Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 81
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(1): 49-56, 2022 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608662

ABSTRACT

The development of low-cost, non-toxic, scalable antimicrobial textiles is needed to address the spread of deadly pathogens. Here, we report a polysiloxane textile coating that possesses two modes of antimicrobial inactivation, passive contact inactivation through amine/imine functionalities and active photodynamic inactivation through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This material can be coated and cross-linked onto natural and synthetic textiles through a simple soak procedure, followed by UV cure to afford materials exhibiting no aqueous leaching and only minimal leaching in organic solvents. This coating minimally impacts the mechanical properties of the fabric while also imparting hydrophobicity. Passive inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is achieved with >98% inactivation after 24 h, with a 23× and 3× inactivation rate increase against E. coli and MRSA, respectively, when green light is used to generate ROS. Up to 90% decrease in the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 after 2 h of irradiated incubation with the material is demonstrated. These results show that modifying textiles with dual-functional polymers results in robust and highly antimicrobial materials that are expected to find widespread use in combating the spread of deadly pathogens.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Textiles/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Photochemotherapy/methods , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Textiles/toxicity , Ultraviolet Rays
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24318, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585786

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic presents a unique challenge to the healthcare community due to the high infectivity rate and need for effective personal protective equipment. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have shown promising antimicrobial properties and are recognized as a safe additive in many food and cosmetic products. This work presents a novel nanocomposite synthesis approach, which allows zinc oxide nanoparticles to be grown within textile and face mask materials, including melt-blown polypropylene and nylon-cotton. The resulting nanocomposite achieves greater than 3 log10 reduction (≥ 99.9%) in coronavirus titer within a contact time of 10 min, by disintegrating the viral envelope. The new nanocomposite textile retains activity even after 100 laundry cycles and has been dermatologist tested as non-irritant and hypoallergenic. Various face mask designs were tested to improve filtration efficiency and breathability while offering antiviral protection, with Claros' design reporting higher filtration efficiency than surgical masks (> 50%) for particles ranged 200 nm to 5 µm in size.


Subject(s)
Masks/virology , Nanocomposites/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Filtration/methods , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Nylons/chemistry , Polypropylenes/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Textiles/analysis , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580804

ABSTRACT

The research aims at washing processes as possible sources of microplastics, specifical microfibers in wastewater, and the behavior of the virus particles SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater after the washing process as well as their ability to sorb to the surface of microfibers, released from washing processes. The conclusions of the research point to the ability of the virus to attach to possible solid impurities such as textile fibers (microfibers) occurring in the sewer and to the ability of wash water to influence their possible occurrence in the sewer. The highest efficiency (more than 99%) of removal virus particles was after washing process, using liquid washing powder, and washing soda. These findings may gradually contribute to a better understanding of the behavior of the virus particles in the sewer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Humans , Microplastics , Plastics , SARS-CoV-2 , Textiles , Waste Water , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
4.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(4): 580, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534508

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Textiles
5.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(4): 579-580, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526990

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Textiles
6.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(4): 579, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526989

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Textiles
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21723, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503978

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus with intact infectivity attached to PPE surfaces pose significant threat to the spread of COVID-19. We tested the hypothesis that an electroceutical fabric, generating weak potential difference of 0.5 V, disrupts the infectivity of coronavirus upon contact by destabilizing the electrokinetic properties of the virion. Porcine respiratory coronavirus AR310 particles (105) were placed in direct contact with the fabric for 1 or 5 min. Following one minute of contact, zeta potential of the porcine coronavirus was significantly lowered indicating destabilization of its electrokinetic properties. Size-distribution plot showed appearance of aggregation of the virus. Testing of the cytopathic effects of the virus showed eradication of infectivity as quantitatively assessed by PI-calcein and MTT cell viability tests. This work provides the rationale to consider the studied electroceutical fabric, or other materials with comparable property, as material of choice for the development of PPE in the fight against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Electrochemistry/methods , Textiles , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents , Body Fluids , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Fluoresceins , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Kinetics , Nanoparticles , Propidium , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine , Temperature , Tetrazolium Salts , Thiazoles , Virion , Wound Healing
8.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103616, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471878

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of face masks by the public has helped to slow the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the community. Cloth masks have been recommended because of their effectiveness, availability, and reusability. Like other types of face masks, however, user discomfort while wearing cloth masks is thought to engender behaviors that limit the effectiveness of cloth masks as source control (e.g., adjusting or removing one's mask temporarily while in public). To design cloth masks that are more tolerable, a measurement instrument for assessing subjective user discomfort is needed. Across two studies, we identified and confirmed a two-dimensional factor structure underlying the discomfort of cloth masks - discomfort related to the breathability and discomfort related to the tightness of the mask against the face and head. Additionally, we provide replicable evidence that both factor-subscales predict the self-reported frequencies of problematic mask-wearing behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Textiles
9.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258191, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456093

