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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(52): 79413-79433, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085528

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies have been conducted to identify the effects of natural crises on supply chain performance. Conventional analysis methods are based on either manual filter methods or data-driven methods. The manual filter methods suffer from validation problems due to sampling limitations, and data-driven methods suffer from the nature of crisis data which are vague and complex. This study aims to present an intelligent analysis model to automatically identify the effects of natural crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic on the supply chain through metadata generated on social media. This paper presents a thematic analysis framework to extract knowledge under user steering. This framework uses a text-mining approach, including co-occurrence term analysis and knowledge map construction. As a case study to approve our proposed model, we retrieved, cleaned, and analyzed 1024 online textual reports on supply chain crises published during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2019-2021. We conducted a thematic analysis of the collected data and achieved a knowledge map on the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the supply chain. The resultant knowledge map consists of five main areas (and related sub-areas), including (1) food retail, (2) food services, (3) manufacturing, (4) consumers, and (5) logistics. We checked and validated the analytical results with some field experts. This experiment achieved 53 crisis knowledge propositions classified from 25,272 sentences with 631,799 terms and 31,864 unique terms using just three user-system interaction steps, which shows the model's high performance. The results lead us to conclude that the proposed model could be used effectively and efficiently as a decision support system, especially for crises in the supply chain analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Text Messaging , Humans , Pandemics , Data Mining , Commerce
2.
Value Health ; 25(9): 1469-1479, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084454

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to review definitions of digital health and understand their relevance for health outcomes research. Four umbrella terms (digital health, electronic health, mobile health, and telehealth/telemedicine) were summarized in this article. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and EconLit were searched from January 2015 to May 2020 for systematic reviews containing key Medical Subject Headings terms for digital health (n = 38) and synonyms of "definition." Independent pairs of reviewers performed each stage of the review, with reconciliation by a third reviewer if required. A single reviewer consolidated each definition for consistency. We performed text analysis via word clouds and computed document frequency-and inverse corpus frequency scores. RESULTS: The search retrieved 2610 records with 545 articles (20.9%) taken forward for full-text review. Of these, 39.3% (214 of 545) were eligible for data extraction, of which 134 full-text articles were retained for this analysis containing 142 unique definitions of umbrella terms (digital health [n = 4], electronic health [n = 36], mobile health [n = 50], and telehealth/telemedicine [n = 52]). Seminal definitions exist but have increasingly been adapted over time and new definitions were created. Nevertheless, the most characteristic words extracted from the definitions via the text analyses still showed considerable overlap between the 4 umbrella terms. CONCLUSIONS: To focus evidence summaries for outcomes research purposes, umbrella terms should be accompanied by Medical Subject Headings terms reflecting population, intervention, comparator, outcome, timing, and setting. Ultimately a functional classification system is needed to create standardized terminology for digital health interventions denoting the domains of patient-level effects and outcomes.


Subject(s)
Telemedicine , Text Messaging , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Public Opinion , Systematic Reviews as Topic
3.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0273301, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079730

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a reimagining of many aspects of higher education, including how instructors interact with their students and how they encourage student participation. Text-based chatting during synchronous remote instruction is a simple form of student-student and student-instructor interaction. The importance of student participation has been documented, as have clear disparities in participation between those well-represented and those under-represented in science disciplines. Thus, we conducted an investigation into who is texting, what students are texting, and how these texts align with course content. We focused on two sections of a large-enrollment, introductory biology class offered remotely during Fall 2020. Using an analysis of in-class chatting, in combination with student survey responses, we find that text-based chatting suggests not only a high level of student engagement, but a type of participation that is disproportionately favored by women. Given the multiple lines of evidence indicating that women typically under-participate in their science courses, any vehicle that counters this trend merits further exploration. We conclude with suggestions for further research, and ideas for carrying forward text-based chatting in the post-COVID-19, in-person classroom.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Text Messaging , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Students , Biology/education
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(10): e38710, 2022 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065314

