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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(12): e28022, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Loneliness and social isolation can have severe effects on human health and well-being. Partial solutions to combat these circumstances in demographically aging societies have been sought from the field of information and communication technology (ICT). OBJECTIVE: This systematic literature review investigates the research conducted on older adults' loneliness and social isolation, and physical ICTs, namely robots, wearables, and smart homes, in the era of ambient assisted living (AAL). The aim is to gain insight into how technology can help overcome loneliness and social isolation other than by fostering social communication with people and what the main open-ended challenges according to the reviewed studies are. METHODS: The data were collected from 7 bibliographic databases. A preliminary search resulted in 1271 entries that were screened based on predefined inclusion criteria. The characteristics of the selected studies were coded, and the results were summarized to answer our research questions. RESULTS: The final data set consisted of 23 empirical studies. We found out that ICT solutions such as smart homes can help detect and predict loneliness and social isolation, and technologies such as robotic pets and some other social robots can help alleviate loneliness to some extent. The main open-ended challenges across studies relate to the need for more robust study samples and study designs. Further, the reviewed studies report technology- and topic-specific open-ended challenges. CONCLUSIONS: Technology can help assess older adults' loneliness and social isolation, and alleviate loneliness without direct interaction with other people. The results are highly relevant in the COVID-19 era, where various social restrictions have been introduced all over the world, and the amount of research literature in this regard has increased recently.


Subject(s)
Ambient Intelligence , COVID-19 , Aged , Communication , Humans , Loneliness , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Technology
2.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 43-47, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594512

ABSTRACT

When COVID-19 cases surge, identifying ways to improve the efficiency of contact tracing and prioritize vulnerable communities for isolation and quarantine support services is critical. During a fall 2020 COVID-19 resurgence in San Francisco, California, prioritization of telephone-based case investigation by zip code and using a chatbot to screen for case participants who needed isolation support reduced the number of case participants who would have been assigned for a telephone interview by 31.5% and likely contributed to 87.5% of Latinx case participants being successfully interviewed. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):43-47. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306563).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , San Francisco/epidemiology , Technology , Telephone
3.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(Supplement_4): S69-S70, 2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593903

ABSTRACT

Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) has emerged as a potentially powerful tool in clinical diagnosis, hospital epidemiology, microbial evolutionary biology, and studies of host-pathogen interaction. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic provides a framework for demonstrating the applications of this technology in each of these areas. In this Supplement, we review applications of mNGS within the discipline of pediatric infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Child , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Technology
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 720180, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581131

ABSTRACT

Lack of social engagement and the resulting social isolation can have negative impacts on health and well-being, especially in senior care communities and for those living with dementia. Project VITAL leverages technology and community resources to create a network for connection, engagement, education, and support of individuals with dementia and their caregivers, and explores the impact of these interventions in reducing feelings of social isolation and increasing mood among residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Through two phases, 600 personalized Wi-Fi-enabled iN2L tablets were distributed to 300 senior care communities (55% assisted living communities, 37% skilled nursing communities, 6% memory care communities, and 2% adult family-care homes) to connect and engage residents and their families. Different phases also included Project ECHO, a video-based learning platform, Alzheimer's Association virtual and online education and support for family caregivers, evidence-based online professional dementia care staff training and certification, and Virtual Forums designed to explore ways to build sustainable, scalable models to ensure access to support and decrease social isolation in the future. Tablet usage was collected over an 11-month period and an interim survey was designed to assess the effectiveness of the tablets, in preventing social isolation and increasing mood among residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 105 care community staff (whose community used the tablets) completed the survey and overall, these staff showed a high level of agreement to statements indicating that residents struggled with loneliness and mood, and that the tablet was useful in improving loneliness and mood in residents and allowing them to stay in touch with family and friends. Additional positive results were seen through a variety of other responses around the tablets and Project ECHO. Overall, the tablets were shown to be an effective way to engage residents and connect them with friends and family, as well as being a useful tool for staff members. A third phase is currently underway in the homes of people with dementia and their family caregivers, which includes tablets and direct access to Alzheimer's Association virtual and online education and support programs.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Dementia , Adult , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Dementia/epidemiology , Florida , Humans , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Technology
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(1)2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580508

