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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(4): 833-836, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760184

ABSTRACT

We report an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 involving 3 Malayan tigers (Panthera tigris jacksoni) at a zoo in Tennessee, USA. Investigation identified naturally occurring tiger-to-tiger transmission; genetic sequence change occurred with viral passage. We provide epidemiologic, environmental, and genomic sequencing data for animal and human infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tigers , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tennessee/epidemiology , Tigers/genetics
2.
Pediatrics ; 149(3)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703643

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Examine age differences in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission risk from primary cases and infection risk among household contacts and symptoms among those with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: People with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Nashville, Tennessee and central and western Wisconsin and their household contacts were followed daily for 14 days to ascertain symptoms and secondary transmission events. Households were enrolled between April 2020 and April 2021. Secondary infection risks (SIR) by age of the primary case and contacts were estimated using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: The 226 primary cases were followed by 198 (49%) secondary SARS-CoV-2 infections among 404 household contacts. Age group-specific SIR among contacts ranged from 36% to 53%, with no differences by age. SIR was lower in primary cases age 12 to 17 years than from primary cases 18 to 49 years (risk ratio [RR] 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.19-0.91). SIR was 55% and 45%, respectively, among primary case-contact pairs in the same versus different age group (RR 1.47; 95% CI 0.98-2.22). SIR was highest among primary case-contact pairs age ≥65 years (76%) and 5 to 11 years (69%). Among secondary SARS-CoV-2 infections, 19% were asymptomatic; there was no difference in the frequency of asymptomatic infections by age group. CONCLUSIONS: Both children and adults can transmit and are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. SIR did not vary by age, but further research is needed to understand age-related differences in probability of transmission from primary cases by age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing , Family Characteristics , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tennessee/epidemiology , Wisconsin/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Matern Child Health J ; 26(2): 217-223, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669907

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The considerable volume of infections from SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has made it challenging for health departments to collect complete data for national disease reporting. We sought to examine sensitivity of the COVID-19 case report form (CRF) pregnancy field by comparing CRF data to the gold standard of CRF data linked to birth and fetal death certificates. DESCRIPTION: CRFs for women aged 15-44 years with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were linked to birth and fetal death certificates for pregnancies completed during January 1-December 31, 2020 in Illinois and Tennessee. Among linked records, pregnancy was considered confirmed for women with a SARS-CoV-2 specimen collection date on or prior to the delivery date. Sensitivity of the COVID-19 CRF pregnancy field was calculated by dividing the number of confirmed pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection with pregnancy indicated on the CRF by the number of confirmed pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection. ASSESSMENT: Among 4276 (Illinois) and 2070 (Tennessee) CRFs that linked with a birth or fetal death certificate, CRF pregnancy field sensitivity was 45.3% and 42.1%, respectively. In both states, sensitivity varied significantly by maternal race/ethnicity, insurance, trimester of prenatal care entry, month of specimen collection, and trimester of specimen collection. Sensitivity also varied by maternal education in Illinois but not in Tennessee. CONCLUSION: Sensitivity of the COVID-19 CRF pregnancy field varied by state and demographic factors. To more accurately assess outcomes for pregnant women, jurisdictions might consider utilizing additional data sources and linkages to obtain pregnancy status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Fetal Death , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tennessee/epidemiology
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2134330, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513769

ABSTRACT

Importance: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been theorized to decrease the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with prostate cancer owing to a potential decrease in the tissue-based expression of the SARS-CoV-2 coreceptor transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2). Objective: To examine whether ADT is associated with a decreased rate of 30-day mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection among patients with prostate cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed patient data recorded in the COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium registry between March 17, 2020, and February 11, 2021. The consortium maintains a centralized multi-institution registry of patients with a current or past diagnosis of cancer who developed COVID-19. Data were collected and managed using REDCap software hosted at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, Tennessee. Initially, 1228 patients aged 18 years or older with prostate cancer listed as their primary malignant neoplasm were included; 122 patients with a second malignant neoplasm, insufficient follow-up, or low-quality data were excluded. Propensity matching was performed using the nearest-neighbor method with a 1:3 ratio of treated units to control units, adjusted for age, body mass index, race and ethnicity, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score, smoking status, comorbidities (cardiovascular, pulmonary, kidney disease, and diabetes), cancer status, baseline steroid use, COVID-19 treatment, and presence of metastatic disease. Exposures: Androgen deprivation therapy use was defined as prior bilateral orchiectomy or pharmacologic ADT administered within the prior 3 months of presentation with COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the rate of all-cause 30-day mortality after COVID-19 diagnosis for patients receiving ADT compared with patients not receiving ADT after propensity matching. Results: After exclusions, 1106 patients with prostate cancer (before propensity score matching: median age, 73 years [IQR, 65-79 years]; 561 (51%) self-identified as non-Hispanic White) were included for analysis. Of these patients, 477 were included for propensity score matching (169 who received ADT and 308 who did not receive ADT). After propensity matching, there was no significant difference in the primary end point of the rate of all-cause 30-day mortality (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.42-1.42). Conclusions and Relevance: Findings from this cohort study suggest that ADT use was not associated with decreased mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, large ongoing clinical trials will provide further evidence on the role of ADT or other androgen-targeted therapies in reducing COVID-19 infection severity.


Subject(s)
Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Tennessee/epidemiology
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 2521-2528, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486736

ABSTRACT

As of March 2021, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) had led to >500,000 deaths in the United States, and the state of Tennessee had the fifth highest number of cases per capita. We reviewed the Tennessee Department of Health COVID-19 surveillance and chart-abstraction data during March 15‒August 15, 2020. Patients who died from COVID-19 were more likely to be older, male, and Black and to have underlying conditions (hereafter comorbidities) than case-patients who survived. We found 30.4% of surviving case-patients and 20.3% of deceased patients had no comorbidity information recorded. Chart-abstraction captured a higher proportion of deceased case-patients with >1 comorbidity (96.3%) compared with standard surveillance deaths (79.0%). Chart-abstraction detected higher rates of each comorbidity except for diabetes, which had similar rates among standard surveillance and chart-abstraction. Investing in public health data collection infrastructure will be beneficial for the COVID-19 pandemic and future disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Comorbidity , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tennessee/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
6.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103263, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469812

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, maintenance of safe and timely oncologic care has been challenging. The goal of this study is to compare presenting symptoms, staging, and treatment of head and neck mucosal squamous cell carcinoma during the pandemic with an analogous timeframe one year prior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study at a single tertiary academic center of new adult patients evaluated in a head and neck surgical oncology clinic from March -July 2019 (pre-pandemic control) and March - July 2020 (COVID-19 pandemic). RESULTS: During the pandemic, the proportion of patients with newly diagnosed malignancies increased by 5%, while the overall number of new patients decreased (n = 575) compared to the control year (n = 776). For patients with mucosal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), median time from referral to initial clinic visit decreased from 11 days (2019) to 8 days (2020) (p = 0.0031). There was no significant difference in total number (p = 0.914) or duration (p = 0.872) of symptoms. During the pandemic, patients were more likely to present with regional nodal metastases (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.846, 95% CI 1.072-3.219, p = 0.028) and more advanced clinical nodal (N) staging (p = 0.011). No significant difference was seen for clinical tumor (T) (p = 0.502) or metastasis (M) staging (p = 0.278). No significant difference in pathologic T (p = 0.665), or N staging (p = 0.907) was found between the two periods. CONCLUSION: Head and neck mucosal SCC patients presented with more advanced clinical nodal disease during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic despite no change in presenting symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/epidemiology , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/pathology , Aged , Female , Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/therapy , Tennessee/epidemiology
7.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 28(1)2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440819

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has exposed health disparities throughout the USA, particularly among racial and ethnic minorities. As a result, there is a need for data-driven approaches to pinpoint the unique constellation of clinical and social determinants of health (SDOH) risk factors that give rise to poor patient outcomes following infection in US communities. METHODS: We combined county-level COVID-19 testing data, COVID-19 vaccination rates and SDOH information in Tennessee. Between February and May 2021, we trained machine learning models on a semimonthly basis using these datasets to predict COVID-19 incidence in Tennessee counties. We then analyzed SDOH data features at each time point to rank the impact of each feature on model performance. RESULTS: Our results indicate that COVID-19 vaccination rates play a crucial role in determining future COVID-19 disease risk. Beginning in mid-March 2021, higher vaccination rates significantly correlated with lower COVID-19 case growth predictions. Further, as the relative importance of COVID-19 vaccination data features grew, demographic SDOH features such as age, race and ethnicity decreased while the impact of socioeconomic and environmental factors, including access to healthcare and transportation, increased. CONCLUSION: Incorporating a data framework to track the evolving patterns of community-level SDOH risk factors could provide policy-makers with additional data resources to improve health equity and resilience to future public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Determinants of Health , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Machine Learning , Models, Theoretical , Tennessee/epidemiology
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 647441, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405441

ABSTRACT

As many jurisdictions consider in-person learning strategies (including at Institutions of Higher Education, IHE), implementing travel restrictions or quarantines, and/or establishing interstate pacts to reduce COVID-19 spread, this study explores the degree to which COVID-19 case infection rates in a group of neighboring, Southern and Midwestern U.S. states (namely, Arkansas and its contiguous neighbors) are patterned in a non-random way known as synchrony. Utilizing surrogate synchrony (SUSY) to estimate the dyadic coupling between the COVID-19 case infection rate processes in this region from March to December 2020, results indicate that significant synchrony is present between Arkansas and three of its neighbors. The highest level of instantaneous synchrony occurs between Arkansas and Tennessee, with the next highest level occurring between Arkansas and Missouri. There is evidence of directionality in the synchrony, indicating that Arkansas case infection rates lead Mississippi while rates in Missouri and Tennessee lead Arkansas. The lagged cross-correlations suggest the greatest synchrony to occur between 3 and 6 days. To explore the effect of IHE reopening on COVID-19, synchrony is compared between pre- and post-reopening windows. Results suggested that, following reopening, there are gains in detectable synchrony and that COVID-19 is in-flowing to Arkansas from all of its neighboring states. Taken together, results suggest that there is spatiality to COVID-19 with neighboring states having case infection rates that are significantly synchronous at a lag time that would be expected based on symptom onset. This synchrony is potentially strengthened by the in-flow and cross-border movement of IHE students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Arkansas , Humans , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Tennessee/epidemiology
9.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 28(1)2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356938

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has exposed the need to understand the risk drivers that contribute to uneven morbidity and mortality in US communities. Addressing the community-specific social determinants of health (SDOH) that correlate with spread of SARS-CoV-2 provides an opportunity for targeted public health intervention to promote greater resilience to viral respiratory infections. METHODS: Our work combined publicly available COVID-19 statistics with county-level SDOH information. Machine learning models were trained to predict COVID-19 case growth and understand the social, physical and environmental risk factors associated with higher rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Tennessee and Georgia counties. Model accuracy was assessed comparing predicted case counts to actual positive case counts in each county. RESULTS: The predictive models achieved a mean R2 of 0.998 in both states with accuracy above 90% for all time points examined. Using these models, we tracked the importance of SDOH data features over time to uncover the specific racial demographic characteristics strongly associated with COVID-19 incidence in Tennessee and Georgia counties. Our results point to dynamic racial trends in both states over time and varying, localized patterns of risk among counties within the same state. For example, we find that African American and Asian racial demographics present comparable, and contrasting, patterns of risk depending on locality. CONCLUSION: The dichotomy of demographic trends presented here emphasizes the importance of understanding the unique factors that influence COVID-19 incidence. Identifying these specific risk factors tied to COVID-19 case growth can help stakeholders target regional interventions to mitigate the burden of future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Social Determinants of Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Risk Factors , Tennessee/epidemiology
10.
J Genet Couns ; 30(4): 958-968, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293206

