong correlation between these clinical signs regardless of the presence of general or otorhinolaryngological symptoms, such as nasal obstruction or rhinorrhea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Models, Statistical , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , Rhinorrhea/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(4): 103065, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193211

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the recovery of loss of smell and taste among recovered COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional follow-up study is a sequel to a study by Biadsee et al. Among the previous study population of 128 non-hospitalized patients, positive for COVID-19 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), 97 patients participated in a survey designed for this study. Information and data regarding loss of smell and taste, rate of recovery, xerostomia, and additional symptoms; (Cough, Myalgia, Weakness, Rhinorrhea, Nasal congestion) were collected. RESULTS: A total of 43 men and 54 women were included. Mean age was 37.5 years (range 19-74). Mean follow-up was 229 days (range 191-253). Sixty-five patients reported gustatory dysfunction during the disease of which 61.5% reported full recovery, 38.5% partial recovery. Of 65 patients who reported olfactory impairment during the disease, 52% had full recovery and 48% reported partial recovery of olfactory function. Complete recovery of olfactory function was positively associated with full recovery of gustatory function (p = 0.01). Gender did not significantly affect the recovery of OD and GD (p = 0.45, p = 0.90, respectively). Patients who experienced olfactory dysfunction as an initial symptom had lower rates of olfactory complete recovery (p = 0.043). CONCLUSION: After a mean follow-up of 229 days, complete recovery of smell and taste functions occurred in 52% and 61.5%, respectively. However, dysfunction persisted in 48%-38.5% of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Israel , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , Recovery of Function , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Time Factors , Young Adult
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2262-2264, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165363

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread rapidly worldwide. Given scarce resources, nonlaboratory diagnostics are crucial. In this cross-sectional study, two-thirds of European patients with confirmed COVID-19 reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunction, indicating the significance of these symptoms in early diagnostics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Germany , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nose/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Surveys and Questionnaires , Symptom Assessment , Taste , Young Adult
10.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 144: 110701, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has affected millions of people since its outbreak in December 2019. Limited data exist on otolaryngology manifestations of COVID-19 in pediatrics. This study aims to discuss the clinical features of COVID-19 in pediatrics, with an emphasis on otolaryngology manifestations. METHODS: The study included 660 COVID-19 laboratory-confirmed positive pediatric patients (aged 3-15 years) diagnosed at King Abdullah Specialist Children Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data were retrospectively retrieved from January to July 2020 from electronic medical records and included patients' epidemiological and clinical features. Patients were then followed-up via phone calls to document any symptoms encountered after the first visit. Patients were categorized into three main groups according to age (3-6 years, 7-10 years, 11-15 years). RESULTS: Nearly half of the patients (43.6%) had asymptomatic infections. Fever and cough were the most commonly reported manifestations accounting for 39.2% and 19.8%, respectively. The most frequently reported otolaryngology symptoms were sore throat (17.3%) and rhinorrhea (14.4%). Moreover, 10.4% and 13.1% of children aged 7-15 years old experienced smell and taste disturbances, respectively. Older children (11-15 years) were more likely to report taste disturbances when compared to the younger children (17.2% vs 9.8%, p-value 0.02). Children aged between 3 and 6 years had significantly higher rates of admission (13.7%) and mortality (0.9%) when compared to the older groups (p-value 0.00). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 in pediatrics has a milder disease course and a better prognosis than adults. Multiple otolaryngology symptoms were reported in pediatric patients with COVID-19, which can help identify the suspected cases before the test result.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Otolaryngology , Pediatrics , Pharyngitis/virology , Retrospective Studies , Rhinorrhea/virology , Saudi Arabia , Taste Disorders/virology
11.
Nat Med ; 27(5): 892-903, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152866

ABSTRACT

Despite signs of infection-including taste loss, dry mouth and mucosal lesions such as ulcerations, enanthema and macules-the involvement of the oral cavity in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is poorly understood. To address this, we generated and analyzed two single-cell RNA sequencing datasets of the human minor salivary glands and gingiva (9 samples, 13,824 cells), identifying 50 cell clusters. Using integrated cell normalization and annotation, we classified 34 unique cell subpopulations between glands and gingiva. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral entry factors such as ACE2 and TMPRSS members were broadly enriched in epithelial cells of the glands and oral mucosae. Using orthogonal RNA and protein expression assessments, we confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in the glands and mucosae. Saliva from SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals harbored epithelial cells exhibiting ACE2 and TMPRSS expression and sustained SARS-CoV-2 infection. Acellular and cellular salivary fractions from asymptomatic individuals were found to transmit SARS-CoV-2 ex vivo. Matched nasopharyngeal and saliva samples displayed distinct viral shedding dynamics, and salivary viral burden correlated with COVID-19 symptoms, including taste loss. Upon recovery, this asymptomatic cohort exhibited sustained salivary IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Collectively, these data show that the oral cavity is an important site for SARS-CoV-2 infection and implicate saliva as a potential route of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Mouth/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/analysis , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/etiology , Humans , Serine Endopeptidases/analysis , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/virology , Virus Replication
12.
Nursing ; 51(4): 50-53, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148001

