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2.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(11): e14752, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371822

ABSTRACT

AIM: In patients with COVID-19, no validated efficient treatment has been reported. Herein, we examine the effect of treatment with teicoplanin in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective study included 115 hospitalised patients in one medical centre. Fifty-four patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who received teicoplanin plus standard care were included in the Teicoplanin arm of this study, whereas 61 patients who were treated with standard care (SC) according to the Turkish Health Organization guidelines were included in the control arm. Patients' baseline characteristics, clinical presentation, treatment and outcomes were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: In this non-randomised control study, all baseline characteristics were comparable between the two arms and there were no significant differences in the presenting symptoms, comorbidities and clinical outcomes between the two groups. However, the mortality rate was significantly lower in the teicoplanin group than in the control group (1.9% vs 14.8%; P < .05). In addition, no adverse reactions were found in the teicoplanin arm. CONCLUSIONS: Teicoplanin administration is associated significantly with lower mortality in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 in our study. Further clinical investigations is required to verify the role of teicoplanin in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Teicoplanin , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Teicoplanin/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
3.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 3349-3378, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352763

ABSTRACT

Dalbavancin is a novel, long-acting lipoglycopeptide characterized by a long elimination half-life coupled with excellent in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-positives. Although it is currently approved only for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, an ever-growing amount of evidence supports the efficacy of dalbavancin as a long-term therapy in osteomyelitis, prosthetic joint infections, endocarditis, and bloodstream infections. This article provides a critical reappraisal of real-world use of dalbavancin for off-label indications. A search strategy using specific keywords (dalbavancin, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, long-term suppressive therapy, bloodstream infection, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile) until April 2021 was performed on the PubMed-MEDLINE database. As for other novel antibiotics, a conundrum between approved indications and potential innovative therapeutic uses has emerged for dalbavancin as well. The promising efficacy in challenging scenarios (i.e., osteomyelitis, endocarditis, prosthetic joint infections), coupled with the unique pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties, makes dalbavancin a valuable alternative to daily in-hospital intravenous or outpatient antimicrobial regimens in the treatment of long-term Gram-positive infections. This makes dalbavancin valuable in the current COVID-19 scenario, in which hospitalization and territorial medicine empowerment are unavoidable.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Off-Label Use , Patient Participation , Teicoplanin/analogs & derivatives , Algorithms , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , Clinical Decision-Making , Decision Support Techniques , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Teicoplanin/adverse effects , Teicoplanin/pharmacokinetics , Teicoplanin/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4319-4325, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118173

ABSTRACT

Teicoplanin has a potential antiviral activity expressed against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and was suggested as a complementary option to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. In this multicentric, retrospective, observational research the aim was to evaluate the impact of teicoplanin on the course of COVID-19 in critically ill patients. Fifty-five patients with severe COVID-19, hospitalized in the intensive care units (ICUs) and treated with best available therapy were retrospectively analysed. Among them 34 patients were also treated with teicoplanin (Tei-COVID group), while 21 without teicoplanin (control group). Crude in-hospital Day-30 mortality was lower in Tei-COVID group (35.2%) than in control group (42.8%), however not reaching statistical significance (p = .654). No statistically significant differences in length of stay in the ICU were observed between Tei-COVID group and control group (p = .248). On Day 14 from the ICU hospitalization, viral clearance was achieved in 64.7% patients of Tei-COVID group and 57.1% of control group, without statistical difference. Serum C-reactive protein level was significantly reduced in Tei-COVID group compared to control group, but not other biochemical parameters. Finally, Gram-positive were the causative pathogens for 25% of BSIs in Tei-COVID group and for 70.6% in controls. No side effects related to teicoplanin use were observed. Despite several limitations require further research, in this study the use of teicoplanin is not associated with a significant improvement in outcomes analysed. The antiviral activity of teicoplanin against SARS-CoV-2, previously documented, is probably more effective at early clinical stages.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Teicoplanin/therapeutic use , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 589505, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000069

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemics is a challenge without precedent for the modern science. Acute Respiratory Discomfort Syndrome (ARDS) is the most common immunopathological event in SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV infections. Fast lung deterioration results of cytokine storm determined by a robust immunological response leading to ARDS and multiple organ failure. Here, we show cysteine protease Cathepsin L (CatL) involvement with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and COVID-19 from different points of view. CatL is a lysosomal enzyme that participates in numerous physiological processes, including apoptosis, antigen processing, and extracellular matrix remodeling. CatL is implicated in pathological conditions like invasion and metastasis of tumors, inflammatory status, atherosclerosis, renal disease, diabetes, bone diseases, viral infection, and other diseases. CatL expression is up-regulated during chronic inflammation and is involved in degrading extracellular matrix, an important process for SARS-CoV-2 to enter host cells. In addition, CatL is probably involved in processing SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. As its inhibition is detrimental to SARS-CoV-2 infection and possibly exit from cells during late stages of infection, CatL could have been considered a valuable therapeutic target. Therefore, we describe here some drugs already in the market with potential CatL inhibiting capacity that could be used to treat COVID-19 patients. In addition, we discuss the possible role of host genetics in the etiology and spreading of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cathepsin L/physiology , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Amantadine/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cathepsin L/antagonists & inhibitors , Cathepsin L/genetics , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lysosomes/enzymology , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Teicoplanin/therapeutic use , Virus Internalization
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(23): 12593-12608, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995021