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic widely disrupted the delivery of healthcare services, including genetic counseling. To ensure continuity of care, the reproductive genetic counselors at a large academic medical center in the United States rapidly transitioned their practice from 90% in-person patient consultations to a predominantly telehealth model. The present study describes this transition in regard to patient access to genetic counseling and genetic screening. A chart review of patients seen by the reproductive genetic counselors from January 2020 to August 2020 was completed. The time frame included the three months prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and the first five months during COVID-19. Patient demographics and clinical and appointment data were compared between the pre-COVID-19 and during-COVID-19 timeframes. Overall, 88.6% of patients were seen via telehealth during COVID-19 and there was no significant difference based upon patient age (p = .20), indication for appointment (p = .06), or gestational age (p = .06). However, non-English speaking patients were more often seen in-person than by telehealth (p < .001), and more patients residing farther from the clinic were seen via telehealth (p = .004). During-COVID-19 results for prenatal cell-free DNA screening and expanded carrier screening were delayed (p < .001). Additionally, after consenting to screening, patients seen during COVID-19 were more likely to not complete a sample collection for their intended screening when compared to those seen pre-COVID-19 (OR = 6.15, 95% CI = 1.43-26.70, p = .015). Overall, this study supports that access to genetic counseling services and genetic screening can be maintained during a global pandemic like COVID-19. Genetic counselors are well-equipped to pivot swiftly during challenging times; however, they must continue to work to address other barriers to accessing genetic services, especially for non-English speaking populations. Future studies are needed to pose solutions to the obstacles confronted in this service delivery model during a global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19 , Genetic Counseling/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Telemedicine , Tennessee/epidemiology
11.
J Pediatr ; 237: 302-306.e1, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272582

ABSTRACT

There is concern that in-person schooling during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic will facilitate disease transmission. Through asymptomatic surveillance and contact tracing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), we found low rates of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and little in-school transmission of COVID-19 when physical distancing and masking strategies were enforced despite a high community prevalence of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Schools/organization & administration , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Contact Tracing/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Tennessee/epidemiology
13.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(3): e24275, 2021 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced drastic changes to daily life, from the implementation of stay-at-home orders to mandating facial coverings and limiting in-person gatherings. While the relaxation of these control measures has varied geographically, it is widely agreed that contact tracing efforts will play a major role in the successful reopening of businesses and schools. As the volume of positive cases has increased in the United States, it has become clear that there is room for digital health interventions to assist in contact tracing. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of a mobile-friendly app designed to supplement manual COVID-19 contact tracing efforts on a university campus. Here, we present the results of a development and validation study centered around the use of the MyCOVIDKey app on the Vanderbilt University campus during the summer of 2020. METHODS: We performed a 6-week pilot study in the Stevenson Center Science and Engineering Complex on Vanderbilt University's campus in Nashville, TN. Graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, faculty, and staff >18 years who worked in Stevenson Center and had access to a mobile phone were eligible to register for a MyCOVIDKey account. All users were encouraged to complete regular self-assessments of COVID-19 risk and to key in to sites by scanning a location-specific barcode. RESULTS: Between June 17, 2020, and July 29, 2020, 45 unique participants created MyCOVIDKey accounts. These users performed 227 self-assessments and 1410 key-ins. Self-assessments were performed by 89% (n=40) of users, 71% (n=32) of users keyed in, and 48 unique locations (of 71 possible locations) were visited. Overall, 89% (202/227) of assessments were determined to be low risk (ie, asymptomatic with no known exposures), and these assessments yielded a CLEAR status. The remaining self-assessments received a status of NOT CLEAR, indicating either risk of exposure or symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 (7.5% [n=17] and 3.5% [n=8] of self-assessments indicated moderate and high risk, respectively). These 25 instances came from 8 unique users, and in 19 of these instances, the at-risk user keyed in to a location on campus. CONCLUSIONS: Digital contact tracing tools may be useful in assisting organizations to identify persons at risk of COVID-19 through contact tracing, or in locating places that may need to be cleaned or disinfected after being visited by an index case. Incentives to continue the use of such tools can improve uptake, and their continued usage increases utility to both organizational and public health efforts. Parameters of digital tools, including MyCOVIDKey, should ideally be optimized to supplement existing contact tracing efforts. These tools represent a critical addition to manual contact tracing efforts during reopening and sustained regular activity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Electronic Data Processing , Mobile Applications , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/methods , Faculty/psychology , Faculty/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Pilot Projects , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Tennessee/epidemiology , Universities , Young Adult
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(5152): 1633-1637, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005170

ABSTRACT

To prevent further transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), CDC currently recommends that persons who have been in close contact with someone with SARS-CoV-2 infection should quarantine (stay away from other persons) for 14 days after the last known contact.* However, quarantine might be difficult to maintain for a prolonged period. A shorter quarantine might improve compliance, and CDC recommends two options to reduce the duration of quarantine for close contacts without symptoms, based on local circumstances and availability of testing: 1) quarantine can end on day 10 without a test or 2) quarantine can end on day 7 after receiving a negative test result.† However, shorter quarantine might permit ongoing disease transmission from persons who develop symptoms or become infectious near the end of the recommended 14-day period. Interim data from an ongoing study of household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed to understand the proportion of household contacts that had detectable virus after a shortened quarantine period. Persons who were household contacts of index patients completed a daily symptom diary and self-collected respiratory specimens for 14 days. Specimens were tested for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Among 185 household contacts enrolled, 109 (59%) had detectable SARS-CoV-2 at any time; 76% (83/109) of test results were positive within 7 days, and 86% (94 of 109) were positive within 10 days after the index patient's illness onset date. Among household contacts who received negative SARS-CoV-2 test results and were asymptomatic through day 7, there was an 81% chance (95% confidence interval [CI] = 67%-90%) of remaining asymptomatic and receiving negative RT-PCR test results through day 14; this increased to 93% (95% CI = 78%-98%) for household members who were asymptomatic with negative RT-PCR test results through day 10. Although SARS-CoV-2 quarantine periods shorter than 14 days might be easier to adhere to, there is a potential for onward transmission from household contacts released before day 14.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing , Family Characteristics , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Tennessee/epidemiology , Time Factors , Wisconsin/epidemiology
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(44): 1631-1634, 2020 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-911205

ABSTRACT

Improved understanding of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), within households could aid control measures. However, few studies have systematically characterized the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in U.S. households (1). Previously reported transmission rates vary widely, and data on transmission rates from children are limited. To assess household transmission, a case-ascertained study was conducted in Nashville, Tennessee, and Marshfield, Wisconsin, commencing in April 2020. In this study, index patients were defined as the first household members with COVID-19-compatible symptoms who received a positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test result, and who lived with at least one other household member. After enrollment, index patients and household members were trained remotely by study staff members to complete symptom diaries and obtain self-collected specimens, nasal swabs only or nasal swabs and saliva samples, daily for 14 days. For this analysis, specimens from the first 7 days were tested for SARS-CoV-2 using CDC RT-PCR protocols.† A total of 191 enrolled household contacts of 101 index patients reported having no symptoms on the day of the associated index patient's illness onset, and among these 191 contacts, 102 had SARS-CoV-2 detected in either nasal or saliva specimens during follow-up, for a secondary infection rate of 53% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 46%-60%). Among fourteen households in which the index patient was aged <18 years, the secondary infection rate from index patients aged <12 years was 53% (95% CI = 31%-74%) and from index patients aged 12-17 years was 38% (95% CI = 23%-56%). Approximately 75% of secondary infections were identified within 5 days of the index patient's illness onset, and substantial transmission occurred whether the index patient was an adult or a child. Because household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is common and can occur rapidly after the index patient's illness onset, persons should self-isolate immediately at the onset of COVID-like symptoms, at the time of testing as a result of a high risk exposure, or at the time of a positive test result, whichever comes first. Concurrent to isolation, all members of the household should wear a mask when in shared spaces in the household.§.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Family Characteristics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tennessee/epidemiology , Wisconsin/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
Public Health Nurs ; 37(6): 889-894, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793593

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) outbreak rapidly generated an unprecedented global, national, and state public health crisis with the need to rapidly develop alternate care sites (ACS) to care for COVID-19 patients within an overburdened health care system. A hospital care model ACS to increase the health care capacity, provide care for mild to moderately symptomatic patients, and offer local self-sustainment for a surge of patients was developed in Memphis, Tennessee located in Shelby County. We completed a temporary conversion of a large unused newspaper publication building to a health care facility for COVID-19 patients. Developing an ACS from ground zero was met with many challenges, and throughout the process important lessons were learned. With the goal to complete the building conversion within a 28-day timeframe, collaboration among the numerous governmental, health care, and private agencies was critical and nursing leadership was key to this process. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a COVID-19 ACS in Memphis, TN, which has a large at-risk population with limited access to health care. Specifically, we will discuss the strong leadership role of nursing faculty, key challenges, and lessons learned, as well as provide checklists and models for others in similar circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Facilities , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Leadership , Nurses, Public Health/psychology , Tennessee/epidemiology
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