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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 841832, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855462

ABSTRACT

Under longstanding federal law, pregnancy-related Medicaid coverage is only guaranteed through 60-days postpartum, at which point many women become uninsured. Barriers to care, including lack of insurance, contribute to maternal mortality and morbidity. Leveraging the Families First Coronavirus Response Act, a federal law requiring that states provide continuous coverage to Medicaid enrollees during the COVID-19 pandemic as a condition of receiving enhanced federal financial support, we examine whether postpartum women seek additional care, and what types of care they use, with extended coverage. We analyze claims from the Parkland Community Health Plan (a Texas Medicaid Health Maintenance Organization) before and after implementation of the pandemic-related Medicaid extension. We find that after implementation of the coverage extension, women used twice as many postpartum services, 2 × to 10 × as many preventive, contraceptive, and mental/behavioral health services, and 37% fewer services related to short interval pregnancies within the first-year postpartum. Our findings provide timely insights for state legislators, Medicaid agencies, and members of Congress working to improve maternal health outcomes. We add empirical evidence to support broad extension of Medicaid coverage throughout the first-year postpartum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medicaid , Female , Health Maintenance Organizations , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Insurance Coverage , Pandemics , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Texas , United States
2.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 56, 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most available evidence on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on child movement behaviors is from cross-sectional studies using self-report measures. This study aimed to identify change trajectories and their associated factors for objectively-assessed physical activity and sedentary time among an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of school-age children from Central Texas, U.S.A., during COVID-19. METHODS: Pre- (Sept. 2019 - Feb. 2020) and during- (Oct. 2020 - March 2021) COVID-19 physical activity and sedentary behavior data were collected for school-age children (8-11 years) enrolled in the Safe Travel Environment Evaluation in Texas Schools (STREETS) cohort study. Daily time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time were assessed using GT3X-wBT Actigraph accelerometers. Parent surveys were used to assess socio-ecological factors. Latent class linear mixed models were used to identify change trajectories of MVPA and sedentary time. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between socio-ecological characteristics with physical activity and sedentary time change trajectory groups. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in mean daily MVPA (- 9.4 mins, SD = 18.54) and an increase in sedentary behavior (0.83 hrs, SD = 1.18). Two trajectory groups were identified for MVPA ('decrease MPVA' and 'maintain high MVPA'), with the majority (82.1%) being in the 'decrease MVPA' group. Three trajectory groups were identified for sedentary behavior ('moderate increase sedentary, 'steep increase sedentary,' and 'decrease sedentary'), with most children (78.5%) being in the 'moderate increase' group. Girls had significantly lower odds of being in the 'maintain high MVPA' group than boys (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.11, 0.61). Children living in neighborhoods with higher perceived social cohesion had significantly higher odds of being in the 'maintain high MVPA' group (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.06, 1.41), while those in neighborhoods with higher social cohesion had lower odds of being in the 'decrease sedentary' group (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.74, 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Declines in physical activity and increases in sedentary time among most school-age children during COVID-19 in a socioeconomically and ethnically diverse U.S. sample, were observed in our study, especially among girls. These findings highlight the need to counteract the short-term negative changes in movement behaviors in response to COVID-19 among children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sedentary Behavior , Accelerometry , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Texas/epidemiology
3.
Am J Public Health ; 112(6): 871-875, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833861

ABSTRACT

Texas discontinued state-sponsored business restrictions and mask mandates on March 10, 2021, and mandated that no government officials, including public school officials, may implement mask requirements even in areas where COVID-19 hospitalizations comprised more than 15% of hospitalizations. Nonetheless, some public school districts began the 2021-2022 school year with mask mandates in place. We used quasi-experimental methods to analyze the impact of school mask mandates, which appear to have resulted in approximately 40 fewer student cases per week in the first eight weeks of school. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(6):871-875. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306769).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Policy , Schools , Texas/epidemiology
4.
Inquiry ; 59: 469580221098754, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822132

ABSTRACT

The Youth and Young Adults Cancer Knowledge Attitudes and Practices (C-KAP) exploratory study in 2 rural underserved areas in a border community. C-KAP is an interdisciplinary research pilot project led by university scholars in psychology and social work in partnership with community partners. The exploratory cross-sectional mix-method study recruited 141 (n=141) youth and young adults (ages 18-39). This study was informed on empirical research and a bilingual online questionnaire was field-tested, and data was collected via QuestionPro Software. Quantitative analysis was conducted using SPSS version 27. Descriptive statistics and frequency analysis were used for demographics and basic statistics. Chi square tests and Fisher's exact tests between variables were ran to find statistically significant associations. For the qualitative data, independent coders conducted recurrent content analysis to identify themes. Salient themes include knowledge about cancer types; access to health care; prevention; and the perceived impact of COVID-19 pandemic. Findings highlight a lack of knowledge and orientation on cancer in youth and young adults suggesting the need for community tailored education and screening interventions. Other findings reflect gender differences in knowledge and practices, which indicates that a gender-specific lens is needed when delivering education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Rural Population , Surveys and Questionnaires , Texas , Young Adult
5.
J Emerg Manag ; 20(7): 39-56, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786199

ABSTRACT

This coautoethnographic case study used the Open-Source Public Health Intelligence process to explore and share the South East Texas Regional Advisory Councils' (SETRAC) experience in collecting, processing, disseminating/visualizing, and analyzing COVID-19 data during the pandemic in the largest national medical setting in the United States. Specifically, it details the production of Business Intelligence reports powered by PowerBI both with general publics and with Regional Healthcare Preparedness Program (HPP) Coalition Coordinators, County Judges and City Mayors, Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) executive leadership, the Offices of the Texas Governor, and the Federal Pandemic Task Force led by the US Vice President, in order to provide a foundation for situational awareness, inter-regional collaboration, allocation of scare resources, and local, regional, and state policy decisions. It highlights best practices in risk and crisis communications during the COVID-19 response, underscores cross-sector collaboration and standardization of data collection for effective planning and response, discusses pervasive data revealed during the analysis, and evaluates collaborative and feedback processes that have implications for the Health Care System and Homeland Security Enterprise information sharing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Public Health , Texas/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
6.
Am J Emerg Med ; 57: 1-5, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783128

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Emerging research demonstrates lower rates of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR), public AED (PAD), worse outcomes, and higher incidence of OHCA during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aim to characterize the incidence of OHCA during the early pandemic period and the subsequent long-term period while describing changes in OHCA outcomes and survival. METHODS: We analyzed adult OHCAs in Texas from the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) during March 11-December 31 of 2019 and 2020. We stratified cases into pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods. Our prehospital outcomes were bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR), public AED use (PAD), sustained ROSC, and prehospital termination of resuscitation (TOR). Our hospital survival outcomes were survival to hospital admission, survival to hospital discharge, good neurological outcomes (CPC Score of 1 or 2) and Utstein bystander survival. We created a mixed effects logistic regression model analyzing the association between the pandemic on outcomes, using EMS agency as the random intercept. RESULTS: There were 3619 OHCAs (45.0% of overall study population) in 2019 compared to 4418 (55.0% of overall study population) in 2020. Rates of BCPR (46.2% in 2019 to 42.2% in 2020, P < 0.01) and PAD (13.0% to 7.3%, p < 0.01) decreased. Patient survival to hospital admission decreased from 27.2% in 2019 to 21.0% in 2020 (p < 0.01) and survival to hospital discharge decreased from 10.0% in 2019 to 7.4% in 2020 (p < 0.01). OHCA patients were less likely to receive PAD (aOR = 0.5, 95% CI [0.4, 0.8]) and the odds of field termination increased (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI [1.4, 1.7]). CONCLUSIONS: Our study adds state-wide evidence to the national phenomenon of long-term increased OHCA incidence during COVID-19, worsening rates of BCPR, PAD use and survival outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Medical Services , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Incidence , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pandemics , Registries , Texas/epidemiology
7.
Am J Pathol ; 192(4): 642-652, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777930

ABSTRACT

Genetic variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continue to dramatically alter the landscape of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The recently described variant of concern designated Omicron (B.1.1.529) has rapidly spread worldwide and is now responsible for the majority of COVID-19 cases in many countries. Because Omicron was recognized recently, many knowledge gaps exist about its epidemiology, clinical severity, and disease course. A genome sequencing study of SARS-CoV-2 in the Houston Methodist health care system identified 4468 symptomatic patients with infections caused by Omicron from late November 2021 through January 5, 2022. Omicron rapidly increased in only 3 weeks to cause 90% of all new COVID-19 cases, and at the end of the study period caused 98% of new cases. Compared with patients infected with either Alpha or Delta variants in our health care system, Omicron patients were significantly younger, had significantly increased vaccine breakthrough rates, and were significantly less likely to be hospitalized. Omicron patients required less intense respiratory support and had a shorter length of hospital stay, consistent with on average decreased disease severity. Two patients with Omicron stealth sublineage BA.2 also were identified. The data document the unusually rapid spread and increased occurrence of COVID-19 caused by the Omicron variant in metropolitan Houston, Texas, and address the lack of information about disease character among US patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Texas/epidemiology
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 832266, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776034