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Olfactory impairment is recognized as a hallmark of COVID-19. This article highlights dysfunction of smell and taste associated with COVID-19 and discusses implications for nursing practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Olfaction Disorders/nursing , Taste Disorders/nursing , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Nursing Diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Taste Disorders/virology
13.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(4): 103001, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144471

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The association between COVID-19 and chemosensory loss has garnered substantial attention, however to date little is known about the real-life consequences of impairment in this unique patient population. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) and personal safety deficits experienced by patients with COVID-19 infection. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal questionnaires. SETTING: National survey. METHODS: A longitudinal web-based nationwide survey of adults with COVID-19 and/or a sudden change in smell and taste was launched April 10, 2020. Previously published questions on chemosensory-related QOL and safety events were asked at the 6-month follow-up survey. RESULTS: As of February 10, 2021, 480 eligible respondents took the 6-month questionnaire, of whom 322 were COVID-19 positive. Impact on QOL was substantial with 96% of subjects reporting at least one of the defined deficits, and over 75% reporting at least 3 of these. "Reduced enjoyment of food" was the most common complaint (87%), while 43% of subjects self-reported depression. The prevalence of safety-related issues was common in this population, with over 57% reporting at least one, and 36% reporting 2 or more events. Of the events asked, the inability to smell smoke that others could perceive was the most common at 45%. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 associated chemosensory losses have a real and substantial impact on both quality of life and safety, beyond mere inconvenience. The high prevalence of these issues despite a relatively short period of olfactory deficit should alert clinicians to the serious risks to an already vulnerable patient population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/complications , Quality of Life , Taste Disorders/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/psychology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Prospective Studies , Risk , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders/psychology , Taste Disorders/virology , Young Adult
14.
J Neurovirol ; 27(3): 482-485, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144412

ABSTRACT

Taste dysfunction (TD) has been recognised, together with olfactory dysfunction, as a key presenting symptom of COVID-19. The capability to recognise flavours, flavour intensities and aroma characteristics can be highly variable within the same population, as well as potentially diverse between culturally different populations. The aims of this study are to evaluate whether a difference in the types of TD presentation amongst COVID-19 positive subjects can be demonstrated and whether a difference exists between populations of different cultures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adult , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , United Kingdom
15.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 164(2): 294-296, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125766

ABSTRACT

The proportion of patients with residual olfactory and gustatory dysfunction after COVID-19 is increasing, and practical health care strategies need to be developed to manage this novel situation in otolaryngology services worldwide. Starting from our experience in a large Italian hospital, we estimated that >1500 people will complain of some form of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in the future months in our region. We want to share our logistical and clinical integrated pathway that is aimed to screen and refer each patient to the most appropriate level of care in order to optimize resources and avoid overwhelming the available clinics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/organization & administration , Olfaction Disorders/therapy , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/therapy , Taste Disorders/virology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged
16.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(1): 14-23, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084049

ABSTRACT

Last December 2019, a cluster of viral pneumonia cases identified as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China. We aimed to explore the frequencies of nasal symptoms in patients with COVID-19, including loss of smell and taste, as well as their presentation as the first symptom of the disease and their association with the severity of COVID-19. In this retrospective study, 1206 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were included and followed up by telephone one month after discharged from Tongji Hospital, Wuhan. Demographic data, laboratory values, comorbidities, symptoms, and numerical rating scale scores (0-10) of nasal symptoms were extracted from the hospital medical records, and confirmed or reevaluated by the telephone follow-up. From patients (n=1172) completing follow-up, 199 (17%) subjects had severe COVID-19 and 342 (29.2%) reported nasal symptoms. 20.6% COVID-19 patients had loss of taste (median score=6), while 11.4% had loss of smell (median score=5). Loss of taste scores, but not loss of smell scores, were significantly increased in severe vs. non-severe COVID-19 patients. Interleukin (IL)-6 and lactose dehydrogenase (LDH) serum levels were positively correlated with loss of taste scores. About 80% of COVID-19 patients recovered from smell and taste dysfunction in 2 weeks. In this cohort, only 1 out of 10 hospital admitted patients had loss of smell while 1 out of 5 reported loss of taste which was associated to severity of COVID-19. Most patients recovered smell and taste dysfunctions in 2 weeks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/virology , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/blood , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies , Self Report , Severity of Illness Index , Taste Disorders/blood
17.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(4): e40, 2021 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction are frequently reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the reported prevalence of olfactory and/or gustatory dysfunction varies widely, and the reason for the inter-study differences is unclear. Hence, in this meta-analysis, we performed subgroup analyses to investigate the factors that contribute to the inter-study variability in the prevalence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction. METHODS: Out of 943 citations, we included 55 eligible studies with 13,527 patients with COVID-19 for a meta-analysis. Calculating the data extracted from each study, the weighted summary prevalence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction was estimated using a Freeman-Tukey transformation with models based on random-effects assumptions. A meta-analysis of variance compared the prevalence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction according to regional, chronological, demographic, and methodologic factors, respectively. RESULTS: The overall pooled prevalence rates of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction were 51.4% and 47.5%, respectively, in the random-effect model. In subgroup analyses, the prevalence rates of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction were significantly different among four geographical regions (both P < 0.001, respectively). Although the prevalence rates of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction did not significantly differ according to the time of enrollment, the subgroup analyses including only studies from the same geographical region (Europe) revealed a significant difference in olfactory dysfunction according to the time of enrollment. CONCLUSION: The regional and chronological differences in the prevalence rates of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions partly explain the wide inter-study variability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology , Taste Disorders/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Europe , Geography , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , Reproducibility of Results , Smell , Taste Disorders/epidemiology
19.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(3): 102911, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039261

