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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265686, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785192

ABSTRACT

Olfactory and gustatory disorders are prominent symptoms of acute COVID-19. Although both senses recover in many patients within weeks to months, persistency has been described in up to 60%. However up to now most reports on the course of chemosensitive disorders after COVID-19 are not based on psychophysical testing but only on subjective patients' ratings. In this study we assessed both olfaction and gustation using psychophysical tests eight months after COVID-19. Validated psychophysical testing revealed hyposmia in 18% and hypogeusia in even 32% of 303 included patients. This shows that olfactory and especially gustatory disorders have to be seen as important chronic symptoms post-COVID-19. The high prevalence of gustatory dysfunction indicates that gustatory function does not recover or might even deteriorate in the months following the acute infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Feeding and Eating Disorders/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Taste , COVID-19/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Threshold
3.
Cells ; 11(5)2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725524

ABSTRACT

Among the first clinical symptoms of the SARS-CoV-2 infection is olfactory-gustatory deficit; this continues for weeks and, in some cases, can be persistent. We prospectively evaluated 162 patients affected by COVID-19 using a visual analogue scale (VAS) for nasal and olfactory-gustatory symptoms. Patients were checked after 7, 14, 21, 28, 90, and 180 days. A total of 118 patients (72.8%) reported an olfactory VAS < 7 at baseline (group B), and 44 (27.2%) reported anosmia (VAS ≥ 7) (group A) and underwent the Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT) and Burghart Taste Strips (BTS) to quantify the deficit objectively and repeated the tests to confirm the sense recovery. Group A patients showed B-SIT anosmia and hyposmia in 44.2% and 55.8% of cases, respectively. A total of 88.6% of group A patients reported ageusia with VAS ≥ 7, and BTS confirmed 81.8% of ageusia and 18.2% of hypogeusia. VAS smell recovery was recorded starting from 14 days, with normalization at 28 days. The 28-day B-SIT score showed normosmia in 90.6% of group A patients. The mean time for full recovery (VAS = 0) was shorter in group B (22.9 days) than in group A (31.9 days). Chemosensory deficit is frequently the first symptom in patients with COVID-19, and, in most cases, recovery occurs after four weeks.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste
4.
Laryngoscope ; 132(5): 1082-1087, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705743

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Gustatory function during COVID-19 is self-reported by around 50% of patients. However, only a few studies assessed gustation using psychophysical testing during acute infection. The objective of this study is to test gustatory function on threshold tests in the very first days of COVID-19. METHODS: Psychophysical testing consisted of validated and blinded tests for olfaction (NHANES Pocket Smell Test) and gustation (Taste Strips Test). These test kits were sent to home-quarantined patients and self-administered using a detailed instruction sheet. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were included in this study. Testing was performed 6.5 ± 2.7 days after sampling of respiratory swabs. At this time 37% of patients stated to currently experience a gustatory impairment. The mean Taste Strips score was 10.0 ± 3.4 with 28% scoring in the range of hypogeusia. Interestingly, no significant difference in the results of gustatory testing could be observed between the group with subjectively preserved gustation and the group with self-rated taste impairment. CONCLUSION: During the very first days of COVID-19, psychophysical gustatory testing revealed hypogeusia in 28%. This is far lower than patients' self-reports. Different from previous studies, we did not find clear evidence for an impairment of only certain taste qualities. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 132:1082-1087, 2022.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , COVID-19/diagnosis , Dysgeusia , Humans , Nutrition Surveys , Smell , Taste , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/etiology
5.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 75(1-02): 7-14, 2022 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687628

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose: This study was conducted to examine the effect of starting a meal with salt and date palm on the sense of taste in COVID-19 patients. Methods: This study was conducted using a randomized controlled method. Patient and disease information forms and Visual Analog Scale were used for data collection. Salt and date palm were used to stimulate the sense of taste in two different experimental groups. No procedure was made in the control group except for the practice of the clinic. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 25. Results: The mean ages of all groups were between 43.42 ± 8.60 and 47.22 ± 12.04 years. Fever, sore throat, dry mouth, cough, muscle weakness, and similar symptoms were present in all groups. Significant improvements were found in patients with hypoageusia and ageusia after date palm and salt application (p<0.01). Conclusion: For taste impairment caused by COVID-19, consumption of date palm and tasting very little salt for therapeutic purposes may help to alleviate taste impairment. Based on the data obtained from this study, the pathophysiology of the effects of date palm and salt on taste complications should be investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Phoeniceae , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/adverse effects , Taste
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 755579, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556334

