Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 526
Filter
1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(1): e31066, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite worldwide efforts, control of COVID-19 transmission and its after effects is lagging. As seen from the cases of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza, worldwide crises associated with infections and their side effects are likely to recur in the future because of extensive international interactions. Consequently, there is an urgent need to identify the factors that can mitigate disease spread. We observed that the transmission speed and severity of consequences of COVID-19 varied substantially across countries, signaling the need for a country-level investigation. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate how distancing-enabling information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure and medical ICT infrastructure, and related policies have affected the cumulative number of confirmed cases, fatality rate, and initial speed of transmission across different countries. METHODS: We analyzed the determinants of COVID-19 transmission during the relatively early days of the pandemic by conducting regression analysis based on our data for country-level characteristics, including demographics, culture, ICT infrastructure, policies, economic status, and transmission of COVID-19. To gain further insights, we conducted a subsample analysis for countries with low population density. RESULTS: Our full sample analysis showed that implied telehealth policy, which refers to the lack of a specific telehealth-related policy but presence of a general eHealth policy, was associated with lower fatality rates when controlled for cultural characteristics (P=.004). In particular, the fatality rate for countries with an implied telehealth policy was lower than that for others by 2.7%. Interestingly, stated telehealth policy, which refers to the existence of a specified telehealth policy, was found to not be associated with lower fatality rates (P=.30). Furthermore, countries with a government-run health website had 36% fewer confirmed cases than those without it, when controlled for cultural characteristics (P=.03). Our analysis further revealed that the interaction between implied telehealth policy and training ICT health was significant (P=.01), suggesting that implied telehealth policy may be more effective when in-service training on ICT is provided to health professionals. In addition, credit card ownership, as an enabler of convenient e-commerce transactions and distancing, showed a negative association with fatality rates in the full sample analysis (P=.04), but not in the subsample analysis (P=.76), highlighting that distancing-enabling ICT is more useful in densely populated countries. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate important relationships between national traits and COVID-19 infections, suggesting guidelines for policymakers to minimize the negative consequences of pandemics. The findings suggest physicians' autonomous use of medical ICT and strategic allocation of distancing-enabling ICT infrastructure in countries with high population density to maximize efficiency. This study also encourages further research to investigate the role of health policies in combatting COVID-19 and other pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Policy , Humans , Pandemics , Technology
2.
Proteomics Clin Appl ; 16(6): e2200083, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2173402
3.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(1): 3-4, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152040

ABSTRACT

Rapid point-of-care tests are needed to control antimicrobial consumption, as recognized by the Longitude Prize. However, in addition to bacterial pathogen identification, clinicians need more information, such as which antimicrobial will be effective and how severe the infection really is. This technology is beginning to emerge, but both economic and technological challenges remain before it can be delivered, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This article outlines these challenges and how we might overcome them.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Developing Countries , Technology
4.
Lancet ; 400(10365): 1803-1820, 2022 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2159959

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes accounts for nearly 90% of the approximately 537 million cases of diabetes worldwide. The number affected is increasing rapidly with alarming trends in children and young adults (up to age 40 years). Early detection and proactive management are crucial for prevention and mitigation of microvascular and macrovascular complications and mortality burden. Access to novel therapies improves person-centred outcomes beyond glycaemic control. Precision medicine, including multiomics and pharmacogenomics, hold promise to enhance understanding of disease heterogeneity, leading to targeted therapies. Technology might improve outcomes, but its potential is yet to be realised. Despite advances, substantial barriers to changing the course of the epidemic remain. This Seminar offers a clinically focused review of the recent developments in type 2 diabetes care including controversies and future directions.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Epidemics , Humans , Child , Young Adult , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Pharmacogenetics , Precision Medicine , Technology
5.
Big Data ; 10(S1): S25-S29, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151806

ABSTRACT

Achieving a modern equity-oriented public health system requires the development of a public health workforce with the skills and competencies needed to generate findings and integrate knowledge using diverse data. Yet current workforce capabilities and infrastructure are misaligned with what is needed to harness both new and older forms of data and to translate them into information that is equity contextualized. As with other articles in this supplement, this article builds from a literature review, environmental scan, and deliberations from the National Commission to Transform Public Health Data Systems. The article summarizes some of the challenges around current workforce capabilities and pipeline. The article identifies where the technology and data sectors can contribute skills, expertise, and assets in support of innovative workforce models and augment the development of public health workforce competencies.


Subject(s)
Health Workforce , Public Health , Technology , Workforce
6.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 57(4): 613-625, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2149572

ABSTRACT

Health care ethics education has focused on the four principles approach. Although relevant and important, this dimension is insufficient on its own. Emotional, cultural, spiritual, and relational aspects of ethics must also be addressed. Ethics cases are important in ethics education but should include everyday ethics scenarios that can be messy and emotional. Such situations occur regularly in nursing practice, making microethics particularly relevant to nurses. Art, songs, film, and literature provide stories that allow exploration of everyday ethics. Technology can facilitate this and promote ethics comportment, but more work is needed to demonstrate how best to do this.