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza affects 5% to 15% of Americans annually, resulting in preventable deaths and substantial economic impact. Influenza infection is particularly dangerous for people with cardiovascular disease, who therefore represent a priority group for vaccination campaigns. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the effects of digital intervention messaging on self-reported rates of seasonal influenza vaccination. METHODS: This was a randomized, controlled, single-blind, and decentralized trial conducted at individual locations throughout the United States over the 2020-2021 influenza season. Adults with self-reported cardiovascular disease who were members of the Achievement mobile platform were randomized to receive or not receive a series of 6 patient-centered digital intervention messages promoting influenza vaccination. The primary end point was the between-group difference in self-reported vaccination rates at 6 months after randomization. Secondary outcomes included the levels of engagement with the messages and the relationship between vaccination rates and engagement with the messages. Subgroup analyses examined variation in intervention effects by race. Controlling for randomization group, we examined the impact of other predictors of vaccination status, including cardiovascular condition type, vaccine drivers or barriers, and vaccine knowledge. RESULTS: Of the 49,138 randomized participants, responses on the primary end point were available for 11,237 (22.87%; 5575 in the intervention group and 5662 in the control group) participants. The vaccination rate was significantly higher in the intervention group (3418/5575, 61.31%) than the control group (3355/5662, 59.25%; relative risk 1.03, 95% CI 1.004-1.066; P=.03). Participants who were older, more educated, and White or Asian were more likely to report being vaccinated. The intervention was effective among White participants (P=.004) but not among people of color (P=.42). The vaccination rate was 13 percentage points higher among participants who completed all 6 intervention messages versus none, and at least 2 completed messages appeared to be needed for effectiveness. Participants who reported a diagnosis of COVID-19 were more likely to be vaccinated for influenza regardless of treatment assignment. CONCLUSIONS: This personalized, evidence-based digital intervention was effective in increasing vaccination rates in this population of high-risk people with cardiovascular disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04584645; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04584645.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Text Messaging , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Single-Blind Method , United States , Vaccination
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e063057, 2022 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038312