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is declared as an international emergency in 2020. Its prevalence and fatality rate are rapidly increasing but the medication options are still limited for this perilous disease. The emergent outbreak of COVID-19 triggered by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) keeps propagating globally. The present scenario has emphasized the requirement for therapeutic opportunities to relive and overcome this latest pandemic. Despite the fact, the deteriorating developments of COVID-19, there is no drug certified to have considerable effects in the medical treatment for COVID-19 patients. The COVID-19 pandemic requests for the rapid testing of new treatment approaches. Based on the evidence, hydroxychloroquine is the first medicine opted for the treatment of disease. Umifenovir, remdesivir, and fevipiravir are deemed the most hopeful antiviral agent by improving the health of infected patients. The dexamethasone is a first known steroid medicine that can save the lives of seriously ill patients, and it is shown in a randomized clinical trial by the United Kingdom that it reduced the death rate in COVID-19 patients. The current review recapitulates the existing evidence of possible therapeutic drugs, peptides, humanized antibodies, convulsant plasma, and vaccination that has revealed potential in fighting COVID-19 infections. Many randomized and controlled clinical trials are taking place to further validate these agent's safety and effectiveness in curing COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Amides/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Indoles/therapeutic use , Interferons/therapeutic use , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Nitro Compounds , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Teicoplanin/therapeutic use , Tetracyclines/therapeutic use , Thiazoles/therapeutic use
9.
Virus Res ; 286: 198073, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613450

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly become a global pandemic. Up to now, numerous medicines have been applied or approved for the prevention and control of the virus infection. However, the efficiency of each medicine or combination is completely different or still unknown. In this review, we discuss the types, characteristics, antiviral mechanisms, and shortcomings of recommended candidate medicines for SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as perspectives of the drugs for the disease treatment, which may provide a theoretical basis for drug screening and application.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Amides/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Combinations , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Indoles/therapeutic use , Interferons/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Teicoplanin/therapeutic use
11.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 55(6): 105969, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-143205

ABSTRACT

Given the extreme importance of the current pandemic caused by COVID-19, and as scientists agree there is no identified pharmacological treatment, where possible, therapeutic alternatives are raised through drug repositioning. This paper presents a selection of studies involving drugs from different pharmaceutical classes with activity against SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, with the potential for use in the treatment of COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Teicoplanin/therapeutic use
12.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 53(3): 436-443, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-31183

ABSTRACT

An outbreak related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. An extremely high potential for dissemination resulted in the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in 2020. Despite the worsening trends of COVID-19, no drugs are validated to have significant efficacy in clinical treatment of COVID-19 patients in large-scale studies. Remdesivir is considered the most promising antiviral agent; it works by inhibiting the activity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). A large-scale study investigating the clinical efficacy of remdesivir (200 mg on day 1, followed by 100 mg once daily) is on-going. The other excellent anti-influenza RdRp inhibitor favipiravir is also being clinically evaluated for its efficacy in COVID-19 patients. The protease inhibitor lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV) alone is not shown to provide better antiviral efficacy than standard care. However, the regimen of LPV/RTV plus ribavirin was shown to be effective against SARS-CoV in vitro. Another promising alternative is hydroxychloroquine (200 mg thrice daily) plus azithromycin (500 mg on day 1, followed by 250 mg once daily on day 2-5), which showed excellent clinical efficacy on Chinese COVID-19 patients and anti-SARS-CoV-2 potency in vitro. The roles of teicoplanin (which inhibits the viral genome exposure in cytoplasm) and monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 are under investigation. Avoiding the prescription of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin II type I receptor blockers is advised for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Amides/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Drug Combinations , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive/methods , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Teicoplanin/therapeutic use
13.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 55(4): 105944, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-30948

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged from China causing pneumonia outbreaks, first in the Wuhan region of China and then spread worldwide because of its probable high transmission efficiency. Owing to the lack of efficient and specific treatments and the need to contain the epidemic, drug repurposing appears to be the best tool to find a therapeutic solution. Chloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir, ribavirin and ritonavir have shown efficacy to inhibit coronavirus in vitro. Teicoplanin, an antibiotic used to treat staphylococcal infections, previously showed efficacy to inhibit the first stage of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) viral life cycle in human cells. This activity is conserved against SARS-Cov-2, thus placing teicoplanin as a potential treatment for patients with this virus.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Teicoplanin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Ther Drug Monit ; 42(2): 165-168, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-11505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dalbavancin, albeit indicated for the treatment of skin structure infections, is used for a much wider range of infections. This drug is characterized by a long half-life (more than 200 hours), a favorable safety profile, and an activity against a wide array of gram-positive organisms, including several strains of Staphylococci and Enterococci. METHODS: In this study, we presented 3 cases of critically ill patients treated with dalbavancin. All patients were therapeutically monitored for plasma dalbavancin concentrations; ultrafiltrate dalbavancin concentrations were assessed in a patient undergoing continuous renal-replacement therapy. Dalbavancin concentrations were measured using a validated liquid chromatographic method coupled with mass spectrometry. RESULTS: All 3 severely ill patients experiencing necrotizing fasciitis were successfully treated during the acute phase with dalbavancin. Dalbavancin clearance in patient 3 (0.334 L/h) was considerably increased compared with values measured in the other 2 patients (0.054 and 0.075 L/h) and with data reported in the literature (0.04-0.06 L/h). CONCLUSIONS: Our case reports presented preliminary evidence that dalbavancin can be considered a therapeutic option for necrotizing fasciitis in intensive care unit patients. The role of hypoalbuminemia during dalbavancin exposure merits further investigation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Critical Illness , Drug Monitoring/methods , Fasciitis, Necrotizing/drug therapy , Teicoplanin/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , Half-Life , Humans , Male , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Teicoplanin/pharmacokinetics , Teicoplanin/therapeutic use
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