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the correlation between cycle threshold (Ct) value and occurrence of olfactory and taste dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This comparative study included COVID-19 patients diagnosed by reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based test at our hospital with mild to moderate disease. The demographic details and detailed clinical history of the patient, including history of loss of smell and taste was taken at the time of presentation. The patients were divided into 2 groups, group A: COVID-19 patients with OTD; group B: COVID-19 patients without OTD. 100 contiguous patients were recruited in each group. The COVID-19 test by RT-PCR was done and Ct value of the 3 genes: E (Envelope encoding) gene, N (Nucleocapsid encoding) gene, and RdRp (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) gene, was used for data analysis. The Ct values of each of the three genes were compared between groups A and B. RESULTS: Group A and B did not differ significantly in terms of basic demographics. The differences in the Ct values of the 3 genes E gene, N gene and RdRp gene, of group A and B were found to be statistically significant (p = 0.005, p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). CONCLUSION: The patients with OTD had a lower Ct value at diagnosis, and hence, a higher viral load than those without OTD. The evaluation of Ct value and viral load in COVID-19 patients may help in further reducing the transmission of the virus in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/virology , Viral Load , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
20.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 147(3): 271-279, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012159

ABSTRACT

Importance: Recent studies have suggested that olfactory dysfunction and gustatory dysfunction are associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, olfaction has been evaluated solely on reported symptoms, after COVID-19 diagnosis, and in both mild and severe COVID-19 cases, but rarely has it been assessed in prospectively unselected populations. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of a semiobjective olfactory test developed to assess patient-reported chemosensory dysfunction prior to testing for the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients attending a COVID-19 screening facility. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective diagnostic study with participants and observers blinded to COVID-19 status was conducted in a COVID-19 screening center of a tertiary university hospital in France from March 23 to April 22, 2020. Participants were 854 consecutively included health care workers or outpatients with symptoms or with close contact with an index case. Exclusion criteria were prior chemosensory dysfunction, testing inability, or contraindications (n = 45). Main Outcomes and Measures: Participants were interviewed to ascertain their symptoms and then underwent Clinical Olfactory Dysfunction Assessment (CODA), an ad hoc test developed for a simple and fast evaluation of olfactory function. This assessment followed a standardized procedure in which participants identified and rated the intensity of 3 scents (lavender, lemongrass, and mint) to achieve a summed score ranging from 0 to 6. The COVID-19 status was assessed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in samples collected via nasopharyngeal swab (reference standard) to calculate the diagnostic values of patient-reported chemosensory dysfunction and CODA. Results: Of 809 participants, the female to male sex ratio was 2.8, and the mean (SD) age was 41.8 (13.0) years (range, 18-94 years). All participants, if symptomatic, had mild disease at the time of testing, and 58 (7.2%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Chemosensory dysfunction was reported by 20 of 58 participants (34.5%) with confirmed COVID-19 vs 29 of 751 participants (3.9%) who tested negative for COVID-19 (absolute difference, 30.6% [95% CI, 18.3%-42.9%]). Olfactory dysfunction, either self-reported or clinically ascertained (CODA score ≤3), yielded similar sensitivity (0.31 [95% CI, 0.20-0.45] vs 0.34 [95% CI, 0.22-0.48]) and specificity (0.97 [95% CI, 0.96-0.98) vs 0.98 [95% CI, 0.96-0.99]) for COVID-19 diagnosis. Concordance was high between reported and clinically tested olfactory dysfunction, with a Gwet AC1 of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.93-0.97). Of 19 participants, 15 (78.9%) with both reported olfactory dysfunction and a CODA score of 3 or lower were confirmed to have COVID-19. The CODA score also revealed 5 of 19 participants (26.3%) with confirmed COVID-19 who had previously unperceived olfactory dysfunction. Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospective diagnostic study of outpatients with asymptomatic or mild to moderate COVID-19, systematically assessed anamnesis and clinical testing with the newly developed CODA were complementary and specific for chemosensory dysfunction. Olfactory dysfunction was suggestive of COVID-19, particularly when clinical testing confirmed anamnesis. However, normal olfaction was most common among patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , France , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Sensitivity and Specificity
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