ABSTRACT

Background: The U.S.-Mexico Border is an area of opportunity for improved health care access; however, gaps remain as to how and where U.S. border residents, particularly those who are underinsured, obtain care. Antibiotics are one of the most common reported drivers of cross-border healthcare access and a medication of particular concern since indiscriminate or inappropriate use is associated with antimicrobial resistance. In addition, many studies assessing preferences for Mexican pharmaceuticals and healthcare in U.S. border residents were done prior to 2010 when many prescription medications, including antibiotics, were available over the counter in Mexico. Methods: Data used in this study were collected during the baseline examination of an ongoing longitudinal cohort study in Starr Country, Texas, one of 14 counties on the Texas-Mexico border. Participants self-reported the name, date of use, and the source country of each antibiotic used in the past 12 months. Logistic regression was used to determine social, cultural, and clinical features associated with cross-border procurement of antibiotics. Results: Over 10% of the study cohort reported using antibiotics in the past 30 days with over 60% of all rounds used in the past 12 months sourced from Mexico. A lack of health insurance and generation score, a measure of acculturation, were the strongest predictors of cross-border procurement of antibiotics. Conclusions: Factors previously associated with cross-border acquisition of antibiotics are still present despite changes in 2010 to prescription drug regulations in Mexico. These results may be used to inform future public health initiatives to provide culturally sensitive education about responsible antibiotic stewardship and to address barriers to U.S. healthcare and pharmaceutical access in medically underserved, impoverished U.S.-Mexico border communities.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Mexican Americans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/supply & distribution , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Mexico , Texas
9.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e058238, 2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769918

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: SARS-CoV-2 has caused a pandemic claiming more than 4 million lives worldwide. Overwhelming COVID-19 respiratory failure placed tremendous demands on healthcare systems increasing the death toll. Cost-effective prognostic tools to characterise the likelihood of patients with COVID-19 to progress to severe hypoxemic respiratory failure are still needed. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to develop a model using demographic and clinical data collected in the first 12 hours of admission to explore associations with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure in unvaccinated and hospitalised patients with COVID-19. SETTING: University-based healthcare system including six hospitals located in the Galveston, Brazoria and Harris counties of Texas. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and admitted to one of six hospitals between 19 March and 30 June 2020. PRIMARY OUTCOME: The primary outcome was defined as reaching a WHO ordinal scale between 6 and 9 at any time during admission, which corresponded to severe hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring high-flow oxygen supplementation or mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: We included 329 participants in the model cohort and 62 (18.8%) met the primary outcome. Our multivariable regression model found that lactate dehydrogenase (OR 2.36), Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (OR 2.26) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (OR 1.15) were significant predictors of severe disease. The final model showed an area under the curve of 0.84. The sensitivity analysis and point of influence analysis did not reveal inconsistencies. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that a combination of accessible demographic and clinical information collected on admission may predict the progression to severe COVID-19 among adult patients with mild and moderate disease. This model requires external validation prior to its use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oxygen , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Texas/epidemiology
10.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(2): e0057622, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759303

ABSTRACT

Free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) across the United States are increasingly recognized for infection and transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Through a cross-sectional study of 80 deer at three captive cervid facilities in central and southern Texas, we provide evidence of 34 of 36 (94.4%) white-tailed deer at a single captive cervid facility seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 by neutralization assay (PRNT90), with endpoint titers as high as 1,280. In contrast, all tested white-tailed deer and axis deer (Axis axis) at two other captive cervid facilities were seronegative, and SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detected in respiratory swabs from deer at any of the three facilities. These data support transmission among captive deer that cannot be explained by human contact for each infected animal, as only a subset of the seropositive does had direct human contact. The facility seroprevalence was more than double of that reported from wild deer, suggesting that the confined environment may facilitate transmission. Further exploration of captive cervids and other managed animals for their role in the epizootiology of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for understanding impacts on animal health and the potential for spillback transmission to humans or other animal taxa. IMPORTANCE As SARS-CoV-2 vaccine coverage of the human population increases and variants of concern continue to emerge, identification of the epidemiologic importance of animal virus reservoirs is critical. We found that nearly all (94.4%) of the captive white-tailed deer at a cervid facility in central Texas had neutralizing antibodies for SARS-CoV-2. This seroprevalence is over double than that which has been reported from free-ranging deer from other regions of the United States. Horizontal transmission among deer may be facilitated in confinement. Tracking new infections among wild and confined deer is critical for understanding the importance of animal reservoirs for both veterinary and human health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deer , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Texas/epidemiology
11.
J Forensic Nurs ; 17(1): 61-64, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722672

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Standard operating procedures drive everyday practice within any organization, including those within a forensic setting. In the event of unusual circumstances, organizations must respond rapidly to address the impact on operations while ensuring that the quality and safety outcomes of routine services are not affected. This case study illustrates how standard operating procedures can be newly developed or modified, and rapidly deployed and quickly revised, to address unusual circumstances. The response to the COVID-19 pandemic is used as an example in this case report.