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this commentary is to update the evidence reported in our previous review on the advantages and limitations of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology in the promotion of dental business, as well as to guarantee patient and occupational safety. The COVID-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented focus on infection prevention; however, waves of COVID-19 follow one another, asymptomatic cases are nearly impossible to identify by triage in a dental setting, and the effectiveness of long-lasting immune protection through vaccination remains largely unknown. Different national laws and international guidelines (mainly USA-CDC, ECDC) have often brought about dissimilar awareness and operational choices, and in general, there has been very limited attention to this technology. Here, we discuss its advantages and limitations in light of: (a) presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the oral cavity, saliva, and dental biofilm and activation of dormant microbial infections; (b) the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 transmission by aerosol and fomite contamination; (c) the detection of various oral manifestations of COVID-19; (d) specific information for the reprocessing of the scanner tip and the ward from the manufacturers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Computer-Aided Design , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25120, 2021 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575528

ABSTRACT

Multisite medical data sharing is critical in modern clinical practice and medical research. The challenge is to conduct data sharing that preserves individual privacy and data utility. The shortcomings of traditional privacy-enhancing technologies mean that institutions rely upon bespoke data sharing contracts. The lengthy process and administration induced by these contracts increases the inefficiency of data sharing and may disincentivize important clinical treatment and medical research. This paper provides a synthesis between 2 novel advanced privacy-enhancing technologies-homomorphic encryption and secure multiparty computation (defined together as multiparty homomorphic encryption). These privacy-enhancing technologies provide a mathematical guarantee of privacy, with multiparty homomorphic encryption providing a performance advantage over separately using homomorphic encryption or secure multiparty computation. We argue multiparty homomorphic encryption fulfills legal requirements for medical data sharing under the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation which has set a global benchmark for data protection. Specifically, the data processed and shared using multiparty homomorphic encryption can be considered anonymized data. We explain how multiparty homomorphic encryption can reduce the reliance upon customized contractual measures between institutions. The proposed approach can accelerate the pace of medical research while offering additional incentives for health care and research institutes to employ common data interoperability standards.


Subject(s)
Computer Security/ethics , Information Dissemination/ethics , Privacy/legislation & jurisprudence , Technology/methods , Humans
9.
Int Immunol ; 33(10): 521-527, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575141

ABSTRACT

There is currently an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2. Individuals with COVID-19 have symptoms that are usually asymptomatic or mild in most initial cases. However, in some cases, moderate and severe symptoms have been observed with pneumonia. Many companies are developing COVID-19 vaccine candidates using different technologies that are classified into four groups (intact target viruses, proteins, viral vectors and nucleic acids). For rapid development, RNA vaccines and adenovirus vector vaccines have been urgently approved, and their injection has already started across the world. These types of vaccine technologies have been developed over more than 20 years using translational research for use against cancer or diseases caused by genetic disorders but the COVID-19 vaccines are the first licensed drugs to prevent infectious diseases using RNA vaccine technology. Although these vaccines are highly effective in preventing COVID-19 for a short period, safety and efficiency evaluations should be continuously monitored over a long time period. As the time of writing, more than 10 projects are now in phase 3 to evaluate the prevention of infection in double-blind studies. Hopefully, several projects may be approved to ensure high-efficiency and safe vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Animals , Double-Blind Method , Genetic Therapy/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Technology/methods , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
10.
Recent Pat Biotechnol ; 15(2): 148-163, 2021 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Face COVID-19 pandemic, a need for accurate information on SARS-CoV-2 virus is urgent and scientific reports have been published on a daily basis to enable effective technologies to fight the disease progression. However, at the initial occurrence of Pandemic, no information on the matter was known and technologies to fight the Pandemic were not readily available. However, searches in patent databases, if strategically designed, can offer quick responses to new pandemics. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is aiming to provide existing information in patent documents useful for the developmentof technologies addressing COVID-19. Considering the emergency situation the world was facing and the knowledge of COVID-19 available until April, 2020, this work presents an analysis of the main characteristics of the technological information in patent documents worldwide, related to coronaviruses and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). METHODS: Regions of concentration of such technologies, the number of available documents and their technological fields are disclosed in three approaches: 1) a wide search, retrieving technologies on SARS or coronaviruses; 2) a targeted search, retrieving documents additionally referring to Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE2), which is used by SARS- CoV-2 to enter a cell and 3) a punctual search, which retrieved patents disclosing aspects related to SARS- CoV-2 available at that time. RESULTS: Results show the high-level technology involved in these developments and a monopoly tendency of such technologies, also evidencing that it is possible to find answers to new problems in patent documents. CONCLUSION: This work, then, aims to contribute to scientific and technological development by raising the awareness of what should be considered when searching for technologies developed for other matters that could provide solutions for a new problem.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disclosure/statistics & numerical data , Patents as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus , Emergencies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e24893, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574527