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Widespread vaccination against COVID-19 is one of the most effective ways to control, and ideally, end the global COVID-19 pandemic. Vaccine hesitancy and vaccine rates vary widely across countries and populations and are influenced by complex sociocultural, political, economic and psychological factors. Community engagement is an integral strategy within immunisation campaigns and has been shown to improve vaccine acceptance. As evidence on community engagement to support COVID-19 vaccine uptake is emerging and constantly changing, research that lessens the knowledge-to-practice gap by providing regular and up-to-date evidence on current best-practice is essential. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A living systematic review will be conducted which includes an initial systematic review and bimonthly review updates. Searching and screening for the review and subsequent updates will be done in four streams: a systematic search of six databases, grey literature review, preprint review and citizen sourcing. The screening will be done by a minimum of two reviewers at title/abstract and full-text in Covidence, a systematic review management software. Data will be extracted across predefined fields in an excel spreadsheet that includes information about article characteristics, context and population, community engagement approaches, and outcomes. Synthesis will occur using the convergent integrated approach. We will explore the potential to quantitatively synthesise primary outcomes depending on heterogeneity of the studies. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The initial review and subsequent bimonthly searches and their results will be disseminated transparently via open-access methods. Quarterly briefs will be shared on the reviews' social media platforms and across other interested networks and repositories. A dedicated web link will be created on the Community Health-Community of Practice site for sharing findings and obtaining feedback. A mailing list will be developed and interested parties can subscribe for updates. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022301996.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Text Messaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Vaccination
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(8): e38470, 2022 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is little consensus regarding effective digital health interventions for diverse populations, which is due in part to the difficulty of quantifying the impact of various media and content and the lack of consensus on evaluating dosage and outcomes. In particular, digital smoking behavior change intervention is an area where consistency of measurement has been a challenge because of emerging products and rapid policy changes. This study reviewed the contents and outcomes of digital smoking interventions and the consistency of reporting to inform future research. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to systematically review digital smoking behavior change interventions and evaluate the consistency in measuring and reporting intervention contents, channels, and dose and response outcomes. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, PsycINFO, and PAIS databases were used to search the literature between January and May 2021. General and journal-based searches were combined. All records were imported into Covidence systematic review software (Veritas Health Innovation) and duplicates were removed. Titles and abstracts were screened by 4 trained reviewers to identify eligible full-text literature. The data synthesis scheme was designed based on the concept that exposure to digital interventions can be divided into intended doses that were planned by the intervention and enacted doses that were completed by participants. The intended dose comprised the frequency and length of the interventions, and the enacted dose was assessed as the engagement. Response measures were assessed for behaviors, intentions, and psychosocial outcomes. Measurements of the dose-response relationship were reviewed for all studies. RESULTS: A total of 2916 articles were identified through a database search. Of these 2916 articles, the title and abstract review yielded 324 (11.11%) articles for possible eligibility, and 19 (0.65%) articles on digital smoking behavior change interventions were ultimately included for data extraction and synthesis. The analysis revealed a lack of prevention studies (0/19, 0%) and dose-response studies (3/19, 16%). Of the 19 studies, 6 (32%) reported multiple behavioral measures, and 5 (23%) reported multiple psychosocial measures as outcomes. For dosage measures, 37% (7/19) of studies used frequency of exposure, and 21% (4/19) of studies mentioned the length of exposure. The assessment of clarity of reporting revealed that the duration of intervention and data collection tended to be reported vaguely in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: This review revealed a lack of studies assessing the effects of digital media interventions on smoking outcomes. Data synthesis showed that measurement and reporting were inconsistent across studies, illustrating current challenges in this field. Although most studies focused on reporting outcomes, the measurement of exposure, including intended and enacted doses, was unclear in a large proportion of studies. Clear and consistent reporting of both outcomes and exposures is needed to develop further evidence in intervention research on digital smoking behavior change.


Subject(s)
Internet , Text Messaging , Humans , Smoking , Tobacco Smoking
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(8): e37100, 2022 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extensive literature support telehealth as a supplement or adjunct to in-person care for the management of chronic conditions such as congestive heart failure (CHF) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Evidence is needed to support the use of telehealth as an equivalent and equitable replacement for in-person care and to assess potential adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review to address the following question: among adults, what is the effect of synchronous telehealth (real-time response among individuals via phone or phone and video) compared with in-person care (or compared with phone, if synchronous video care) for chronic management of CHF, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and T2DM on key disease-specific clinical outcomes and health care use? METHODS: We followed systematic review methodologies and searched two databases (MEDLINE and Embase). We included randomized or quasi-experimental studies that evaluated the effect of synchronously delivered telehealth for relevant chronic conditions that occurred over ≥2 encounters and in which some or all in-person care was supplanted by care delivered via phone or video. We assessed the bias using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care risk of bias (ROB) tool and the certainty of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation. We described the findings narratively and did not conduct meta-analysis owing to the small number of studies and the conceptual heterogeneity of the identified interventions. RESULTS: We identified 8662 studies, and 129 (1.49%) were reviewed at the full-text stage. In total, 3.9% (5/129) of the articles were retained for data extraction, all of which (5/5, 100%) were randomized controlled trials. The CHF study (1/5, 20%) was found to have high ROB and randomized patients (n=210) to receive quarterly automated asynchronous web-based review and follow-up of telemetry data versus synchronous personal follow-up (in-person vs phone-based) for 1 year. A 3-way comparison across study arms found no significant differences in clinical outcomes. Overall, 80% (4/5) of the studies (n=466) evaluated synchronous care for patients with T2DM (ROB was judged to be low for 2, 50% of studies and high for 2, 50% of studies). In total, 20% (1/5) of the studies were adequately powered to assess the difference in glycosylated hemoglobin level between groups; however, no significant difference was found. Intervention design varied greatly from remote monitoring of blood glucose combined with video versus in-person visits to an endocrinology clinic to a brief, 3-week remote intervention to stabilize uncontrolled diabetes. No articles were identified for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. CONCLUSIONS: This review found few studies with a variety of designs and interventions that used telehealth as a replacement for in-person care. Future research should consider including observational studies and studies on additional highly prevalent chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Heart Failure , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Telemedicine , Text Messaging , Adult , Chronic Disease , Humans
8.
J Surg Res ; 280: 226-233, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996397