Subject(s)
Forensic Sciences/organization & administration , Organizational Case Studies , Organizational Policy , Quality Control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Texas/epidemiology
12.
South Med J ; 115(3): 175-180, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718124

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in unprecedented hospitalizations, ventilator use, and deaths. Because of concerns for resource utilization and surges in hospital capacity use, Texas Executive Order GA-29 required statewide mask wear beginning July 3, 2020. Our objective was to compare COVID-19 case load, hospital bed use, and deaths before and after implementation of this mask order. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study using publicly reported statewide data to perform a mixed-methods interrupted time series analysis. We compared outcomes before and after the statewide mask wear mandate per Executive Order GA-29. The preorder period was from June 19 to July 2, 2020. The postorder period was July 17 to September 17, 2020. Outcomes included daily COVID-19 case load, hospitalizations, and mortality. RESULTS: The daily case load before the mask order per 100,000 individuals was 187.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 157.0-217.0) versus 200.7 (95% CI 179.8-221.6) after GA-29. The number of daily hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was 171.4 (95% CI 143.8-199.0) before GA-29 versus 225.1 (95% CI 202.9-247.3) after. Daily mortality was 2.4 (95% CI 1.9-2.9) before GA-29 versus 5.2 (95% CI 4.6-5.8). There was no material impact on our results after controlling for economic activity. CONCLUSIONS: In both adjusted and unadjusted analyses, we were unable to detect a reduction in case load, hospitalization rates, or mortality associated with the implementation of an executive order requiring a statewide mask order. These results suggest that during a period of rapid virus spread, additional public health measures may be necessary to mitigate transmission at the population level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Mandatory Programs , Masks , Workload/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Facilities and Services Utilization , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Texas
13.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(1): 517-527, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686068

ABSTRACT

In 2018, The University of Texas Health Science Center-Tyler and University of Texas Rio Grande Valley were invited to develop clinical research units for an existing Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) consortium with the objective to equip medically underserved, economically disadvantaged communities and subsequently to deploy COVID-19 clinical trials in response to a public health emergency.


Subject(s)
Awards and Prizes , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Organizations , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2 , Texas
14.
J Clin Neuromuscul Dis ; 23(1S): S1-S20, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684857

Subject(s)
Humans , Texas
16.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 19(4): 567-575, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676786

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose was to create and analyze a competency-based model of educating medical students in a radiology clerkship that can be used to guide curricular reform. METHODS: During the 2019 to 2020 academic year, 326 fourth-year medical students were enrolled in a 2-week required clerkship. An online testing platform, ExamSoft (Dallas, Texas), was used to test pre- and postinstruction knowledge on "must see" diagnoses, as outlined in the National Medical Student Curriculum in Radiology. Assessment analysis was used to compare the frequency with which the correct diagnosis was identified on the pretest to that on the posttest. At the end of the academic year, in addition to statistical analysis, categorical analysis was used to classify the degree of this change to uncover topics that students found most challenging. RESULTS: For 23 of the 27 topics (85%), there was a significant improvement in diagnostic accuracy after instruction in the test curriculum. Categorical analysis further demonstrated that the clerkship had a high impact in teaching 13 of the 27 topics (48%), had a lower impact for 6 topics (22%), and identified the remaining 8 topics (30%) as gaps in teaching and learning. CONCLUSIONS: For medical students, our instructional program significantly increased competency for most critical radiologic diagnoses. Categorical analysis adds value beyond statistical analysis and allows dynamic tailoring of teaching to address gaps in student learning.