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Suboptimal adherence to 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) is prevalent in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and associated with increased risk of relapse. Rapid uptake of personal technology makes mobile health (mHealth) an attractive platform to promote adherence. OBJECTIVE: Study objectives were to examine access to mobile technology and preferences for an mHealth intervention to improve medication adherence in pediatric ALL. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was administered in oncology clinic to parents of children with ALL as well as adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with ALL receiving maintenance chemotherapy. RESULTS: A total of 49 parents (median age [IQR] 39 [33-42] years; female 76% [37/49]) and 15 patients (median age [IQR] 17 [16-19]; male 80% [12/15]) participated. All parents and AYAs owned electronic tablets, smartphones, or both. Parents' most endorsed mHealth app features included a list of medications (71%, 35/49), information about 6-MP (71%, 35/49), refill reminders (71%, 35/49), and reminders to take 6-MP (71%, 35/49). AYAs' most endorsed features included refill reminders (73%, 11/15), reminders to take 6-MP (73%, 11/15), and tracking 6-MP (73%, 11/15). CONCLUSIONS: Parents and AYAs reported ubiquitous access to mobile technology and strong interest in multiple adherence-specific mHealth app features. Parents and AYAs provided valuable insight into preferred features for a multifunctional behavioral intervention (mHealth app) to promote medication adherence in pediatric ALL.


Subject(s)
Behavior Therapy/methods , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Technology/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Smartphone , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23467, 2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574242

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many countries across the globe have released their own COVID-19 contact tracing apps. This has resulted in the proliferation of several apps that used a variety of technologies. With the absence of a standardized approach used by the authorities, policy makers, and developers, many of these apps were unique. Therefore, they varied by function and the underlying technology used for contact tracing and infection reporting. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to analyze most of the COVID-19 contact tracing apps in use today. Beyond investigating the privacy features, design, and implications of these apps, this research examined the underlying technologies used in contact tracing apps. It also attempted to provide some insights into their level of penetration and to gauge their public reception. This research also investigated the data collection, reporting, retention, and destruction procedures used by each of the apps under review. METHODS: This research study evaluated 13 apps corresponding to 10 countries based on the underlying technology used. The inclusion criteria ensured that most COVID-19-declared epicenters (ie, countries) were included in the sample, such as Italy. The evaluated apps also included countries that did relatively well in controlling the outbreak of COVID-19, such as Singapore. Informational and unofficial contact tracing apps were excluded from this study. A total of 30,000 reviews corresponding to the 13 apps were scraped from app store webpages and analyzed. RESULTS: This study identified seven distinct technologies used by COVID-19 tracing apps and 13 distinct apps. The United States was reported to have released the most contact tracing apps, followed by Italy. Bluetooth was the most frequently used underlying technology, employed by seven apps, whereas three apps used GPS. The Norwegian, Singaporean, Georgian, and New Zealand apps were among those that collected the most personal information from users, whereas some apps, such as the Swiss app and the Italian (Immuni) app, did not collect any user information. The observed minimum amount of time implemented for most of the apps with regard to data destruction was 14 days, while the Georgian app retained records for 3 years. No significant battery drainage issue was reported for most of the apps. Interestingly, only about 2% of the reviewers expressed concerns about their privacy across all apps. The number and frequency of technical issues reported on the Apple App Store were significantly more than those reported on Google Play; the highest was with the New Zealand app, with 27% of the reviewers reporting technical difficulties (ie, 10% out of 27% scraped reviews reported that the app did not work). The Norwegian, Swiss, and US (PathCheck) apps had the least reported technical issues, sitting at just below 10%. In terms of usability, many apps, such as those from Singapore, Australia, and Switzerland, did not provide the users with an option to sign out from their apps. CONCLUSIONS: This article highlighted the fact that COVID-19 contact tracing apps are still facing many obstacles toward their widespread and public acceptance. The main challenges are related to the technical, usability, and privacy issues or to the requirements reported by some users.