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Routine outpatient follow-up visits for surgical patients are a source of strain on health-care resources and patients. With the COVID-19 pandemic adding a new urgency to finding the safest follow-up arrangement, text message follow-up might prove an acceptable alternative to a phone call or an in-person clinic visit. METHODS: An open-label, three-arm, parallel randomized trial was conducted. The interventions were traditional in-person appointment, a telephone call, or a text message. The primary outcome was the number of postdischarge complications identified. The secondary outcomes were patient satisfaction with follow-up, future preference, default to follow-up, and preference to receiving medical information by text message. RESULTS: Two hundred eight patients underwent randomization: 50 in the in-person group, 80 in the telephone group, and 78 in the text message group. There was no difference in the number of reported complications: 5 (10%) patients in the in-person group, 7 (9%) patients in the text group, and 11 (14%) patients in the telephone group (P = 0.613). The preferred method of follow-up was by telephone (106, 61.6%). The least preferred was the in-person follow-up (15, 8.7%, P = 0.002), which also had the highest default rate (44%). CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence that text messages and telephone calls are unsafe and ineffective methods of follow-up. Although most patients are happy to receive results by text message, the majority of patients would prefer a telephone follow-up and are less likely to default by this method. Health-care systems should develop telehealth initiatives when planning health-care services in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Text Messaging , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Outpatients , Aftercare , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Telephone
10.
Western Pac Surveill Response J ; 13(2): 7, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994390

ABSTRACT

Objective: To prevent importation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to Vanuatu, since March 2020, all travellers to the country have been required to complete a 14-day quarantine in a government-designated facility. A short message service (SMS, or "text message") system was developed to collect information on symptoms of COVID-19 among travellers in quarantine. A trial within a cohort study was conducted among travellers arriving to Vanuatu by air from 27 October to 7 December 2020 to assess SMS acceptability, efficiency and utility and whether SMS-based health monitoring was as effective as in-person monitoring in identifying people with COVID-19 symptoms. Methods: Control group participants received standard monitoring (daily in-person visits) and participants in the intervention group received a daily SMS text requesting a response coded for symptom development. Differences between the two groups were determined using χ2 tests. Results: Of the 495 eligible travellers, 423 participated; 170 were allocated to the control group and 253 to the intervention group. At least one return SMS text was received from 50% (107/212) of participants who were confirmed to have received an SMS text. Less than 2% (4/253) of the intervention group and 0% of the control group reported symptoms. Discussion: The SMS intervention had a high level of acceptability. SMS is a useful tool to monitor symptom development among people in quarantine and for broader public health programmes that require follow up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Text Messaging , Humans , Quarantine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Vanuatu
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(7): e2222116, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1940610