Subject(s)
Clinical Clerkship , Radiology , Students, Medical , Curriculum , Humans , Radiology/education , Texas
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 798085, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649230

ABSTRACT

Studies have investigated the association between social vulnerability and SARS-CoV-2 incidence. However, few studies have examined small geographic units such as census tracts, examined geographic regions with large numbers of Hispanic and Black populations, controlled for testing rates, and incorporated stay-at-home measures into their analyses. Understanding the relationship between social vulnerability and SARS-CoV-2 incidence is critical to understanding the interplay between social determinants and implementing risk mitigation guidelines to curtail the spread of infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between CDC's Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) and SARS-CoV-2 incidence while controlling for testing rates and the proportion of those who stayed completely at home among 783 Harris County, Texas census tracts. SARS-CoV-2 incidence data were collected between May 15 and October 1, 2020. The SVI and its themes were the primary exposures. Median percent time at home was used as a covariate to measure the effect of staying at home on the association between social vulnerability and SARS-CoV-2 incidence. Data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and negative binomial regressions (NBR) controlling for testing rates and staying at home. Results showed that a unit increase in the SVI score and the SVI themes were associated with significant increases in SARS-CoV-2 incidence. The incidence risk ratio (IRR) was 1.090 (95% CI, 1.082, 1.098) for the overall SVI; 1.107 (95% CI, 1.098, 1.115) for minority status/language; 1.090 (95% CI, 1.083, 1.098) for socioeconomic; 1.060 (95% CI, 1.050, 1.071) for household composition/disability, and 1.057 (95% CI, 1.047, 1.066) for housing type/transportation. When controlling for stay-at-home, the association between SVI themes and SARS-CoV-2 incidence remained significant. In the NBR model that included all four SVI themes, only the socioeconomic and minority status/language themes remained significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 incidence. Community-level infections were not explained by a communities' inability to stay at home. These findings suggest that community-level social vulnerability, such as socioeconomic status, language barriers, use of public transportation, and housing density may play a role in the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection regardless of the ability of some communities to stay at home because of the need to work or other reasons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Vulnerability , Texas/epidemiology
18.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e38, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641805

ABSTRACT

In this study, we analysed the relationship between meteorological factors and the number of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The study period was from 12 April 2020 to 13 October 2020, and daily meteorological data and the daily number of patients with COVID-19 in each state of the United States were collected. Based on the number of COVID-19 patients in each state of the United States, we selected four states (California, Florida, New York, Texas) for analysis. One-way analysis of variance ( ANOVA), scatter plot analysis, correlation analysis and distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) analysis were used to analyse the relationship between meteorological factors and the number of patients with COVID-19. We found that the significant influencing factors of the number of COVID-19 cases differed among the four states. Specifically, the number of COVID-19 confirmed cases in California and New York was negatively correlated with AWMD (P < 0.01) and positively correlated with AQI, PM2.5 and TAVG (P < 0.01) but not significantly correlated with other factors. Florida was significantly correlated with TAVG (positive) (P < 0.01) but not significantly correlated with other factors. The number of COVID-19 cases in Texas was only significantly negatively associated with AWND (P < 0.01). The influence of temperature and PM2.5 on the spread of COVID-19 is not obvious. This study shows that when the wind speed was 2 m/s, it had a significant positive correlation with COVID-19 cases. The impact of meteorological factors on COVID-19 may be very complicated. It is necessary to further explore the relationship between meteorological factors and COVID-19. By exploring the influence of meteorological factors on COVID-19, we can help people to establish a more accurate early warning system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Particulate Matter , Weather , Air Pollution , Analysis of Variance , COVID-19/transmission , California/epidemiology , Florida/epidemiology , Humans , New York/epidemiology , Nonlinear Dynamics , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature , Texas/epidemiology , Wind
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1002, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639191

ABSTRACT

The costs of COVID-19 are extensive, and, like the fallout of most health and environmental crises in the US, there is growing evidence that these costs weigh disproportionately on communities of color. We investigated whether county-level racial composition and fine particulate pollution (PM2.5) are indicators for COVID-19 incidence and death rates in the state of Texas. Using county-level data, we ran linear regressions of percent minority as well as historic 2000-2016 PM2.5 levels against COVID-19 cases and deaths per capita. We found that a county's percent minority racial composition, defined as the percentage of population that identifies as Black or Hispanic, highly correlates with COVID-19 case and death rates. Using Value-of-Statistical-Life calculations, we found that economic costs from COVID-19 deaths fall more heavily on Black and Hispanic residents in Harris County, the most populous county in Texas. We found no consistent evidence or significant correlations between historic county-average PM2.5 concentration and COVID-19 incidence or death. Our findings suggest that public health and economic aid policy should consider the racially-segregated burden of disease to better mitigate costs and support equity for the duration and aftermath of health crises.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Survival Rate , Texas/epidemiology , Young Adult
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