Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 14 de 14
Filter
1.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25120, 2021 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575528

ABSTRACT

Multisite medical data sharing is critical in modern clinical practice and medical research. The challenge is to conduct data sharing that preserves individual privacy and data utility. The shortcomings of traditional privacy-enhancing technologies mean that institutions rely upon bespoke data sharing contracts. The lengthy process and administration induced by these contracts increases the inefficiency of data sharing and may disincentivize important clinical treatment and medical research. This paper provides a synthesis between 2 novel advanced privacy-enhancing technologies-homomorphic encryption and secure multiparty computation (defined together as multiparty homomorphic encryption). These privacy-enhancing technologies provide a mathematical guarantee of privacy, with multiparty homomorphic encryption providing a performance advantage over separately using homomorphic encryption or secure multiparty computation. We argue multiparty homomorphic encryption fulfills legal requirements for medical data sharing under the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation which has set a global benchmark for data protection. Specifically, the data processed and shared using multiparty homomorphic encryption can be considered anonymized data. We explain how multiparty homomorphic encryption can reduce the reliance upon customized contractual measures between institutions. The proposed approach can accelerate the pace of medical research while offering additional incentives for health care and research institutes to employ common data interoperability standards.


Subject(s)
Computer Security/ethics , Information Dissemination/ethics , Privacy/legislation & jurisprudence , Technology/methods , Humans
2.
Int Immunol ; 33(10): 521-527, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575141

ABSTRACT

There is currently an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2. Individuals with COVID-19 have symptoms that are usually asymptomatic or mild in most initial cases. However, in some cases, moderate and severe symptoms have been observed with pneumonia. Many companies are developing COVID-19 vaccine candidates using different technologies that are classified into four groups (intact target viruses, proteins, viral vectors and nucleic acids). For rapid development, RNA vaccines and adenovirus vector vaccines have been urgently approved, and their injection has already started across the world. These types of vaccine technologies have been developed over more than 20 years using translational research for use against cancer or diseases caused by genetic disorders but the COVID-19 vaccines are the first licensed drugs to prevent infectious diseases using RNA vaccine technology. Although these vaccines are highly effective in preventing COVID-19 for a short period, safety and efficiency evaluations should be continuously monitored over a long time period. As the time of writing, more than 10 projects are now in phase 3 to evaluate the prevention of infection in double-blind studies. Hopefully, several projects may be approved to ensure high-efficiency and safe vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Animals , Double-Blind Method , Genetic Therapy/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Technology/methods , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
3.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e24893, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574527

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Suboptimal adherence to 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) is prevalent in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and associated with increased risk of relapse. Rapid uptake of personal technology makes mobile health (mHealth) an attractive platform to promote adherence. OBJECTIVE: Study objectives were to examine access to mobile technology and preferences for an mHealth intervention to improve medication adherence in pediatric ALL. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was administered in oncology clinic to parents of children with ALL as well as adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with ALL receiving maintenance chemotherapy. RESULTS: A total of 49 parents (median age [IQR] 39 [33-42] years; female 76% [37/49]) and 15 patients (median age [IQR] 17 [16-19]; male 80% [12/15]) participated. All parents and AYAs owned electronic tablets, smartphones, or both. Parents' most endorsed mHealth app features included a list of medications (71%, 35/49), information about 6-MP (71%, 35/49), refill reminders (71%, 35/49), and reminders to take 6-MP (71%, 35/49). AYAs' most endorsed features included refill reminders (73%, 11/15), reminders to take 6-MP (73%, 11/15), and tracking 6-MP (73%, 11/15). CONCLUSIONS: Parents and AYAs reported ubiquitous access to mobile technology and strong interest in multiple adherence-specific mHealth app features. Parents and AYAs provided valuable insight into preferred features for a multifunctional behavioral intervention (mHealth app) to promote medication adherence in pediatric ALL.


Subject(s)
Behavior Therapy/methods , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Technology/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Smartphone , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
4.
IEEE Rev Biomed Eng ; 14: 48-70, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501336

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a pandemic with serious clinical manifestations including death. A pandemic at the large-scale like COVID-19 places extraordinary demands on the world's health systems, dramatically devastates vulnerable populations, and critically threatens the global communities in an unprecedented way. While tremendous efforts at the frontline are placed on detecting the virus, providing treatments and developing vaccines, it is also critically important to examine the technologies and systems for tackling disease emergence, arresting its spread and especially the strategy for diseases prevention. The objective of this article is to review enabling technologies and systems with various application scenarios for handling the COVID-19 crisis. The article will focus specifically on 1) wearable devices suitable for monitoring the populations at risk and those in quarantine, both for evaluating the health status of caregivers and management personnel, and for facilitating triage processes for admission to hospitals; 2) unobtrusive sensing systems for detecting the disease and for monitoring patients with relatively mild symptoms whose clinical situation could suddenly worsen in improvised hospitals; and 3) telehealth technologies for the remote monitoring and diagnosis of COVID-19 and related diseases. Finally, further challenges and opportunities for future directions of development are highlighted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Pandemics/prevention & control , Technology/methods , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19/virology , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Wearable Electronic Devices
5.
Drug Metab Pharmacokinet ; 41: 100424, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458828

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid therapeutics are developing into precise medicines that can manipulate specific genes. However, the development of safe and effective delivery system for the target cells has remained a challenge. Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) have provided a revolutionary delivery system that can ensure multiple clinical translation of RNA-based candidates. In 2018, Patisiran (Onpattro) was first approved as an LNP-based siRNA drug. In 2020, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, LNPs have enabled the development of two SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines, Tozinameran (Comirnaty or Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine) and Elasomeran (Spikevax or COVID-19 vaccine Moderna) for conditional approval. Here, we reviewed the state-of-the-art LNP technology employed in three approved drugs (one siRNA-based and two mRNA-based drugs) and discussed the differences in their mode of action, formulation design, and biodistribution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Liposomes/immunology , RNA, Small Interfering/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology , Animals , Humans , Nanoparticles , Technology/methods
6.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 170: 108502, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1074700

