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1.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649410

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of the study was to estimate the SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among HCWs in Cochabamba, Bolivia and to determine the potential risk factors. In January 2021, a cross-sectional SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence study was conducted in 783 volunteer clinical and non-clinical HCWs in tertiary care facilities. It was based on IgG detection using ELISA, chemiluminiscence, and seroneutralisation tests from dried blood spots. Analysis revealed a high seroprevalence (43.4%) of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. The combination of anosmia and ageusia (OR: 68.11; 95%-CI 24.83-186.80) was predictive of seropositivity. Belonging to the cleaning staff (OR: 1.94; 95%-CI 1.09-3.45), having more than two children in the same house (OR: 1.74; 95%-CI 1.12-2.71), and having been in contact with a close relative with COVID-19 (OR: 3.53; 95%-CI 2.24-5.58) were identified as risk factors for seropositivity in a multivariate analysis. A total of 47.5% of participants had received medication for COVID-19 treatment or prevention, and only ~50% of symptomatic subjects accessed PCR or antigenic testing. This study confirms a massive SARS-CoV-2 attack rate among HCWs in Cochabamba by the end of January 2021. The main risk factors identified are having a low-skilled job, living with children, and having been in contact with an infected relative in the household.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Bolivia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
2.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 80: 104-112, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated impact on the provision of vascular services, and the pattern of presentation and practice in a tertiary referral vascular unit. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study from a prospectively maintained data-base comparing two time frames, Period 1(15th March-30th May 2019-P1) and Period 2(15th March-30th May 2020-P2)All the patients who presented for a vascular review in the 2 timeframes were included. Metrics of service and patient care episodes were collected and compared including, the number of emergency referrals, patient encounters, consultations, emergency admissions and interventions. Impact on key hospital resources such as critical care and imaging facilities during the two time periods were also examined. RESULTS: There was an absolute reduction of 44% in the number of patients who required urgent or emergency treatment from P1 to P2 (141 vs 79). We noted a non-significant trend towards an increase in the proportion of patients presenting with Chronic Limb Threatening Ischaemia (CLTI) Rutherford 5&6 (P=0.09) as well as a reduction in the proportion of admissions related to Aortic Aneurysm (P=0.21). There was a significant absolute reduction of 77% in all vascular interventions from P1 to P2 with the greatest reductions noted in Carotid (P=0.02), Deep Venous (P=0.003) and Aortic interventions (P=0.016). The number of lower limb interventions also decreased though there was a significant increase as a relative proportion of all vascular interventions in P2 (P=0.001). There was an absolute reduction in the number of scans performed for vascular pathology; Duplex scans reduced by 86%(P<0.002), CT scans by 68%(P<0.003) and MRIs by 74%(P<0.009). CONCLUSION: We report a decrease in urgent and emergency vascular presentations, admissions and interventions. The reduction in patients presenting with lower limb pathology was not as significant as other vascular conditions, resulting in a significant rise in interventions for CLTI and DFI as a proportion of all vascular interventions. These observations will help guide the provision of vascular services during future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Units/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Vascular Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Workload/statistics & numerical data , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Facilities and Services Utilization , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(5): 1240-1246, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431019

ABSTRACT

Countries like Ethiopia have had to make difficult decisions to balance between the demands of the COVID-19 pandemic and maintaining the essential health service delivery. We assessed the effect of preventive COVID-19 measures on essential healthcare services in selected health facilities of Ethiopia. In a comparative cross-sectional study, we analyzed and compared data from seven health facilities over two periods: the pre-COVID-19 period before the first reported COVID-19 case in the country and during the COVID-19 period. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics and the independent t test. During the COVID-19 period the average number of monthly patient visits in the emergency department, pediatrics outpatient, and adult outpatient dropped by 27%, 30%, and 27%, respectively compared with the pre-COVID-19 period. Family planning; institutional delivery; childhood immunization; antenatal care-, hypertension- and diabetic patient follow-up, did not vary significantly between pre-COVID-19 and during COVID-19. Moreover, the monthly average number of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV patients who visited health facilities for drug refill and clinical evaluation did not vary significantly during the two periods. In conclusion, the study highlights that the effect of public restrictions to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic on essential care systems should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services/standards , Primary Health Care , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 372-374, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371031

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has demanded rapid institutional responses to meet the needs of patients and employees in the face of a serious new disease. To support the well-being of frontline staff, a series of debriefing sessions was used to drive a rapid-cycle quality-improvement process. The goals were to confidentially determine personal coping strategies used by staff, provide an opportunity for staff cross-learning, identify what staff needed most, and provide a real-time feedback loop for decision-makers to create rapid changes to support staff safety and coping. Data were collected via sticky notes on flip charts to protect confidentiality. Management reviewed the data daily. Institutional responses to problems identified during debrief sessions were tracked, visualized, addressed, and shared with staff. More than 10% of staff participated over a 2-week period. Feedback influenced institutional decisions to improve staff schedules, transportation, and COVID-19 training.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Faith-Based Organizations/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Healthcare/methods , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Faith-Based Organizations/standards , Hospitals/standards , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Medical Staff, Hospital/education , Medical Staff, Hospital/psychology , Medical Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Health Care/organization & administration , Quality of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Healthcare/standards
5.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(4): 102169, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291233

ABSTRACT

AIMS: With a sudden increase in cases of mucormycosis seen in Covid -19 patients, we conducted a retrospective analysis of all admitted patients in a tertiary care covid-19 hospital looking at incidence of mucormycosis. METHODS: Intensive care unit daily rounds data stored in an electronic format was retrieved by one of the consultants, looking for incidence of mucormycosis, diabetes mellitus, adherence to protocol for steroid use, glycemic control and use of monoclonal antibodies. Also, patients follow up data base of post covid Outpatients Department was searched for cases of mucormycosis. RESULTS: A total of 5248 patients were admitted between March 2020 to May 2021, of which 1027 were in ICU and 4221 in wards. Of the 1027 patients admitted in Intensive care unit, 915 received steroids and 417 had diabetes as existing co-morbidity. No case of mucormycosis was reported during the stay in the hospital and during immediate outpatient department follow up. The low dose steroids were administered as per state government protocol for treating COVID 19, a nurse driven strict glycemic control regime (blood glucose level was maintained between 140 and 180 mg/dl through the admission in ICU and was achieved consistently in 842 (82%) patients, followed along with minimal use of other immunomodulatory like monoclonal antibodies. CONCLUSION: A strict adherence to protocol of low dose steroids coupled with strict glycemic control helped in eliminating the risk and incidence of mucormycosis in a tertiary care dedicated covid-19 hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Mucormycosis/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Steroids/administration & dosage , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Disease Management , Humans , India/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/virology , Retrospective Studies
6.
Infect Dis Health ; 26(3): 208-213, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179513

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCW) are exposed to an increased risk of COVID-19 through direct contact with patients and patient environments. We calculated the; seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in HCW at Eastern Health, a tertiary healthcare network in Victoria, and assessed associations with demographics, work location and role. METHODS: A cross-sectional cohort study of HCW at Eastern Health was conducted. Serum was analysed for the presence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, and all participants completed; an online survey collecting information on demographics, place of work, role, and exposures; to COVID-19. Seroprevalence was calculated as the proportion participants with SARS-CoV-2; antibodies out of all tested individuals. RESULTS: The crude seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in this study was 2.17% (16/736). Thirteen of the 16 (81.2%) positive cases had previously been diagnosed with COVID-19 by PCR: the seroprevalence in the group not previously diagnosed with COVID by PCR was 0.42% (3/720). Having direct contact with COVID-19 patients did not increase the likelihood of having positive serology. A prior history of symptoms consistent with COVID-19 was associated with a higher likelihood of having positive serology (OR 17.2, p = 0.006, 95%CI: 2.25-131.55). CONCLUSION: Our calculated seroprevalence of 2.17% is higher than estimated in the general Australian population, but lower than that reported in HCW internationally. The; majority of those with positive serology in our study had previously been diagnosed with COVID-19 by PCR based testing. Seropositivity was not associated with interaction with COVID-19 positive patients, highlighting effective infection prevention and control practices within the workplace.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Victoria/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020509, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106356

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has overwhelmed hospitals in several areas in high-income countries. An effective response to this pandemic requires health care workers (HCWs) to be present at work, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where they are already in critically low supply. To inform whether and to what degree policymakers in Bangladesh, and LMICs more broadly, should expect a drop in HCW attendance as COVID-19 continues to spread, this study aims to determine how HCW attendance has changed during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. METHODS: This study analyzed daily fingerprint-verified attendance data from all 527 public-sector secondary and tertiary care facilities in Bangladesh to describe HCW attendance from January 26, 2019 to March 22, 2020, by cadre, hospital type, and geographic division. We then regressed HCW attendance onto fixed effects for day-of-week, month, and hospital, as well as indicators for each of three pandemic periods: a China-focused period (January 11, 2020 (first confirmed COVID-19 death in China) until January 29, 2020), international-spread period (January 30, 2020 (World Health Organization's declaration of a global emergency) until March 6, 2020), and local-spread period (March 7, 2020 (first confirmed COVID-19 case in Bangladesh) until the end of the study period). FINDINGS: On average between January 26, 2019 and March 22, 2020, 34.1% of doctors, 64.6% of nurses, and 70.6% of other health care staff were present for their scheduled shift. HCWs' attendance rate increased with time in 2019 among all cadres. Nurses' attendance level dropped by 2.5% points (95% confidence interval (CI) = -3.2% to -1.8%) and 3.5% points (95% CI = -4.5% to -2.5%) during the international-spread and the local-spread periods of the COVID-19 pandemic, relative to the China-focused period. Similarly, the attendance level of other health care staff declined by 0.3% points (95% CI = -0.8% to 0.2%) and 2.3% points (95% CI = -3.0% to -1.6%) during the international-spread and local-spread periods, respectively. Among doctors, however, the international-spread and local-spread periods were associated with a statistically significant increase in attendance by 3.7% points (95% CI = 2.5% to 4.8%) and 4.9% points (95% CI = 3.5% to 6.4%), respectively. The reduction in attendance levels across all HCWs during the local-spread period was much greater at large hospitals, where the majority of COVID-19 testing and treatment took place, than that at small hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: After a year of significant improvements, HCWs' attendance levels among nurses and other health care staff (who form the majority of Bangladesh's health care workforce) have declined during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. This finding may portend an even greater decrease in attendance if COVID-19 continues to spread in Bangladesh. Policymakers in Bangladesh and similar LMICs should undertake major efforts to achieve high attendance levels among HCWs, particularly nurses, such as by providing sufficient personal protective equipment as well as monetary and non-monetary incentives.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Health Workforce/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Secondary Care/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Secondary Care/organization & administration , Tertiary Healthcare/organization & administration
8.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(6): 614-621, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091441

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) among pregnant patients at the time of delivery in a rural Midwest tertiary care hospital and to examine demographics, clinical factors, and maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective cohort study included all delivering patients between May 1 and September 22, 2020 at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. Plasma SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing was performed. SARS-CoV-2 viral reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results and maternal and neonatal outcomes were collected from the electronic medical record. Data were analyzed using univariate statistical methods with clustering for multiple births. RESULTS: In total, 1,000 patients delivered between May 1 and September 22, 2020. Fifty-eight (5.8%) were SARS-CoV-2 antibody positive. Twenty-three also tested viral positive during pregnancy. Three of 1,000 (0.3%) were viral positive on admission but antibody negative. The median age was 30 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 26-33 years) and body mass index was 31.75 kg/m2 (IQR 27.7-37.5 kg/m2). The cesarean delivery rate was 34.0%. The study population was primarily white (71.6%); however, 41.0% of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients identified as Black, 18.0% as Hispanic/Latino, 3.3% as Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, and only 27.9% as White (p < 0.0001). SARS-CoV-2 infection was more likely in patients without private insurance (p = 0.0243). Adverse maternal and/or neonatal outcomes were not more likely in patients with evidence of infection during pregnancy. Two SARS-CoV-2 infected patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. There were no maternal deaths during the study period. CONCLUSION: In this largely rural Midwest population, 6.1% of delivering patients had evidence of past or current SARS-CoV-2 infection. Rates of SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy were higher among racial and ethnic minorities and patients without private insurance. The SARS-CoV-2 infected patients and their neonates were not found to be at increased risk for adverse outcomes. KEY POINTS: · SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence rate in pregnant population in Iowa is 5.8%.. · Infections are higher among minorities, non-English speakers, and patients without private insurance.. · No increased adverse maternal/neonatal outcomes observed for SARS-CoV-2 infected mothers..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Cesarean Section , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Outcome/ethnology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cesarean Section/methods , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Iowa/epidemiology , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data
9.
J Clin Virol ; 134: 104710, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) represent a high-risk category during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic crisis, with frontline HCWs at emergency departments (EDs) may be at an even higher risk. Determining the spread of infection among HCWs may have implications for infection control policies in hospitals. This study aimed to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among asymptomatic HCWs of the ED of a large tertiary center in Cairo, Egypt. METHODS: The study was conducted from June 1st to June 14th, 2020. All the recommended national and international indications on infection control measures were followed. Two hundred and three HCWs were included in the study and tested by nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and rapid serological test (RST). Descriptive statistical analyses were used to summarize the data. RESULTS: Of the 203 HCWs, 29 (14.3 %) tested positive by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Thirty-seven (18.2 %) HCWs tested positive with RST: 20 with both IgM and IgG; 14 with IgM only, and 3 with IgG only. Age, gender, and/or occupation were not risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Point prevalence of COVID-19 in asymptomatic HCWs in ED of tertiary care facility is 14.3 % by RT-PCR. This illustrates the importance of screening all HCWs regardless of symptoms, and the need for strict measures in securing HCWs to reduce transmission from healthcare facilities to the community during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Egypt/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/organization & administration , Male , Middle Aged , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tertiary Healthcare/organization & administration
10.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 11, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In intensive care units (ICUs) treating patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) invasive ventilation poses a high risk for aerosol and droplet formation. Surface contamination of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or bacteria can result in nosocomial transmission. METHODS: Two tertiary care COVID-19 intensive care units treating 53 patients for 870 patient days were sampled after terminal cleaning and preparation for regular use to treat non-COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: A total of 176 swabs were sampled of defined locations covering both ICUs. No SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid (RNA) was detected. Gram-negative bacterial contamination was mainly linked to sinks and siphons. Skin flora was isolated from most swabbed areas and Enterococcus faecium was detected on two keyboards. CONCLUSIONS: After basic cleaning with standard disinfection measures no remaining SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected. Bacterial contamination was low and mainly localised in sinks and siphons.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/therapy , Disinfection/methods , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Aerosols/analysis , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/growth & development , COVID-19/virology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data
11.
Eur J Pediatr ; 180(5): 1497-1504, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012213