Subject(s)
Education, Nursing , Ethics, Nursing , Humans , Technology
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 896958, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123410

ABSTRACT

Vaccines can prevent many millions of illnesses against infectious diseases and save numerous lives every year. However, traditional vaccines such as inactivated viral and live attenuated vaccines cannot adapt to emerging pandemics due to their time-consuming development. With the global outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, the virus continues to evolve and mutate, producing mutants with enhanced transmissibility and virulence; the rapid development of vaccines against such emerging global pandemics becomes more and more critical. In recent years, mRNA vaccines have been of significant interest in combating emerging infectious diseases due to their rapid development and large-scale production advantages. However, their development still suffers from many hurdles such as their safety, cellular delivery, uptake, and response to their manufacturing, logistics, and storage. More efforts are still required to optimize the molecular designs of mRNA molecules with increased protein expression and enhanced structural stability. In addition, a variety of delivery systems are also needed to achieve effective delivery of vaccines. In this review, we highlight the advances in mRNA vaccines against various infectious diseases and discuss the molecular design principles and delivery systems of associated mRNA vaccines. The current state of the clinical application of mRNA vaccine pipelines against various infectious diseases and the challenge, safety, and protective effect of associated vaccines are also discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Technology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
9.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 10(11): e41455, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Advances in mobile technology over the last 10 years have expanded its use in scientific research. However, there are challenges in creating a reliable system for intervention content delivery and data collection in an environment with limited internet connectivity and limited staffing capacity. The Sexual Communication and Consent (SCC) study used tablets to provide individualized Sexual Assault Prevention and Response training in a classroom environment that was both technologically and support staff limited. OBJECTIVE: We developed the SCC Basic Military Training app and a separate Sexual Assault Response Coordinator app to support individualized training within the new SCC program. This paper presents the functionality, protocols, challenges, and feasibility of deploying mobile technology in an educational environment in the military with limited resources. METHODS: We developed both mobile apps targeting the Apple iOS ecosystem. The Basic Military Training app provided a screening instrument that routed the trainee into 1 of 5 specific intervention programs. Over 2 days of basic military training set 2 weeks apart, trainees received a combined 6 hours of program-specific tablet training, combined with universal, interactive classroom training, led by qualified instructors. The Sexual Assault Response Coordinator app, used to deliver supplemental content to a subgroup of trainees, was made available for voluntary and private use at the Sexual Assault Response Coordinator's office on base. All anonymous data were manually transferred onto laptops, where the data were aggregated into files and securely transferred to the project staff for analysis. The study was conducted at the Lackland Air Force Base, Joint Base San Antonio, with 9196 trainees providing the data. RESULTS: A total of 7742 trainees completed both the sessions of the SCC program and a series of evaluative assessments. Some trainees did not receive day 2 training, and only received day 1 training because the COVID-19 pandemic shortened the study period. Of the 190 SCC classes taught, only one class was unable to complete tablet training because of Apple licensing-related technology failure. The 360 study tablets were distributed across 3 classrooms (120 per classroom) and were handled at least 16,938 times with no reports of breakage or requiring replacement. Wi-Fi access limitations exacerbated the complexity of Apple licensing revalidation and the secure transfer of data from the classroom to project personnel. The instructor staff's limited technical knowledge to perform certain technical tasks was challenging. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated the feasibility of deploying a mobile app for tablet-based training in a military educational environment. Although successful, the study was not without technical challenges. This paper gives examples of technical lessons learned and recommendations for conducting the study differently, with the aim that the knowledge gained may be helpful to other researchers encountering similar requirements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Military Personnel , Sex Offenses , Humans , Pandemics , Ecosystem , Sex Offenses/prevention & control , Technology
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(22)2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115974

ABSTRACT

Social isolation is likely to be one of the most serious health outcomes for the elderly due to the COVID-19 pandemic, especially for seniors living alone at home. In fact, two approaches have been used to assess social isolation. The first is a self-reported survey designed for research purposes. The second approach is the use of monitoring technology. The objective of this paper is to provide some illustrative publications, works and examples of the current status and future prospects in the field of monitoring systems that focused on two main activities of daily living: meal-taking activity (shopping, cooking, eating and washing dishes) and mobility (inside the home and the act of going out). These two activities combined seem relevant to a potential risk of social isolation in the elderly. Although current research focuses on identifying only ADLs, we propose to use them as a first step to extract daily habits and risk level of social isolation. Moreover, since activity recognition is a recent field, we raise specific problems as well as needed contributions and we propose directions and research opportunities to accelerate advances in this field.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Social Isolation , Technology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114898