ABSTRACT

Monitoring of glucose levels is essential to effective diabetes management. Over the past 100 years, there have been numerous innovations in glucose monitoring methods. The most recent advances have centered on continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technologies. Numerous studies have demonstrated that use of continuous glucose monitoring confers significant glycemic benefits on individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Ongoing improvements in accuracy and convenience of CGM devices have prompted increasing adoption of this technology. The development of standardized metrics for assessing CGM data has greatly improved and streamlined analysis and interpretation, enabling clinicians and patients to make more informed therapy modifications. However, many clinicians many be unfamiliar with current CGM and how use of these devices may help individuals with T1DM and T2DM achieve their glycemic targets. The purpose of this review is to present an overview of current CGM systems and provide guidance to clinicians for initiating and utilizing CGM in their practice settings.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring/methods , Blood Glucose/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Technology/methods , Humans , Longitudinal Studies
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e22287, 2020 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969266

ABSTRACT

The focus of this perspective is on lockdown loneliness, which we define as loneliness resulting from social disconnection as a result of enforced social distancing and lockdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also explore the role of digital technology in tackling lockdown loneliness amid the pandemic. In this regard, we highlight and discuss a number of the key relevant issues: a description of lockdown loneliness, the burden of lockdown loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic, characteristics of people who are more likely to be affected by lockdown loneliness, factors that could increase the risk of loneliness, lockdown loneliness as an important public health issue, tackling loneliness during the pandemic, digital technology tools for social connection and networking during the pandemic, assessment of digital technology tools from the end users' perspectives, and access to and use of digital technology for tackling lockdown loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic. We suggest that the most disadvantaged and vulnerable people who are more prone to lockdown loneliness are provided with access to digital technology so that they can connect socially with their loved ones and others; this could reduce loneliness resulting from social distancing and lockdowns during the COVID-19 crisis. Nonetheless, some key issues such as access to and knowledge of digital technology tools must be considered. In addition, the involvement of all key stakeholders (family and friends, social care providers, and clinicians and health allied professionals) should be ensured.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Technology/methods , Humans
8.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 534: 830-836, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-928818

ABSTRACT

Demands to address the COVID-19 pandemic rapidly surpassed global resources. Successful implementation of application technology resulting in people taking greater control of their own health and medical and public health personnel improving efficiency was requested by authorities in Thailand to reduce the demand on health resources to meet the health needs of the people. This paper examines the creation and implementation of three real-time application technologies using a bottom-up approach in an attempt to examine COVID-19 challenges and highlight control measures. These lessons learned represent participatory action research methods involving the people who were responsible for taking actions to improve their own and their communities' health. The objective was to build participation of users, academics and service organizations in a novel technology enhanced system leading to quality management of the COVID-19 pandemic. A new technology enhanced system for medical field personnel encouraged network participation resulting in co-creation of a health data center. Application technology assisted COVID-19 infected patients and high-risk people to identify their own symptoms and to provide a rapid tracking method that could be employed until public health surveillance was achieved. A patient and hospital management system employing new application technology was effective in monitoring COVID-19 patients utilizing an interconnected hospital network. Application technology was beneficial in promoting health, enhancing patient satisfaction, reducing readmission rates and extending health resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Technology/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Patient-Centered Care/methods , Population Surveillance/methods , Public Health/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thailand
11.
J Gerontol Nurs ; 46(7): 2, 2020 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-620543
13.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(2): e19297, 2020 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186724

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social distancing and shielding measures have been put in place to reduce social interaction and slow the transmission of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). For older people, self-isolation presents particular challenges for mental health and social relationships. As time progresses, continued social distancing could have a compounding impact on these concerns. OBJECTIVE: This project aims to provide a tool for older people and their families and peers to improve their well-being and health during and after regulated social distancing. First, we will evaluate the tool's feasibility, acceptability, and usability to encourage positive nutrition, enhance physical activity, and enable virtual interaction while social distancing. Second, we will be implementing the app to provide an online community to assist families and peer groups in maintaining contact with older people using goal setting. Anonymized data from the app will be aggregated with other real-world data sources to develop a machine learning algorithm to improve the identification of patients with COVID-19 and track for real time use by health systems. METHODS: Development of this project is occurring at the time of publication, and therefore, a case study design was selected to provide a systematic means of capturing software engineering in progress. The app development framework for software design was based on agile methods. The evaluation of the app's feasibility, acceptability and usability shall be conducted using Public Health England's guidance on evaluating digital health products, Bandura's model of health promotion, the Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework and the Nonadoption, Abandonment and Challenges to the Scale-up, Spread and Suitability (NASSS) framework. RESULTS: Making use of a pre-existing software framework for health behavior change, a proof of concept was developed, and a multistage app development and deployment for the solution was created. Grant submissions to fund the project and study execution have been sought at the time of publication, and prediscovery iteration of the solution has begun. Ethical approval for a feasibility study design is being sought. CONCLUSIONS: This case study lays the foundations for future app development to combat mental and societal issues arising from social distancing measures. The app will be tested and evaluated in future studies to allow continuous improvement of the app. This novel contribution will provide an evidence-based exemplar for future app development in the space of social isolation and loneliness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Physical Distancing , Software , Technology , Telemedicine , Artificial Intelligence , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Coronavirus Infections , Engineering , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology/methods
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL