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PLoS One ; 17(2): e0261114, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793548


The COVID-19-pandemic forced many countries to close schools abruptly in the spring of 2020. These school closures and the subsequent period of distance learning has led to concerns about increasing inequality in education, as children from lower-educated and poorer families have less access to (additional) resources at home. This study analyzes differences in declines in learning gains in primary education in the Netherlands for reading, spelling and math, using rich data on standardized test scores and register data on student and parental background for almost 300,000 unique students. The results show large inequalities in the learning loss based on parental education and parental income, on top of already existing inequalities. The results call for a national focus on interventions specifically targeting vulnerable students.

Education, Distance/trends , Socioeconomic Factors/history , Teaching/trends , Academic Failure/trends , Academic Success , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Educational Status , History, 21st Century , Humans , Income , Learning , Netherlands , Pandemics , Parents , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , School Teachers , Schools/trends , Students
FEBS Lett ; 596(2): 149-159, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615924


The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed that a shockingly large fraction of the public is willing to ignore scientific judgements on issues such a vaccines and mask wearing. For far too many, scientific findings are viewed as what scientists believe, rather than as the product of an elaborate community process that produces reliable knowledge. This widespread misunderstanding should serve as a wake-up call for scientists, clearly demonstrating that the standard way that we teach science - as a large collection of "facts" that scientists have discovered about the world - needs major change. Three more ambitious and important goals for science education at all levels are outlined. In order of increasing difficulty, these are: (1) to provide all adults with an ability to investigate scientific problems as scientists do, using logic, experiment, and evidence; (2) to provide all adults with an understanding of how the scientific enterprise works - and why they should therefore trust the consensus judgements of science on issues like smoking, vaccination, and climate change; and (3) to provide all adults with the habit of solving their everyday problems as scientists do, using logic, experiment, and evidence. Although examples exist for attaining all of these goals, extensive education research will be needed to discover how best to teach the last two. I argue that such an effort is urgent, and that it can best begin by focusing on the introductory courses in biology and other science disciplines at the university level.

Learning , Science/education , Teaching/trends , Humans , Quality of Life , Science/methods , United States
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 368(18)2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569696


With more than one academic year into the pandemic, it is timely to consider the lessons we learnt, and how they could shape education in the future. Papers from around the globe, reflecting on the directions we took and could take, were published in the FEMS Microbiology Letters virtual Thematic Issue 'Educating in a pandemic and beyond' in October 2021. Its content is reviewed here to facilitate discussions within the professional community. Online platforms and tools, that allowed a rapid emergency response, are covered, as well as enhancing student engagement, complementing and blending in-person activities with online elements for more flexible and accessible learning opportunities, the need for educator training, and improving science literacy overall and microbiology literacy specifically. As we go forward, in order to benefit from blended and flexible learning, we need to select our approaches based on evidence, and mindful of the potential impact on learners and educators. Education did not only continue during the pandemic, but it evolved, leading us into the future.

COVID-19 , Education , Education/organization & administration , Education/standards , Education/trends , Humans , Learning , Science/education , Students , Teaching/trends
GMS J Med Educ ; 38(6): Doc101, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435940


Aim: Using a comparison of digital teaching in medicine before and after the COVID-19 outbreak, the aim of the study was to examine how ad hoc digitization has changed (1) the design of digital teaching, (2) the attitudes toward and the capabilities of digital teaching and learning and (3) the future importance of individual digital teaching elements. Methods: Students and lecturers from the Medical Faculty of Ulm were asked to voluntarily participate in online surveys during the summer semesters of 2019 and 2020. The data was subsequently analyzed from a longitudinal and cross-sectional view descriptively as well as by using t-tests and Chi2-tests. In addition, using regression analyses, the results were controlled for associations with age, study progress, and media affinity. Results: In the summer semester 2019, 163 students (6.1% response rate) and 56 lecturers (11.5%) participated in the surveys. In the following year, the participation increased to 285 students (10.4%) and 64 lecturers (12.8%). Video-based teaching elements such as videoconferencing and lecture recordings were increasingly used after the COVID-19 outbreak and considered more significant for future teaching. In contrast, virtual reality, augmented reality and 360°-videos, grouped under the term extended reality (XR), are descriptively becoming less important. Most lecturers would like to teach more digitally even after the pandemic but fear a decrease in learning effectiveness and contact with students, who tend to prefer asynchronous learning opportunities. Conclusion: Video-based teaching elements proved to be a low-threshold and time-efficient solution during the lockdown and were also recommended for future use. The XR technology has been put on the back burner for the time being, but in view of the increased digital teaching motivation and capabilities, it can be assumed that lecturers will recognize and use the potential of XR as soon as they have the freedom to design innovative teaching again.

COVID-19 , Digital Technology , Education, Medical , Teaching , Cross-Sectional Studies , Digital Technology/trends , Disease Outbreaks , Education, Medical/methods , Faculty, Medical , Germany , Humans , Students, Medical , Teaching/trends
Rev. baiana enferm ; 34: e36929, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1328335


Objetivo: refletir sobre o emprego da educação a distância na graduação em enfermagem no Brasil no cenário da pandemia da COVID-19. Método: ensaio crítico por meio de reflexões ancoradas na literatura acerca da utilização da educação a distância na formação de enfermeiros(as) e dos circunscritores decorrentes da pandemia. Resultados: as discussões sobre o emprego da educação a distância na formação em enfermagem no Brasil respondem a diferentes interesses educacionais, profissionais, políticos e econômicos. No contexto da pandemia de COVID-19, a partir de 2020, tais debates têm sido potencializados em função do emprego de metodologias da educação a distância na continuidade de muitos cursos de formação, outrora exclusivamente presenciais. Conclusão: não obstante as metodologias próprias da educação a distância permitirem, em um primeiro momento, a continuidade dos processos formativos em enfermagem, reafirma-se que o ensino-aprendizagem para o cuidado em saúde demanda proximidade e contato.

Objetivo: reflexionar sobre el uso de la educación a distancia en programas de graduación en enfermería en Brasil en el escenario de la pandemia COVID-19. Método: ensayo crítico a través de reflexiones ancladas en la literatura sobre el uso de la educación a distancia en la formación de enfermeras y circunscriptores resultantes de la pandemia. Resultados: los debates sobre el uso de la educación a distancia en la educación en enfermería en Brasil responden a diferentes intereses educativos, profesionales, políticos y económicos. En el contexto de la pandemia COVID-19, desde 2020, estos debates se han intensificado debido al uso de metodologías de educación a distancia en la continuidad de muchos cursos de formación, una vez exclusivamente presenciales. Conclusión: aunque las metodologías de la educación a distancia permiten, al principio, la continuidad de los procesos formativos en enfermería, se reafirma que la enseñanza-aprendizaje para la atención de la salud exige proximidad y contacto.

Objective: to reflect on the use of distance learning in nursing graduate programs in Brazil in the scenario of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: critical essay through reflections anchored in the literature about the use of distance learning in the training of nurses and circumscriptors resulting from the pandemic. Results: discussions on the use of distance learning in nursing education in Brazil respond to different educational, professional, political and economic interests. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, since 2020, such debates have been intensified due to the use of distance learning methodologies in the continuity of many training courses, once exclusively in person. Conclusion: although the methodologies of distance learning allow, at first, the continuity of the training processes in nursing, it is reaffirmed that teaching-learning for health care demands proximity and contact.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral , Coronavirus Infections , Education, Distance , Education, Nursing/methods , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Teaching/trends , Brazil , Health Human Resource Training , Nurse-Patient Relations
Postgrad Med J ; 97(1149): 423-426, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247399


Little has been published regarding postgraduate assessments during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is an urgent need to graduate well-trained specialists including family physicians who play a key role in patient care. The successes and challenges encountered in mounting qualifying 2020 Family Medicine examinations during the COVID-19 pandemic at the University of the West Indies are described in this paper. Human resource, planning, use of technology and virtual environments are discussed, which enabled successful examinations at this multicampus regional site.

COVID-19 , Certification , Education, Medical, Graduate/organization & administration , Educational Measurement , Family Practice/education , Physicians, Family/standards , Academic Performance , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Certification/methods , Certification/standards , Educational Measurement/methods , Educational Measurement/statistics & numerical data , Educational Status , Educational Technology/methods , Humans , Needs Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Teaching/standards , Teaching/trends , West Indies
J Contin Educ Nurs ; 52(5): 211-213, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211960


Advocating for holistic leaders' development, holistic leadership is defined and contrasted with other developmental approaches. A model that frames four dimensions of development is presented. These dimensions include self-awareness and values identification, relational capacity, problem solving and action orientation, and other orientation. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2021;52(5):211-213.].

Education, Nursing , Leadership , Teaching , Humans , Problem Solving , Teaching/organization & administration , Teaching/standards , Teaching/trends
Cytometry A ; 99(1): 42-50, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916820


The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on training and Shared Resource Laboratory (SRL) operations such as staffing, facility access, and social distancing, has affected facilities around the globe to different degrees based on restrictions set by various geographical and institutional settings. With these restrictions come unique challenges regarding user and staff training and education, for both theory and practice. Most notably, limitations in facility access, occupancy, staffing availability, network restrictions and trainee engagement call for innovative solutions for training when traditional in-person options are not feasible. Through the use of remote access tools and prerecorded educational and training materials, SRLs are able to overcome these obstacles. Here, we focus on readily available technologies and general guidelines that SRLs in different environments can use for remote cytometry training and education, while highlighting key obstacles that still remain. Although SRLs may face initial struggles in transitioning trainings to a virtual format, remote technologies provide unique opportunities to advance current training programs. © 2020 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

COVID-19/prevention & control , Laboratories/trends , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling/trends , Physical Distancing , Teaching/trends , Teleworking/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Workflow
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 45(1): e025, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1127838


Abstract: Introduction: The challenges brought by the continuity of the university teaching-learning process in the face of the measures to combat the pandemic of COVID-19 made the debate on the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in medical education more important. Several strategies were used by teachers worldwide to continue their teaching activities. Objective: to investigate the strategies and uses of ICT in medical education in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: Five databases were systematically assessed, using the terms "COVID-19", "medical education", "higher education" and "students", in Portuguese, English and Spanish, resulting in 321 initial citations, with 18 final references after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Result: Four key topics were identified in the literature: (1) Challenges for Medical Education prior to COVID-19; (2) Challenges in migrating to remote education; (3) Strategies to overcome challenges related to the learning environment; and (4) Strategies to overcome challenges related to assessments and exams. Conclusion: The use of ICT in medical education in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic showed to be especially important, with considerations regarding the improvement in areas that were already used, the migration of some more articulated areas and experiences in clinical and procedural disciplines. There was also concern about the impacts of using ICT to replace the in-person presence of students in medical learning environments.

Resumo: Introdução: Os desafios à continuidade do processo ensino-aprendizagem universitário ante as medidas de combate à pandemia da Covid-19 tornaram mais importante o debate sobre o uso de tecnologias de informação e comunicação (TIC) no ensino médico. Diversas estratégias foram empregadas no mundo por docentes para a continuidade das atividades pedagógicas. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as estratégias e os usos de TIC no ensino médico ante a pandemia de Covid-19. Método: Examinaram-se sistematicamente cinco bases de dados, nas quais se empregaram as expressões e os termos "covid-19", "ensino médico", "educação superior" e "estudantes" em português, inglês e espanhol, o que resultou em 321 citações iniciais, com 18 referências finais após a aplicação de critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Resultado: Quatro temas-chave foram identificados na literatura: 1. "Desafios para o ensino médico anteriores à Covid-19"; 2. "Desafios na migração para o ensino a distância"; 3. "Estratégias para a superação de desafios relacionadas ao ambiente de aprendizagem virtual"; e 4. "Estratégias para a superação de desafios relacionadas às avaliações". Conclusão: No contexto da pandemia de Covid-19, o emprego de TIC no ensino médico se mostrou importantíssimo, pois se encontraram quatro estratégias, entre as quais se destacaram o aprimoramento em áreas em que as TIC já eram utilizadas, a migração de algumas áreas mais articuladas e experiências em disciplinas clínicas e procedurais. Também houve preocupação sobre os impactos do uso de TIC em substituição da presença de estudantes nos ambientes de aprendizagem médicos.

Humans , Teaching/trends , Medical Informatics Applications , Education, Distance , Education, Medical/trends , COVID-19 , Learning
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 82(2): 1-9, 2021 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110765


Research carried out in 2016 by the authors investigated the challenges that doctors in training experience around leadership and followership in the NHS. The study explored contemporary healthcare leadership culture and the role of followership from the perspective of early career doctors. It found that the leadership and followership challenges for these doctors in training were associated with issues of social and professional identity, communication, the medical hierarchy, and relationships with senior colleagues (support and trust). These challenges were exacerbated by the busy and turbulent clinical environment in which they worked. To cope with various clinical situations and forms of leadership, doctors in training engage in a range of different followership behaviours and strategies. The study raised implications for medical education and training and suggested that followership should be included as part of formal training in communication and team working skills. The importance of both leadership and followership in the delivery of safe and effective patient care has been brought sharply into focus by the COVID-19 pandemic. This article revisits these challenges in light of the pandemic and its impact on the experiences of doctors in training.

COVID-19 , Education, Medical , Leadership , Medical Staff, Hospital , Teaching/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Career Mobility , Cooperative Behavior , Education, Medical/methods , Education, Medical/trends , Humans , Medical Staff, Hospital/education , Medical Staff, Hospital/psychology , Medical Staff, Hospital/standards , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Skills
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090329


The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak has posed a great challenge to teaching and learning activities in higher education, particularly for service-learning subjects that involve intensive human interaction. Although service-learning may be transformed to a virtual mode in response to the pandemic, little is known about the impact of this new mode on student learning and well-being. This paper reports a university credit-bearing service-learning subject that involves services toward needy children and adolescents in a non-face-to-face mode under COVID-19 pandemic. We examined the effectiveness of this subject by comparing it with the same subject delivered via a face-to-face mode. Objective outcome evaluation via a pretest-posttest comparison (N = 216) showed that the students who took service-learning subjects with and without face-to-face interaction showed similar positive changes in positive youth development competences, service leadership qualities, and life satisfaction. Subjective outcome evaluation (N = 345) also showed that most students were satisfied with the subject, instructors and benefits regardless of the service mode. The findings highlight the important role of non-face-to-face service learning in promoting college students' positive growth and well-being.

COVID-19 , Learning , Teaching/trends , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Pandemics
Postgrad Med J ; 97(1149): 417-422, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088285


COVID-19 led to the widespread withdrawal of face-to-face hospital-based clinical placements, with many medical schools switching to online learning. This precipitated concern about potential negative impact on clinical and interprofessional skill acquisition. To overcome this problem, we piloted a 12-week COVID-19 safe face-to-face clinical placement for 16 medical students at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London, during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 infection control measures necessitated that students remained in 'social bubbles' for placement duration. This facilitated an apprenticeship-style teaching approach, integrating students into the clinical team for placement duration. Team-based learning was adopted to develop and deliver content. Teaching comprised weekly seminars, experiential ward-based attachments and participation in quality improvement and research projects. The taught content was evaluated through qualitative feedback, reflective practice, and pre-apprenticeship and post-apprenticeship confidence questionnaires across 17 domains. Students' confidence improved in 14 of 17 domains (p<0.05). Reflective practice indicated that students valued the apprenticeship model, preferring the longer clinical attachment to existent shorter, fragmented clinical placements. Students described improved critical thinking, group cohesion, teamwork, self-confidence, self-worth and communication skills. This article describes a framework for the safe and effective delivery of a longer face-to-face apprenticeship-based clinical placement during an infectious disease pandemic. Longer apprenticeship-style attachments have hidden benefits to general professional training, which should be explored by medical schools both during the COVID-19 pandemic and, possibly, for any future clinical placements.

COVID-19 , Clinical Clerkship , Clinical Competence , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Teaching , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Clerkship/methods , Clinical Clerkship/trends , Education, Distance , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/organization & administration , Hospitals, Teaching/organization & administration , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Interprofessional Education , London , Quality Improvement , SARS-CoV-2 , Students, Medical , Teaching/standards , Teaching/trends