ABSTRACT

This paper qualitatively explores how technologies and physical activity are experienced by adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is a life-threatening autoimmune condition, which is highly prevalent in young children. Physical activity is underutilised as part of treatment goals due to multifactorial challenges and lack of education in both the family setting and across society as a whole. Using photovoice methodology, 29 participants (parents and adolescents), individually or as dyads, shared and described in reflective journal format examples of technology and physical activity in their lives. In total, 120 personal photographs with accompanying narratives were provided. The data were thematically coded by the researcher and then collaboratively with participants. Four key themes (and 12 subthemes) were generated including: (i) benefits of technology; (ii) complexity and difficulty; (iii) emotional impact; (iv) reliance and risk. Findings demonstrate that current technology does not address the complex needs of adolescents with type 1 diabetes to enable participation in physical activity without life risk. We conclude from our findings that future technologies for supporting engagement in physical activity as part of diabetes management need to be: more interoperable, personalised and integrated better with ongoing education and support.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Exercise , Humans , Narration , Technology
12.
J Intensive Care Med ; 37(12): 1662-1666, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113158

ABSTRACT

A novel remote ventilator management (control) technology (Omnitool) was implemented for use with ICU patients during the COVID-19 pandemic to mitigate in-person respiratory therapist interactions and preserve personal protective equipment. In the latter half of 2020, eight mechanical ventilators were purchased and enabled for Omnitool deployment through the application of a vendor software option. Subsequently, these ventilators were outfitted with commercially available informatics hardware that permitted remote communication and management via the existing hospital network. In total, 17 patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure were placed on Omnitool enabled ventilators between January 1, 2021-April 30, 2021. The median Omnitool use days was 10. Deployment of a novel remote ventilator management technology is feasible; however, further study is needed to simplify the set up and utilization of the system. Future demands for remote ventilator management are predictable, whether in rural areas, military scenarios without adequate RT staffing, or in circumstances with new and easily transmissible toxic infections, and will continue to encourage the development of relatively easy to apply informatics-based solutions. Herein we share five lessons learned from our Omnitool deployment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Pandemics , Ventilators, Mechanical , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Technology
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1018961, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109768

ABSTRACT

Synthetic mRNA technologies represent a versatile platform that can be used to develop advanced drug products. The remarkable speed with which vaccine development programs designed and manufactured safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines has rekindled interest in mRNA technology, particularly for future pandemic preparedness. Although recent R&D has focused largely on advancing mRNA vaccines and large-scale manufacturing capabilities, the technology has been used to develop various immunotherapies, gene editing strategies, and protein replacement therapies. Within the mRNA technologies toolbox lie several platforms, design principles, and components that can be adapted to modulate immunogenicity, stability, in situ expression, and delivery. For example, incorporating modified nucleotides into conventional mRNA transcripts can reduce innate immune responses and improve in situ translation. Alternatively, self-amplifying RNA may enhance vaccine-mediated immunity by increasing antigen expression. This review will highlight recent advances in the field of synthetic mRNA therapies and vaccines, and discuss the ongoing global efforts aimed at reducing vaccine inequity by establishing mRNA manufacturing capacity within Africa and other low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Technology
14.
Nurs Clin North Am ; 57(4): 551-562, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104622

ABSTRACT

Despite the unprecedented obstacles created by the COVID-19 pandemic, nursing professional development practitioners and nurse educators successfully harnessed educational technology to disseminate an extraordinary amount of vital information needed to provide care to a society in crisis. The agile adoption of educational technology allowed rapid access and dissemination of information that carried institutions through the uncharted waters of the pandemic and created a roadmap for mass education techniques to guide not only future disaster preparedness and crisis intervention but also application of nursing education in all arenas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Nursing , Humans , Pandemics , Faculty, Nursing , Technology
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099510

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In order to facilitate free movement of EU citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic, in early 2021 the European Commission proposed the establishment of an EU Digital COVID Certificate. By 1 July 2021, all EU Member States have successfully implemented the EU Digital COVID Certificate. The technological and procedural complexities encountered while establishing the EU Digital COVID Certificate in Slovenia are reviewed in this article. METHODS: This research employs a case study methodology. Controlled focus group sessions comprising eighteen eminent experts (not including medical and other expert groups involved in the epidemiological measures) in charge of the EU Digital COVID Certificate and other national eHealth services in Slovenia were used as the primary data collection technique. Focus group discussions were preceded by an all-encompassing review of the literature and the examination of numerous materials covering the EU Digital COVID Certificate-related content. RESULTS: The study findings reveal that the technological and process complexities are associated with the fragmented data sources and complicated and abundant business rules used for the generation and verification of the EU Digital COVID Certificate. However, despite the technological, process and other impediments that arose during the establishment of the EU Digital COVID Certificate in Slovenia, it can be argued that the approach used and stakeholder commitment, especially in critical pandemic conditions, offered the much-desired harmonisation and application of this digital service at the EU level. CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights the importance of a sound and coherent model for the impending establishment of cross-border eHealth services and suggests that the ad hoc implementation of such challenging and delicate digital solutions in the future will only be feasible with the prior construction of robust and interoperable digital health infrastructures across the EU Member States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Pandemics , Slovenia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Technology
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090183

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic of the last two years has affected the lives of many individuals, especially the most vulnerable and at-risk population groups, e.g., older adults. While social distancing and isolation are shown to be effective at decreasing the transmission of the virus, these actions have also increased loneliness and social isolation. To combat social distancing from family and friends, older adults have turned to technology for help. In the health sector, these individuals also had a variety of options that strengthened eHealth care services. This study analyzed the technologies used during the COVID-19 pandemic by a group of older people, as well as explored their expectations of use after the pandemic period. Qualitative and ethnographic interviews were conducted with 10 Portuguese older adults, and data were collected over a period of seven months between 2020 and 2021. The research demonstrated that the use of current and new technologies in the post-pandemic future is likely to be related to overcoming: (i) insecurity regarding privacy issues; (ii) difficulties in using technologies due to the level of use of digital technology; and (iii) the human distancing and impersonal consequences of using these technologies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Physical Distancing , Social Isolation , Loneliness , Technology
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090143

ABSTRACT

Few studies have examined social media and technology use during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada. Therefore, the main research question and objective of this study was to examine similarities and differences in the influences of mobile technology and social media use on Canadians among different age groups and across gender during the COVID-19 pandemic. From June through October 2021, 204 persons completed a 72-item online survey. Survey questions encompassed COVID-19 pandemic experiences and technology use. Standardized measures including the Psychological Wellbeing measure, eHeals, and the UCLA V3 Loneliness scale were collected to examine the psychological influences of the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings showed that males under 50 years were most likely to self-isolate compared to the other demographic results of the study. Males reported using technology less than females but were more likely to report using technology to share information regarding COVID-19. Respondents under 50 years were also more likely to use smartphones/mobile phones as their most used mobile technology device, whereas respondents over 50 were more split between smartphones/mobile phones and computers/tablets as their most used device. Males scored higher on the UCLA loneliness scale and lower on the Psychological Wellbeing sub-scores compared to females. Further research should explore additional demographics in relation to broader aspects of digital skills across different age groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Male , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Canada/epidemiology , Loneliness/psychology , Technology
18.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(10)2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081840

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted normal human life worldwide. Due to its rapid community spread and high mortality statistics, the development of prompt diagnostic tests for a massive number of samples is essential. Currently used traditional methods are often expensive, time-consuming, laboratory-based, and unable to handle a large number of specimens in resource-limited settings. Because of its high contagiousness, efficient identification of SARS-CoV-2 carriers is crucial. As the advantages of adopting biosensors for efficient diagnosis of COVID-19 increase, this narrative review summarizes the recent advances and the respective reasons to consider applying biosensors. Biosensors are the most sensitive, specific, rapid, user-friendly tools having the potential to deliver point-of-care diagnostics beyond traditional standards. This review provides a brief introduction to conventional methods used for COVID-19 diagnosis and summarizes their advantages and disadvantages. It also discusses the pathogenesis of COVID-19, potential diagnostic biomarkers, and rapid diagnosis using biosensor technology. The current advancements in biosensing technologies, from academic research to commercial achievements, have been emphasized in recent publications. We covered a wide range of topics, including biomarker detection, viral genomes, viral proteins, immune responses to infection, and other potential proinflammatory biomolecules. Major challenges and prospects for future application in point-of-care settings are also highlighted.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Technology
19.
Kidney360 ; 1(8): 834-836, 2020 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772605
20.
J Vis Exp ; (187)2022 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080561

ABSTRACT

Increasing the diversity of students choosing careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is an area of intense focus across the USA, especially in kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12)-focused pipeline programs in medical schools. A diverse STEM workforce contributes to better problem-solving and equity in health care. Two of the many major barriers for rural students are the lack of sufficient STEM role models and limited access to technology in the classroom. Medical schools often serve as an important resource for students in the local community who can easily gain access to STEM professionals and modern technology through on-campus, sponsored events and STEM outreach to the local classrooms. However, underrepresented minority (URM) students often live in socioeconomically distressed parts of rural states such as Arkansas, where access to STEM role models and technology is limited. Virtual learning in the COVID-19 era has proven that the imaging technology resources of a medical school can be harnessed to reach a wider audience, especially students living in rural areas far from the medical school campus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Technology , Students , Minority Groups , Engineering
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL