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1.
Vaccine ; 40(26): 3605-3613, 2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873313

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the establishment of the Global Alignment of Immunization Safety Assessment in pregnancy (GAIA) case definitions in 2015, there has been an urgent need for field validation of pharmacovigilance feasibility in low- and middle-income countries. In this study, we assess the availability and quality of archival medical records at ten randomly selected high-traffic maternity wards in Kinshasa province, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). METHODS: A retrospective cohort of mother-child pairs was established from all recorded births taking place at study sites between July 1, 2019 to February 28, 2020 through digitization of medical records. Adverse birth outcomes and maternal vaccination status, where available and linkable, were defined according to GAIA. Basic demographic information on mothers and newborns was also tabulated; birth outcomes were assessed for both intra-site prevalence and a pooled prevalence. RESULTS: A total of 7,697 mother-newborn pair records were extracted, with 37% of infants screening positive as cases of adverse outcomes. Maternal vaccination information was linkable to 67% of those cases. In total, 51% of stillbirths, 98% of preterm births, 100% of low birthweight infants, 90% of small for gestational age infants, 100% of microcephalic infants, and 0% of neonatal bloodstream infections were classifiable according to GAIA standards following initial screening. Forty percent of case mothers had some indication of tetanus vaccination prior to delivery in their medical records, but only 26% of case mothers met some level of GAIA definition for maternal vaccination during the pregnancy of interest. CONCLUSIONS: Archival birth records from delivery centers can be feasibly utilized to screen for stillbirth and maternal tetanus vaccination, and to accurately classify preterm birth, low birthweight, small for gestational age, and congenital microcephaly. Assessment of other neonatal outcomes were limited by inconsistent postpartum infant follow-up and records keeping.


Subject(s)
Premature Birth , Tetanus , Birth Weight , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization/adverse effects , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Medical Records , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Stillbirth , Vaccination/adverse effects
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785635

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While the effectiveness of tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis childhood immunization programs is unquestionable, the actual need for a periodic boosting vaccination in adults is controversial. In Italy, the Ministry of Health recommends a Tdap booster vaccination every 10 years. The aim of this study is to assess the real-world adherence of Italian regional healthcare services to national recommendations and to evaluate two alternative strategies. METHODS: Annual Tdap vaccine requirements by the 21 Italian regions were retrieved from related tender announcements, and regional and national vaccination coverage rates (VCRs) were estimated for three scenarios, namely the currently recommended 10-year booster vaccination, a single booster shot at age 50 and at age 65. RESULTS: In Scenario 1, no region reached a VCR > 30%, and the national VCR was 10.6%; in Scenario 2, five regions achieved the optimal vaccination coverage of ≥95%, but the vast majority continued to have inadequate VCRs, with a national VCR of 54.4%; in Scenario 3, five regions reached VCRs exceeding 100%, with VCRs from other regions significantly improving and a national VCR of 74.8%. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial lack of adherence by Italian regional healthcare services to current national recommendations on tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis adult vaccination was shown. Scenario 3 is the most feasible, i.e., a single booster shot at age 65, possibly administrable along with other already-recommended, age-specific vaccines.


Subject(s)
Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines , Diphtheria , Tetanus , Whooping Cough , Aged , Child , Diphtheria/prevention & control , Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine , Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Italy , Middle Aged , Tetanus/prevention & control , Vaccination , Whooping Cough/prevention & control
3.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 21(6): 853-859, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to estimate vaccination and susceptibility rates against vaccine-preventable diseases among healthcare personnel (HCP) in eight hospitals. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: A total of 1284 HCP participated (physicians: 31.3%, nursing personnel: 36.6%, paramedical personnel: 11.1%, administrative personnel: 13.2%, supportive personnel: 7.3%). Vaccination rates were 32.9% against measles and mumps, 38.1% against rubella, 5.7% against varicella, 9.2% against hepatitis A, 65.8% against hepatitis B, 31.8% against tetanus-diphtheria, 7.1% against pertussis, 60.2% against influenza, and 80.1% against COVID-19. Susceptibility rates were as follows: 27.8% for measles, 39.6% for mumps, 33.4% for rubella, 22.2% for varicella, 86.3% for hepatitis A, 34.2% for hepatitis B, 68.2% for tetanus-diphtheria, and 92.9% for pertussis. Older HCP had higher susceptibility rates against mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus-diphtheria, and pertussis (p-values <0.001 for all). Mandatory vaccinations were supported by 81.85% of HCP. CONCLUSIONS: Although most HCPs supported mandatory vaccinations, significant vaccination gaps, and susceptibility rates were recorded. The proportion of susceptible HCP to measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella has increased in the past decade, mostly because of reduction in acquired cases of natural illness. Vaccination programs for HCP should be developed. A national registry to follow HCP's vaccination rates is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Diphtheria , Hepatitis A , Hepatitis B , Measles , Mumps , Rubella , Tetanus , Whooping Cough , Attitude , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Mumps/epidemiology , Mumps/prevention & control , Tertiary Care Centers , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
4.
Med Hypotheses ; 152: 110619, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253389

ABSTRACT

Sars Cov-2, the pathogen which belongs to the beta coronavirus family that is responsible for COVID-19, uses Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor, which is responsible for controlling the actions of renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Sars Cov-2 - ACE2 binding leads to a RAS mediated immune response, which targets especially lungs to form ARDS, which in turn, is the most important cause of mortality in COVID-19. CD8+ T cell response dominates over CD4+ T cell response and natural killer cell dysfunction also leads to CD4+ cell dysfunction in COVID-19; this immune dysregulation leads to inappropriate (ARDS) and inadequate (low or quickly waning antibodies) responses to the disease and unfortunately, prepares the patients for re-infections. The peripheral anergy seen in chronic sarcoidosis has much resemblance to COVID-19; CD8+ T cell accumulation is also responsible for inadequate reaction to tuberculin and antigenic stimulus. This article, based on the similarity of COVID-19 and sarcoidosis, discusses a combination of the therapeutic strategy of the tetanus-diphtheria vaccine and dual RAS inhibition, alongside with hydroxychloroquine and antiviral agents, as a solution to overcome the problems described above.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcoidosis , Tetanus , Diphtheria Toxoid , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(4): 4922-4925, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714442

ABSTRACT

Tracheomegaly and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) may be complicated within 12-200 days (with a mean of 43 days) of mechanical ventilation but rare in short-term intubation. Here we present a case of TEF secondary to post-intubation tracheomegaly in a tetanus patient. A 49-year-old male was admitted to the emergency room (ER) and diagnosed with tetanus. He became intubated and mechanically ventilated, but showed over-inflation of the endotracheal tube cuff on X-ray and chest computed tomography since the 8th day. After extubation, the patient had severe coughing during eating. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy and gastroscopy demonstrated a TEF located at the anterior wall of the esophagus. Esophageal exclusion and jejunostomy were performed to heal the fistula. The recurrent and uncontrollable muscular rigidity and spasms might be the main cause early tracheomegaly and TEF. Short-term intubation induced TEF should be aware of in specific patients. Both cuff pressure and cuff volume should be monitored to minimize tracheoesophageal injuries in such cases.


Subject(s)
Tetanus , Tracheoesophageal Fistula , Bronchoscopy , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Tetanus/etiology , Tracheoesophageal Fistula/etiology
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