Subject(s)
Attitude , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/methods , Mobile Applications , Privacy , Australia , Data Collection , Disease Outbreaks , Geographic Information Systems , Georgia (Republic) , Humans , Italy , New Zealand , Norway , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore , Switzerland , Technology , United States , Wireless Technology
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572453

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in significant delays and cost overrun in construction projects. The implementation of health and safety (H&S) technologies is one of the most important strategies to alleviate the adverse impacts of COVID-19 on the construction industry and help the industry adapt to the new normal. This study aims to evaluate the adoption of H&S technologies for pandemic management in the construction sector under the COVID-19 pandemic. Semi-structured interviews with eighteen practitioners engaged from construction companies and technology firms were conducted to collect their views on the driving forces and issues of the adoption of H&S technologies for pandemic management in Chinese construction projects. The results reveal that the major H&S technologies used included the health quick response (QR) code system, artificial intelligence (AI)-powered fever monitoring, and site access control system. These technologies were reported to be effective in preventing the spread of the pandemic in workplaces. The findings of the study amplify that the pandemic may serve as an acceleration of the adoption of H&S technologies in the construction sector. Other technologies, such as building information modeling, drones, AI-based safety monitoring, and robotics, however, were seldom used in the studied projects. The interviewees addressed several problems regarding the implementation of these technologies. High costs of technologies, a lack of client support, and disruptions to the normal work process were the main hurdles of the adoption of these technologies. The results indicated that the external influence factor-the COVID-19 pandemic-could considerably drive the use of H&S technologies, whereas the internal influence factors-cost and compatibility of technology-might be the major barriers to technology adoption. To encourage the wider use of H&S technologies in construction, the government is recommended to support the technology transformation by granting financial subsidies for costs involved in innovation adoption. Project owners may consider investing substantially in H&S technologies that can strengthen their resilient and innovative ability to adapt to the post-COVID-19 landscape. The present results will be useful to industry stakeholders and researchers interested in developing H&S technologies for combating the COVID-19 pandemic and future crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Artificial Intelligence , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
14.
Curationis ; 44(1): e1-e9, 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524276

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Integrating the use of information communication technology (ICT) in nursing curricula when preparing student nurses for the digital health future such as the sudden online learning as a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is vital. However, when student nurses in a South African private nursing education institution, struggled to complete obligatory online learning courses, nurse educators had to search for solutions. OBJECTIVES: To explore the barriers and enablers for ICT adoption by a diverse group of student nurses in a private nursing education institution in the Free State Province. METHOD: Following a qualitative, explorative, interpretive-descriptive design, student nurses were invited to participate. Based on all-inclusive, purposive sampling with inclusion criteria enabled selecting, a total of 17 participants who took part in three focus groups and written narratives. Transcribed interviews underwent thematic analysis with co-coder consensus. The study adhered to strategies to enhance trustworthiness. RESULTS: Students shared their views related to ICT and online learning within their theory and practice training. Student nurses held positive, negative and contrasting views of ICT adoption and online learning. Actions to master ICT adoption and online learning are highlighted. Information communication technology brings a challenging interdependence between nurses and technology. CONCLUSION: Integration of ICT into nursing programmes is important. The enablers and barriers to ICT are described. Expose students to different technologies, especially using smart phones to search for (academic/non-academic) information. The adoption of ICT should enhance the learning process and facilitate deep learning. Students preferred online learning for self-assessment and described how they tried to master ICT and online learning. Information communication technologies in the clinical setting highlight the challenged interdependence between nurses and technology. Context-specific recommendations are proposed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Education, Nursing , Nurses , Students, Nursing , Communication , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 749515, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518574