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, a phenomenon emerged in which some patients with severe disease were critically ill and could not be discharged from the ICU even though they exhibited negative viral tests. To explore the underlying mechanism, we collected blood samples from these patients and analyzed the gene expression profiles of peripheral immune cells. We found that all enrolled patients, regardless of changes in genes related to different symptoms and inflammatory responses, showed universally and severely decreased expression of adaptive immunity-related genes, especially those related to T/B cell arms and HLA molecules, and that these patients exhibited long-term secondary infections. In addition, no significant change was found in the expression of classic immunosuppression molecules including PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4, suggesting that the adaptive immune suppression may not be due to the change of these genes. According to the published literatures and our data, this adaptive immunosuppression is likely to be caused by the "dysregulated host response" to severe infection, similar to the immunosuppression that exists in other severely infected patients with sepsis.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immune Tolerance/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/genetics , Coinfection/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Immune Tolerance/genetics , Inflammation/genetics , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Smell/genetics , Taste/genetics
9.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(7): 1065-1066, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542218
10.
Laryngoscope ; 132(2): 419-421, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527451

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical profile of patients who developed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after full vaccination. Demographic, epidemiological and clinical data were collected through medical records and online patient-reported outcome questionnaire from patients who developed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed by nasopharyngeal swab, at least 2 weeks after completion of vaccination. A total of 153 subjects were included. The most frequent symptoms were: asthenia (82.4%), chemosensory dysfunction (63.4%), headache (59.5%), runny nose (58.2%), muscle pain (54.9%), loss of appetite (54.3%), and nasal obstruction (51.6%). Particularly, 62.3% and 53.6% of subjects reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunction, respectively. Symptom severity was mild or moderate in almost all cases. Chemosensory dysfunctions have been observed to be a frequent symptom even in subjects who contracted the infection after full vaccination. For this reason, the sudden loss of smell and taste could continue to represent a useful and specific diagnostic marker to raise the suspicion of COVID-19 even in vaccinated subjects. In the future, it will be necessary to establish what the recovery rate is in these patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 132:419-421, 2022.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/epidemiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Smell/drug effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste/drug effects , Vaccination
11.
Pract Neurol ; 21(6): 518-520, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526522

ABSTRACT

Loss of sense of taste (hypogeusia) involving a part of the tongue can follow acute stroke. We describe a woman with a small right thalamic acute infarct causing bilateral (mainly left-sided) hypogeusia. Her problem remains sufficiently severe to cause distress and nutritional deficit. The anatomical distribution of her problem-cheiro-oral syndrome with concurrent hypogeusia-suggested involvement of adjacent relevant thalamic fibres. We address key considerations in examining taste in research and in practice and discuss issues to address in people with hypogeusia, including swallow deficits, psychological elements of the poststroke condition and nutrition. Dietetic management should include optimising taste stimuli and nutritional support. Introducing more detailed taste assessments into standard practice would likely improve stroke unit care.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , Cerebral Infarction/complications , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Taste , Thalamus/diagnostic imaging , Tongue
12.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 912: 174582, 2021 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525777

ABSTRACT

The acute loss of taste and smell following COVID-19 are hallmark symptoms that affect 20-85% of patients. However, the pathophysiology and potential treatments of COVID-19 smell and taste loss are not fully understood. We searched the literature to review the potential pathologic pathways and treatment options for COVID-19 smell and taste loss. The interaction of novel coronavirus with ACE-2 receptors expressed on sustentacular cells and taste buds results in direct damage to the olfactory and gustatory systems. Also, the invasion of the virus to the olfactory neurons and consequent local inflammation are other proposed mechanisms. Therefore, COVID-19 patients with smell or taste loss may benefit from neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, or depolarizing agents. Based on the current evidence, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, insulin, and corticosteroids can be promising for the management of COVID-19 smell and taste loss. This review provided crucial information for treating COVID-19-related smell and/or taste loss, urging to perform large clinical trials to find optimum treatment options.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Smell/drug effects , Taste/drug effects , Ageusia/virology , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
13.
QJM ; 114(9): 681-682, 2021 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522306

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Smell , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste
14.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 12(2): 210-216, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487435

ABSTRACT

Subjectively perceived impairment of taste is a common and distinct symptom of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Large meta-analyses identified this symptom in approximately 50% of cases. However, this high prevalence is not supported by blinded and validated psychophysical gustatory testing, which showed a much lower prevalence in up to 26% of patients. This discrepancy may be due to misinterpretation of impaired retronasal olfaction as gustatory dysfunction. In addition, we hypothesized that COVID-19-associated hyposmia is involved in the decrease of gustatory function, as found for hyposmia of different origin. This indirect mechanism would be based on the central-nervous mutual amplification between the chemical senses, which fails in COVID-19-associated olfactory loss. However, further research is necessary on how severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) may directly impair the gustatory pathway as well as its subjective perception.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste
15.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(7): 1065-1066, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486693
16.
Nurs Open ; 9(1): 175-180, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442026

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the usability of querying subjective impairments of the sense of smell and taste in order to improve pre-test probability in testing for SARS-CoV-2. To achieve this, exploring the prevalence of these restrictions in the COVID-19-negative population, as well as nasal co-symptoms. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was carried out as part of the secondary prophylaxis, following the STROBE guidelines of the EQUATOR network. METHODS: In total, 1,734 employees of retirement and nursing homes were tested for COVID-19 and asked for subjective reduction or loss in the sense of smell and taste, furthermore about nasal co-symptoms such as nasal obstruction and rhinorrhoea. RESULTS: All employees tested negative for COVID-19. Subjective hyposmia and hypogeusia rarely occurred and were usually accompanied by other nasal symptoms such as nasal obstruction. Querying subjective hyposmia/anosmia or hypogeusia/ageusia appears to be a useful anamnestic instrument for the clinical assessment of the probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Nursing Homes , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Retirement , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste
18.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430928

ABSTRACT

Gut microbiota has emerged as a major metabolically active organ with critical functions in both health and disease. The trillions of microorganisms hosted by the gastrointestinal tract are involved in numerous physiological and metabolic processes including modulation of appetite and regulation of energy in the host spanning from periphery to the brain. Indeed, bacteria and their metabolic byproducts are working in concert with the host chemosensory signaling pathways to affect both short- and long-term ingestive behavior. Sensing of nutrients and taste by specialized G protein-coupled receptor cells is important in transmitting food-related signals, optimizing nutrition as well as in prevention and treatment of several diseases, notably obesity, diabetes and associated metabolic disorders. Further, bacteria metabolites interact with specialized receptors cells expressed by gut epithelium leading to taste and appetite response changes to nutrients. This review describes recent advances on the role of gut bacteria in taste perception and functions. It further discusses how intestinal dysbiosis characteristic of several pathological conditions may alter and modulate taste preference and food consumption via changes in taste receptor expression.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Physiological Phenomena , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Intestines/microbiology , Taste Perception , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19/physiopathology , Diet , Dysbiosis/physiopathology , Feeding Behavior , Hormones/metabolism , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/physiopathology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/physiopathology , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Taste , Taste Buds/physiology , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
19.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 51, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416822

ABSTRACT

To determine the prevalence and clinical features of olfactory and taste disorders among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in China. A cross-sectional study was performed in Wuhan from April 3, 2020 to April 15, 2020. A total of 187 patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) completed face-to-face interviews or telephone follow-ups. We found that the prevalence of olfactory and taste disorders was significantly lower in the Chinese cohort than in foreign COVID-19 cohorts. Females were more prone to olfactory and taste disorders. In some patients, olfactory and taste disorders precede other symptoms and can be used as early screening and warning signs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Smell , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4668-4677, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416247

ABSTRACT

Consumer testing assays a panel's liking of a food or other sensory stimulus. However, liking can be influenced by mood, with people feeling more uncomfortable, or more unhappy reporting lower liking ratings than those in a higher affect. Though consumer testing typically takes place as a central location test (CLT, usually in a set of standardized sensory booths), the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a global pivot to home use tests (HUTs), where panelists can taste and smell samples unmasked more safely while in their own homes. Unfortunately, as this situation differs in many ways to a central location test, this puts the validity of longitudinal comparisons of liking scores under question. Further, as people across the globe report feelings of worry, unease, and stress during the pandemic, this may present a second source of variation in affect with previous years. We tested a set of snack bar samples both at home and in a central location, in repeated measures with the same panel, to test the validity of comparisons across locations. We further compared CLT results to those when testing the same samples in a previous year. Finally, we performed a meta-analysis of existing data on this subject. While liking behavior in CLTs did not differ between years, panelists rated some samples higher when in their own homes, in line with results from the meta-analysis of previous reports. Interestingly, panelists in the study also assigned fewer penalties in the HUT, implying a less analytical mindset when in the home. Results suggest that care should be taken when comparing results taken at home during the COVID-19 pandemic to those taken previously in a central location. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Consumer testing is applied in the food industry to evaluate a panelist's liking for a food product or stimulus. However, liking is also dependent on factors extrinsic to the samples tested. Thus, with the switch to in-home testing due to COVID-19, we compared liking scores from in-home and central locations testing, with higher scores common in HUTs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Consumer Behavior , Housing , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Preferences , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Smell , Taste , Young Adult
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