ABSTRACT

Importance: Many organizations implemented COVID-19 vaccination requirements during the pandemic, but the best way to increase adherence to these policies is unknown. Objective: To evaluate if behavioral nudges delivered through text messages could accelerate adherence to a health system's COVID-19 vaccination policy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial was conducted within Ascension health system from October 11 to November 8, 2021. Participants included health system employees in the Midwest or South US who were not adherent with the vaccination policy 1 month before its deadline. Data were analyzed from November 17, 2021, to February 25, 2022. Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned to control or to receive a text message intervention that stated a vaccine had been reserved for the participant, with a scheduled date for vaccination within a 2-week period. Participants could reschedule to a different date within the period or upload a copy of their vaccination card. Follow-up text message reminders were sent the day before and the day of the appointment. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was adherence to the health system's vaccination policy during the 2-week intervention. Secondary outcomes included time to vaccination during a 4-week follow-up period. Results: The sample included 2000 participants (mean [SD] age, 36.4 [12.3] years; 1724 [86.2%] women), with 1000 participants randomized to the control group and 1000 participants randomized to the intervention group. Overall, there were 164 Hispanic participants (8.2%), 46 non-Hispanic Asian participants (2.3%), 202 non-Hispanic Black participants (10.1%), and 1418 non-Hispanic White participants (70.9%). By the end of the 2-week intervention, 363 participants in the text message nudge group (36.3%) and 318 participants in the control group (31.8%) were adherent with the vaccination policy, representing a significant increase of 4.9 (95% CI, 0.8 to 9.1) percentage points in adjusted analyses comparing the nudge group with the control group (P = .02). Among participants who became adherent by the end of the 4-week follow-up period, the text message nudge significantly reduced time to adherence by a mean of 2.4 (95% CI, 2.1 to 4.7) days (P < .001) and a median of 5.0 (95% CI, 2.5 to 7.7) days (P < .001) compared with the control group. At 4 weeks, overall vaccination adherence was no longer different between groups (control: 477 participants [47.7%]; intervention: 472 participants [47.2%]). Conclusions and Relevance: This randomized clinical trial found that a behavioral nudge delivered through text messages accelerated adherence to a health system's COVID-19 vaccination policy but did change overall adherence by the time of the policy deadline. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05037201.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Text Messaging , Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Policy , Reminder Systems , Vaccination
12.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 62(6): 1885-1890.e1, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936711

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community pharmacies use text message communications for information regarding approaching refills and fill status. Patients can also be notified regarding annual influenza vaccine availability and schedule an appointment for the vaccine. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate whether text message communications affected patient presentation and resulted in a percent increase of patients receiving an influenza vaccine compared with previous vaccine season and to determine whether additional vaccines are administered upon presentation. METHODS: Ambidirectional study retrospectively analyzed the impact, nationally, of a new text message communication on influenza vaccinations at a large community pharmacy chain and prospectively surveyed patients receiving an influenza vaccine at 2 geographically similar pharmacies of the chain in Southwest Virginia. Text message communications regarding vaccine and appointment availability were sent to patients at the age of 18 years and older who opted in to text message communications and received an influenza vaccine with the chain during the 2019-2020 influenza season. Vaccine data from consecutive seasons were compared. Eligible patients in Southwest Virginia were surveyed about how they were informed about availability, previous intent to receive an influenza vaccine, applicability to other vaccines, and effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on vaccination. Results were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Nationally, influenza vaccines administered increased by 17.45% in patients who permitted text message communication and overall by 13.22% after implementation. Decreases in co-administered pneumococcal vaccines and tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis vaccines and an increase in co-administered zoster vaccines were observed. A total of 111 patients were surveyed; 4% presented owing to text message communication. A majority were intent on receiving the vaccine before being notified and reported that the pandemic did not affect presentation. Notably, 45.05% of patients were likely to receive routine vaccines if notified by text message. CONCLUSION: Text message communications are another viable way to increase vaccinations, but further studies should be conducted outside of a pandemic setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pharmacies , Pharmacy , Text Messaging , Humans , Adolescent , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination , Communication
13.
Prev Sci ; 23(8): 1448-1456, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935850

ABSTRACT

It is critical to understand what happens when PrEP patients are lost-to-follow-up (LTFU) and, where appropriate, attempt to re-engage them in care with the goal of preventing future human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. We evaluated the benefits and limitations of using text-based outreach to re-engage with LTFU PrEP patients and offer re-initiation of PrEP care. Using text-messaging, we surveyed San Francisco City Clinic patients who started PrEP from January 2015 to October 2019 and were LTFU by October 1, 2020. Our goals were to better understand (1) whether our patients remained on PrEP through another provider or source, (2) why patients choose to discontinue PrEP, and (3) whether text-based outreach could successfully re-engage such patients in care. Multiple-choice survey questions were analyzed quantitatively to determine the proportion of respondents selecting each option; free-text responses were analyzed qualitatively using an inductive approach to identify any additional recurring themes. Of 846 eligible survey recipients, 130 responded (overall response rate 15.4%). Forty-two respondents (32.3%) were still on PrEP through another provider while 88 (67.7%) were not. Common reasons for stopping PrEP included: COVID-19-related changes in sex life (32.3% of responses), concerns regarding side effects (17.7%), and the need to take a daily pill (8.3%). Free text responses revealed additional concerns regarding risk compensation. While 32 participants agreed to be contacted by City clinic staff for PrEP counseling, only 6 were reached by phone and none of the six subsequently restarted PrEP. We learned that text messaging is a possible approach to survey certain PrEP program participants to determine who is truly LTFU and off PrEP, and to better understand reasons for PrEP discontinuation. While such information could prove valuable as programs seek to address barriers to PrEP retention, efforts to improve acceptability and increase response rates would be necessary. We were less successful in re-engaging LTFU patients in PrEP care, suggesting that text-messaging may not be the optimal strategy for this purpose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual Health , Text Messaging , Humans , San Francisco , Follow-Up Studies
14.
Int J Med Inform ; 165: 104832, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited research has examined mobile phone-based platforms for survey recruitment, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. Our objective was to investigate the feasibility and representativeness of mobile phone-based advertisement during a preliminary study about COVID-19 vaccine hesitation in Brazil. Moreover, we evaluate whether the older population can be reached through mobile phone-based platforms of the survey. METHODS: We conducted a study in December 2021 based on a preliminary survey about the COVID-19 vaccine hesitation in Assis, Brazil, Sao Paulo state. From a list of the adult population hesitant about the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, we sent a mobile phone-based advertisement inviting the participants to answer the survey for one week. The respondent's data were collected in a Google form platform. The comparison between the target population and the respondents was made using the Chi-squared test and the Welch's test, using a P-value of 0.05 as significative. RESULTS: The response rate was 9.99% after one week. The mean age of the respondent group was 33.97 (SD 14.99) and 35.05 (SD 14.19) of the population, with a P-value of 0.192 and a Cohen's d coefficient of 0.0754, corresponding to a small effect size between groups. We demonstrate that the mobile phone-based survey is a feasible and representative strategy during the pandemics in Brazil. Moreover, the older population respondent was representative. CONCLUSION: We achieved a representative sample of respondents using the mobile phone-based survey in Brazil. Furthermore, it was representative of all sociodemographic and health characteristics assessed. Finally, these findings suggest that the method is a highly feasible and economical means of recruiting for survey research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell Phone , Text Messaging , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
16.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 35(4): 259-264, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922445

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update of studies on the effectiveness of digital and telephonic approaches to providing remote continuing care for substance use disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Effective continuing care can be provided via smartphone apps, text messaging, interactive voice response, and structured telephone counseling. The remote continuing care interventions with the strongest evidence of efficacy are the Addiction Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System app and Telephone Monitoring and Counseling. Positive effects for these intervention on drinking outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorders were replicated in a recent randomized controlled study. SUMMARY: Continuing care is widely believed to be an important component of treatment for substance use disorders, especially for sustaining positive outcomes. However, many individuals do not attend clinic-based continuing care, due to a variety of reasons, including competing work and family responsibilities, disabilities, transportation challenges, and recently the COVID-19 pandemic. Remote continuing care, provided via smartphone apps, text messaging, and various telephonic approaches, has been shown to be effective, and could be used to provide continuing care to patients who would otherwise not receive it. Further work is needed to determine how to effectively combine more traditional continuing care with newer digitized and telephonic approaches.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Text Messaging , Alcoholism/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(6): e2216649, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1888477