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic presents an unprecedented situation in which physical distancing and "stay at home" orders have increased the pressures for social isolation. Critically, certain demographic factors have been linked to increased feelings of isolation and loneliness. These at-risk groups for social isolation may be disproportionately affected by the changes and restrictions that have been implemented to prevent viral spread. In our analysis, we sought to evaluate if perceived feelings of social isolation, during the COVID-19 pandemic, was related to demographic and technology-related psychographic characteristics. Older adults across Canada were surveyed about their demographic background, their feelings concerning confidence and proficiency in technology use, and how frequently they have felt isolated during the pandemic. In total 927 responses from Canadians over 65 years old, of varying demographic characteristics were collected. Our data shows that many older adults are feeling isolated "Often" or "Some of the time" in 2020, regardless of most demographic factors that have been previously associated with increased isolation risk. However, feelings of proficiency in using technology was an important factor affecting feelings of isolation. Given that technology proficiency is a modifiable factor, and remained significant after adjustment for demographic factors, future efforts to reduce social isolation should consider training programs for older adults to improve technology confidence, especially in an increasingly digital world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Isolation , Aged , Canada/epidemiology , Demography , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
16.
Vox Sang ; 116(10): 1076-1083, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515248

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Convalescent plasma (CP) has been embraced as a safe therapeutic option for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), while other treatments are developed. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is not transmissible by transfusion, but bloodborne pathogens remain a risk in regions with high endemic prevalence of disease. Pathogen reduction can mitigate this risk; thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of riboflavin and ultraviolet light (R + UV) pathogen reduction technology on the functional properties of COVID-19 CP (CCP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: COVID-19 convalescent plasma units (n = 6) from recovered COVID-19 research donors were treated with R + UV. Pre- and post-treatment samples were tested for coagulation factor and immunoglobulin retention. Antibody binding to spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD), S1 and S2 epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 was assessed by ELISA. Neutralizing antibody (nAb) function was assessed by pseudovirus reporter viral particle neutralization (RVPN) assay and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). RESULTS: Mean retention of coagulation factors was ≥70%, while retention of immunoglobulins was 100%. Starting nAb titres were low, but PRNT50 titres did not differ between pre- and post-treatment samples. No statistically significant differences were detected in levels of IgG (P ≥ 0·3665) and IgM (P ≥ 0·1208) antibodies to RBD, S1 and S2 proteins before and after treatment. CONCLUSION: R + UV PRT effects on coagulation factors were similar to previous reports, but no significant effects were observed on immunoglobulin concentration and antibody function. SARS-CoV-2 nAb function in CCP is conserved following R + UV PRT treatment.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Riboflavin , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology , Ultraviolet Rays
17.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258660, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511817

ABSTRACT

Due to COVID-19 precautions, the Vanderbilt University summer biomedical undergraduate research program, the Vanderbilt Summer Science Academy (VSSA), rapidly transitioned from offering an in-person training program to a virtual seminar format. Our program typically supports undergraduate development through research and/or clinical experience, meeting with individuals pursuing postgraduate training, and providing career development advice. Evidence supports the idea that summer programs transform undergraduates by clarifying their interest in research and encouraging those who haven't previously considered graduate studies. We were interested in exploring whether a virtual, synchronous program would increase participants' scientific identity and clarify postgraduate career planning. Rather than create a virtual research exposure, our 5-week "Virtual VSSA" program aimed to simulate the casual connections that would naturally be made with post-undergraduate trainees during a traditional summer program. In seminars, presenters discussed 1) their academic journey, explaining their motivations, goals, and reasons for pursuing a career in science as well as 2) a professional story that illustrated their training. Seminars included Vanderbilt University and Medical School faculty, M.D., MD/Ph.D., as well as Ph.D. students from diverse scientific and personal backgrounds. In addition, weekly informational sessions provided an overview of the nature of each degree program along with admissions advice. Through pre-and post-program surveys, we found that students who registered for this experience already strongly identified with the STEMM community (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Medicine). However, participation in the Virtual VSSA increased their sense of belonging. We also uncovered a gap in participants' understanding of postgraduate pathways prior to participation and found that our program significantly increased their self-reported understanding of postgraduate programs. It also increased their understanding of why someone would pursue a Ph.D. or Ph.D./MD versus M.D. These changes did not uniformly impact participants' planned career paths. Overall, by providing personal, tangible stories of M.D., MD/Ph.D., and Ph.D. training, the Virtual VSSA program offered seminars that positively impacted students' sense of belonging with and connection to the STEMM disciplines.