ABSTRACT

The restrictive measures required to face the recent outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may impact patterns of healthcare utilization. Our aim was to provide an insight into the change in the use of a pediatric emergency department (ED) during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The medical records of the children seen in our pediatric ED during March and April 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Consequently, these were compared to the medical records of 2018 and 2019 from the same time period and from other control periods (January-February 2019 and 2020, and July-August 2018 and 2019). The total number of ED visits declined by 73% from 2019 to 2020 (3051 vs 818). Significant variations were observed in the distribution of children between triage categories: the proportion of patients who was given a green-code showed a 0.59-fold decrease in comparison to 2019 (95% CI 0.5-0.69), while a relative increase in the proportion of yellow codes was observed (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.2-1.78).Conclusion: Quarantine measures significantly impacted on the total number of patients and on the reasons for visiting them in our pediatric ED. This substantial decrease in pediatric care may either be due to lower rates of acute infections because of social distancing, or to parents' or caregivers' reticence to risk exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in a health-care setting. What is known: • A recent outbreak of a novel coronavirus responsible for a severe acute respiratory syndrome is spreading globally. • Restrictive measures may impact patterns of healthcare utilization, as observed in other previous outbreaks. What is new: • This study shows significant variations in the distribution of children among triage categories during the COVID-19 pandemic. • Discharge diagnosis was significantly different as well, in particular a relative increase in the proportion of children presenting with traumatic injuries and a decrease of viral infections were observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pediatrics/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies
12.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(1): 50-61, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The scale of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among health care workers (HCWs), particularly in resource-limited settings, remains unclear. To address this concern, universal (non-symptom-based) screening of HCWs was piloted to determine the proportion of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the associated epidemiological and clinical risk factors at a large public health care facility in Egypt. METHODS: Baseline voluntary screening of 4040 HCWs took place between 22 April and 14 May 2020 at 12 hospitals and medical centres in Cairo. Epidemiological and clinical data were collected using an online survey. All participants were tested for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid IgM and IgG serological tests. RESULTS: Of the 4040 HCWs screened, 170 [4.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.6-4.9] tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by either of the three tests (i.e. infected); 125/170 (73.5%) tested PCR-positive. Most infected HCWs were nurses (97/170, 57.5%). Median age of infected HCWs was 31.5 [interquartile range (IQR): 27.0-41.3] years. Of infected HCWs, 78 (45.9%) reported contact with a suspected case and 47 (27.6%) reported face-to-face contact within 2 m with a confirmed case. The proportion of infection among symptomatic HCWs (n = 54/616) was 8.8% (95% CI: 6.7-11.3); 6/54 (11.1%) had fever ≥38°C and 7/54 (13.0%) reported severe symptoms. Most infected HCWs were asymptomatic (116/170, 68.2%). The proportion of infection among asymptomatic HCWs (n = 116/3424) was 3.4% (95% CI: 2.8-4.0). CONCLUSIONS: The high rate of asymptomatic infections among HCWs reinforces the need for expanding universal regular testing. The infection rate among symptomatic HCWs in this study is comparable with the national rate detected through symptom-based testing. This suggests that infections among HCWs may reflect community rather than nosocomial transmission during the early phase of the COVID-19 epidemic in Egypt.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel/psychology , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Fever/virology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tertiary Healthcare/organization & administration
13.
J Clin Virol ; 131: 104614, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-731821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid sample-to-answer tests for detection of SARS-CoV-2 are emerging and data on their relative performance is urgently needed. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the analytical performance of two rapid nucleic acid tests, Cepheid Xpert® Xpress SARS-CoV-2 and Mobidiag Novodiag® Covid-19, in comparison to a combination reference of three large-scale PCR tests. Moreover, utility of the Novodiag® test in tertiary care emergency departments was assessed. RESULTS: In the preliminary evaluation, analysis of 90 respiratory samples resulted in 100% specificity and sensitivity for Xpert®, whereas analysis of 107 samples resulted in 93.4% sensitivity and 100% specificity for Novodiag®. Rapid SARS-CoV-2 testing with Novodiag® was made available for four tertiary care emergency departments in Helsinki, Finland between 18 and 31 May, coinciding with a rapidly declining epidemic phase. Altogether 361 respiratory specimens, together with relevant clinical data, were analyzed with Novodiag® and reference tests: 355/361 of the specimens were negative with both methods, and 1/361 was positive in Novodiag® and negative by the reference method. Of the 5 remaining specimens, two were negative with Novodiag®, but positive with the reference method with late Ct values. On average, a test result using Novodiag® was available nearly 8 hours earlier than that obtained with the large-scale PCR tests. CONCLUSIONS: While the performance of novel sample-to-answer PCR tests need to be carefully evaluated, they may provide timely and reliable results in detection of SARS-CoV-2 and thus facilitate patient management including effective cohorting.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Finland , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
14.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 68(8): 1546-1550, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680101

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To find the clinical profile and prevalence of conjunctivitis and other ocular manifestations in mild COVID-19 positive patients in a nodal COVID-19 hospital. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional, single-center study conducted in 127 mild cases of COVID-19 positive patients admitted between 27th March and 19th April 2020 in a tertiary care COVID-19 hospital in north India. From the hospital records, demographic data is collected. Ocular history and ocular examinations were done by face-to-face survey during ward rounds. RESULTS: A total of 127 patients were included in the study with a median age of 38.8 years. Forty-eight (37.80%) patients had upper respiratory tract symptoms, 20 (15.75%) patients had systemic illness, 18 (14.17%) patients were using spectacles, and 50 (39.37%) patients had history of hand-eye contact. Out of 12 (9.45%) patients who had ocular complaints, 11 (8.66%) had ocular manifestation after admission. Among 11 patients, eight (6.29%) had conjunctival congestion. Three (3/8) patients had developed conjunctival congestion even before the manifestation of definite COVID-19 symptoms. Five patients (5/8) patients had no other associated ocular symptoms other than congestion. Six patients (6/8) had symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection. CONCLUSION: Mild conjunctivitis manifesting as conjunctival congestion is common and is one of the major ocular manifestations in COVID-19 positive patients even with milder disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Conjunctivitis, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Viral/epidemiology , Hospitals, Special/statistics & numerical data , Ophthalmology/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Conjunctivitis, Viral/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eye Infections, Viral/diagnosis , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 390-397, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-623744

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: In 2019, a small HAdV55-associated outbreak of adenovirus infection occurred among the intensive care unit (ICU) staff in Xiangya Hospital of Central South University in Hunan Province, China, during the treatment of a patient. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of a nosocomial adenovirus outbreak in an ICU. METHODS: We evaluated all the patients treated and the medical staff working in the ICU from August 1 to September 4, 2019. We further performed an epidemiological and molecular analysis for this outbreak from patient to healthcare workers and between healthcare workers. After the outbreak, we adopted exposure prevention and droplet prevention measures based on standard precautions. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Between August 1 and August 27, 2019, 27 cases of human adenovirus cross-infection were reported in our institution. Among the cases, eleven were doctors (41%), eleven were nurses (41%), three were respiratory therapists (11%), and two were caregivers (7%). The attack rate was 28.4%, and the fatality rate was 0. The results showed that contact with the index case, lack of hand hygiene or gloving adherence were risk factors for infection after adenovirus exposure. After taking specific precautions, no new cases of infection have appeared since August 27. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that HAdV55 in a single patient had strong transmission potential in an intensive care unit with adequate facilities and standardized operation. We provide convincing evidence indicating that attention could be highlighted on the role of standard and specific precautions for controlling the spread of adenovirus in ICUs.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Medical Staff/statistics & numerical data , Adenovirus Infections, Human/prevention & control , Adenovirus Infections, Human/virology , Adenoviruses, Human/classification , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/isolation & purification , Adenoviruses, Human/physiology , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/virology , Female , Hand Hygiene , Hospitals, Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
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