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19 vaccine uptake among urban populations remains low. Objective: To evaluate whether text messaging with outbound or inbound scheduling and behaviorally informed content might increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial with a factorial design was conducted from April 29 to July 6, 2021, in an urban academic health system. The trial comprised 16 045 patients at least 18 years of age in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, with at least 1 primary care visit in the past 5 years, or a future scheduled primary care visit within the next 3 months, who were unresponsive to prior outreach. The study was prespecified in the trial protocol, and data were obtained from the intent-to-treat population. Interventions: Eligible patients were randomly assigned in a 1:20:20 ratio to (1) outbound telephone call only by call center, (2) text message and outbound telephone call by call center to those who respond, or (3) text message, with patients instructed to make an inbound telephone call to a hotline. Patients in groups 2 and 3 were concurrently randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive different content: standard messaging, clinician endorsement (eg, "Dr. XXX recommends"), scarcity ("limited supply available"), or endowment framing ("We have reserved a COVID-19 vaccine appointment for you"). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who completed the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine within 1 month, according to the electronic health record. Secondary outcomes were the completion of the first dose within 2 months and completion of the vaccination series within 2 months of initial outreach. Additional outcomes included the percentage of patients with invalid cell phone numbers (wrong number or nontextable), no response to text messaging, the percentage of patients scheduled for the vaccine, text message responses, and the number of telephone calls made by the access center. Analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis. Results: Among the 16 045 patients included, the mean (SD) age was 36.9 (11.1) years; 9418 (58.7%) were women; 12 869 (80.2%) had commercial insurance, and 2283 (14.2%) were insured by Medicaid; 8345 (52.0%) were White, 4706 (29.3%) were Black, and 967 (6.0%) were Hispanic or Latino. At 1 month, 14 of 390 patients (3.6% [95% CI, 1.7%-5.4%]) in the outbound telephone call-only group completed 1 vaccine dose, as did 243 of 7890 patients (3.1% [95% CI, 2.7%-3.5%]) in the text plus outbound call group (absolute difference, -0.5% [95% CI, -2.4% to 1.4%]; P = .57) and 253 of 7765 patients (3.3% [95% CI, 2.9%-3.7%]) in the text plus inbound call group (absolute difference, -0.3% [95% CI, -2.2% to 1.6%]; P = .72). Among the 15 655 patients receiving text messaging, 118 of 3889 patients (3.0% [95% CI, 2.5%-3.6%]) in the standard messaging group completed 1 vaccine dose, as did 135 of 3920 patients (3.4% [95% CI, 2.9%-4.0%]) in the clinician endorsement group (absolute difference, 0.4% [95% CI, -0.4% to 1.2%]; P = .31), 100 of 3911 patients (2.6% [95% CI, 2.1%-3.1%]) in the scarcity group (absolute difference, -0.5% [95% CI, -1.2% to 0.3%]; P = .20), and 143 of 3935 patients (3.6% [95% CI, 3.0%-4.2%]) in the endowment group (absolute difference, 0.6% [95% CI, -0.2% to 1.4%]; P = .14). Conclusions and Relevance: There was no detectable increase in vaccination uptake among patients receiving text messaging compared with telephone calls only or behaviorally informed message content. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04834726.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Text Messaging , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Philadelphia , Reminder Systems , Vaccination
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869601