Subject(s)
Engineering/education , Mathematics/education , Technology/education , Academies and Institutes , Biomedical Research/education , COVID-19/epidemiology , Career Choice , Faculty/education , Humans , Knowledge , Mentors/education , Minority Groups/education , Schools, Medical , Students , Universities
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2001, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As COVID-19 continues to spread globally, traditional emergency management measures are facing many practical limitations. The application of big data analysis technology provides an opportunity for local governments to conduct the COVID-19 epidemic emergency management more scientifically. The present study, based on emergency management lifecycle theory, includes a comprehensive analysis of the application framework of China's SARS epidemic emergency management lacked the support of big data technology in 2003. In contrast, this study first proposes a more agile and efficient application framework, supported by big data technology, for the COVID-19 epidemic emergency management and then analyses the differences between the two frameworks. METHODS: This study takes Hainan Province, China as its case study by using a file content analysis and semistructured interviews to systematically comprehend the strategy and mechanism of Hainan's application of big data technology in its COVID-19 epidemic emergency management. RESULTS: Hainan Province adopted big data technology during the four stages, i.e., migration, preparedness, response, and recovery, of its COVID-19 epidemic emergency management. Hainan Province developed advanced big data management mechanisms and technologies for practical epidemic emergency management, thereby verifying the feasibility and value of the big data technology application framework we propose. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides empirical evidence for certain aspects of the theory, mechanism, and technology for local governments in different countries and regions to apply, in a precise, agile, and evidence-based manner, big data technology in their formulations of comprehensive COVID-19 epidemic emergency management strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Big Data , China/epidemiology , Humans , Local Government , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Outside activities have decreased due to the spread of the COVID-19 since 2019; therefore, the need for education using information and communication technology (ICT) for older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has increased. This study systematically evaluated the effects of cognitive enhancement interventions using ICT on older adults with MCI. METHODS: Six electronic databases (CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, PubMed, RISS, and KISS) were searched for relevant articles published from 25 January to 10 February, 2021. RESULTS: As a result of the systematic literature review, 12 research papers were finally selected as the literature for quality evaluation, and 11 final papers were selected, excluding one in the quality evaluation. From the synthesis in this study, it was found that cognitive intervention using ICT showed a statistically significant positive effect on cognitive function when compared with various control groups (SMD = 0.4547; p < 0.001; 95% CI: 0.1980-0.7113). CONCLUSIONS: Through this study, cognitive intervention using ICT showed a small effect size for older adults with mild cognitive impairment, and statistically significant results were found.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Communication , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
20.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259226, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502072

ABSTRACT

When emerging technologies transform an organization's way of working, explorative business process management (BPM) becomes a new challenge. Although digital innovations can boost process efficacy and business productivity, employees do not necessarily accept the implied work changes. We therefore looked at the increased digitalization efforts during the COVID-19 lockdowns, during which employees were forced to drastically rethink work by heavily depending on technology for communication and almost all business tasks. This global setting allowed us to scrutinize disruptive work changes and how employees can cope with disruptive work adaptations. We also looked into the explorative skillset needed to adapt to these changes. To theorize about an explorative BPM acceptance model, eleven hypotheses were supported based on a solid theoretical foundation. We followed a quantitative research design using partial least squares for structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) at the university administration settings in two regions, including purposive sampling. Data analysis covered both a measurement model assessment and structural model assessment. Our findings reveal that employees' perceived work modalities, feeling creative and feeling flexible are more promising features than perceived influence and attitude related to explorative work and skill development. We also offer novel insights into explorative business process management (BPM) skills, and which skills are more productive in uncertain or dynamic working conditions. This research is a learning path for managers struggling with flexible or competitive business environments, and more specifically to facilitate employee willingness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Commerce , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Employment , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Algorithms , Creativity , Female , Humans , Learning , Least-Squares Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Organizational , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology , Young Adult
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