ABSTRACT

As there were strict limits on contact between health professionals and patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, telemedicine increased in importance with regard to improving the provision of health care and became the preferred method of care. This study aims to determine the topics of concern expressed by individuals with COVID-19 receiving care at home via teleconsultation. The qualitative study was conducted using secondary data of chat messages from 213 COVID-19 patients who had consented to online consultation with the health care team. The messages were sent during the home isolation period, which was between 29th October and 20th December 2021. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. All patients had consented to the use of their data. A small majority of the patients were female (58.69%). The average age was 32.26 ± 16.92 years. A total of 475 questions were generated by 150 patients during the isolation period. Nearly thirty percent (29.58%) never asked any questions. From the analysis, the questions could be divided into three themes including: (1) complex care system; (2) uncertainty about self-care and treatment plan with regard to lack of knowledges and skills; and (3) concern about recovery and returning to the community after COVID-19 infection. In conclusion, there were enquiries about many aspects of medical care during home isolation, detailed answers from professionals were useful for the self-care of patients and to provide guidance for their future health behavior. The importance of the service being user friendly and accessible to all became increasingly evident.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Remote Consultation , Telemedicine , Text Messaging , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Thailand/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e054650, 2022 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865167

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effect of using patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) routinely to assess and address depressive symptoms and diabetes distress among adults with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: A systematic review of published peer-reviewed studies. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, CINAHL Complete, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies including adults with type 2 diabetes, published in English, from the inception of the databases to 24 February 2022 inclusive; and where the intervention included completion of a PROM of depressive symptoms and/or diabetes distress, with feedback of the responses to a healthcare professional. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Using Covidence software, screening and risk of bias assessment were conducted by two reviewers independently with any disagreements resolved by a third reviewer. RESULTS: The search identified 4512 citations, of which 163 full-text citations were assessed for eligibility, and nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Five studies involved assessment of depressive symptoms only, two studies assessed diabetes distress only, and two studies assessed both. All studies had an associated cointervention. When depressive symptoms were assessed (n=7), a statistically significant between-group difference in depressive symptoms was observed in five studies; with a clinically significant (>0.5%) between-group difference in HbA1c in two studies. When diabetes distress was assessed (n=4), one study demonstrated statistically significant difference in depressive symptoms and diabetes distress; with a clinically significant between-group difference in HbA1c observed in two studies. CONCLUSION: Studies are sparse in which PROMs are used to assess and address depressive symptoms or diabetes distress during routine clinical care of adults with type 2 diabetes. Further research is warranted to understand how to integrate PROMs into clinical care efficiently and determine appropriate interventions to manage identified problem areas. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020200246.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Text Messaging , Adult , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Humans
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(10)2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855755

ABSTRACT

Disease screening identifies a disease in an individual/community early to effectively prevent or treat the condition. COVID-19 has restricted hospital visits for screening and other healthcare services resulting in the disruption of screening for cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Smartphone technologies, coupled with built-in sensors and wireless technologies, enable the smartphone to function as a disease-screening and monitoring device with negligible additional costs and potentially higher quality results. Thus, we sought to evaluate the use of smartphone applications for disease screening and the acceptability of this technology in the medical and healthcare sectors. We followed a systematic review process using four databases, including Medline Complete, Web of Science, Embase, and Proquest. We included articles published in English examining smartphone application utilisation in disease screening. Further, we presented and discussed the primary outcomes of the research articles and their statistically significant value. The initial search yielded 1046 studies for the initial title and abstract screening. Of the 105 articles eligible for full-text screening, we selected nine studies and discussed them in detail under four main categories: an overview of the literature reviewed, participant characteristics, disease screening, and technology acceptance. According to our objective, we further evaluated the disease-screening approaches and classified them as clinically administered screening (33%, n = 3), health-worker-administered screening (33%, n = 3), and home-based screening (33%, n = 3). Finally, we analysed the technology acceptance among the users and healthcare practitioners. We observed a significant statistical relationship between smartphone applications and standard clinical screening. We also reviewed user acceptance of these smartphone applications. Hence, we set out critical considerations to provide equitable healthcare solutions without barriers when designing, developing, and deploying smartphone solutions. The findings may increase research opportunities for the evaluation of smartphone solutions as valid and reliable screening solutions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Text Messaging , COVID-19/diagnosis , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Smartphone
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