ABSTRACT

Face coverings are a key component of preventive health measure strategies to mitigate the spread of respiratory illnesses. In this study five groups of masks were investigated that are of particular relevance to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: re-usable, fabric two-layer and multi-layer masks, disposable procedure/surgical masks, KN95 and N95 filtering facepiece respirators. Experimental work focussed on the particle penetration through mask materials as a function of particle diameter, and the total inward leakage protection performance of the mask system. Geometric mean fabric protection factors varied from 1.78 to 144.5 for the fabric two-layer and KN95 materials, corresponding to overall filtration efficiencies of 43.8% and 99.3% using a flow rate of 17 L/min, equivalent to a breathing expiration rate for a person in a sedentary or standing position conversing with another individual. Geometric mean total inward leakage protection factors for the 2-layer, multi-layer and procedure masks were <2.3, while 6.2 was achieved for the KN95 masks. The highest values were measured for the N95 group at 165.7. Mask performance is dominated by face seal leakage. Despite the additional filtering layers added to cloth masks, and the higher filtration efficiency of the materials used in disposable procedure and KN95 masks, the total inward leakage protection factor was only marginally improved. N95 FFRs were the only mask group investigated that provided not only high filtration efficiency but high total inward leakage protection, and remain the best option to protect individuals from exposure to aerosol in high risk settings. The Mask Quality Factor and total inward leakage performance are very useful to determine the best options for masking. However, it is highly recommended that testing is undertaken on prospective products, or guidance is sought from impartial authorities, to confirm they meet any implied standards.


Subject(s)
Filtration/instrumentation , Masks/statistics & numerical data , N95 Respirators/statistics & numerical data , Textiles , Equipment Reuse , Inhalation Exposure/prevention & control
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19216, 2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442804

ABSTRACT

Global health organizations recommend the use of cloth face coverings to slow the spread of COVID-19. Seemingly overnight, companies whose primary business is in no way related to healthcare or personal protective equipment-from mattresses manufacturers to big box stores-transitioned into the "mask business." Many companies advertise antimicrobial masks containing silver, copper, or other antimicrobials. Often, the techniques used to load such antimicrobials onto mask fibers are undisclosed, and the potential for metal leaching from these masks is yet unknown. We exposed nine so-called "antimicrobial" face masks (and one 100% cotton control mask) to deionized water, laundry detergent, and artificial saliva to quantify the leachable silver and copper that may occur during mask washing and wearing. Leaching varied widely across manufacturer, metal, and leaching solution, but in some cases was as high as 100% of the metals contained in the as-received mask after 1 h of exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks , Personal Protective Equipment , Anti-Infective Agents , Filtration , Humans , Masks/virology , Metals , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Textiles
11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(40): 16777-16785, 2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442692

ABSTRACT

The most recent global health crisis caused by the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak and the alarming use of chemical warfare agents highlight the necessity to produce efficient protective clothing and masks against biohazard and chemical threats. However, the development of a multifunctional protective textile is still behind to supply adequate protection for the public. To tackle this challenge, we designed multifunctional and regenerable N-chlorine based biocidal and detoxifying textiles using a robust zirconium metal-organic framework (MOF), UiO-66-NH2, as a chlorine carrier which can be easily coated on textile fibers. A chlorine bleaching converted the amine groups located on the MOF linker to active N-chlorine structures. The fibrous composite exhibited rapid biocidal activity against both Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus) with up to a 7 log reduction within 5 min for each strain as well as a 5 log reduction of SARS-CoV-2 within 15 min. Moreover, the active chlorine loaded MOF/fiber composite selectively and rapidly degraded sulfur mustard and its chemical simulant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) with half-lives less than 3 minutes. The versatile MOF-based fibrous composite designed here has the potential to serve as protective cloth against both biological and chemical threats.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chemical Warfare Agents/chemistry , Chlorine/pharmacology , Metal-Organic Frameworks/pharmacology , Protective Clothing , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Cell Line , Chlorine/chemistry , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Halogenation , Humans , Metal-Organic Frameworks/chemical synthesis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mustard Gas/analogs & derivatives , Mustard Gas/chemistry , Oxidation-Reduction , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Textiles , Zirconium/chemistry
12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(26): 30317-30325, 2021 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387130

ABSTRACT

Influenza A viruses (IAV) and SARS-CoV-2 can spread via liquid droplets and aerosols. Face masks and other personal protective equipment (PPE) can act as barriers that prevent the spread of these viruses. However, IAV and SARS-CoV-2 are stable for hours on various materials, which makes frequent and correct disposal of these PPE important. Metal ions embedded into PPE may inactivate respiratory viruses, but confounding factors such as adsorption of viruses make measuring and optimizing the inactivation characteristics difficult. Here, we used polyamide 6.6 (PA66) fibers containing embedded zinc ions and systematically investigated if these fibers can adsorb and inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and IAV H1N1 when woven into a fabric. We found that our PA66-based fabric decreased the IAV H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 titer by approximately 100-fold. Moreover, we found that the zinc content and the virus inactivating property of the fabric remained stable over 50 standardized washes. Overall, these results provide insights into the development of reusable PPE that offer protection against RNA virus spread.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/physiology , Nylons/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Textiles , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Zinc/pharmacology , Adsorption , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cotton Fiber , Dogs , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Ions , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Polypropylenes/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology
13.
ACS Nano ; 14(7): 9188-9200, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387153

ABSTRACT

Filtration efficiency (FE), differential pressure (ΔP), quality factor (QF), and construction parameters were measured for 32 cloth materials (14 cotton, 1 wool, 9 synthetic, 4 synthetic blends, and 4 synthetic/cotton blends) used in cloth masks intended for protection from the SARS-CoV-2 virus (diameter 100 ± 10 nm). Seven polypropylene-based fiber filter materials were also measured including surgical masks and N95 respirators. Additional measurements were performed on both multilayered and mixed-material samples of natural, synthetic, or natural-synthetic blends to mimic cloth mask construction methods. Materials were microimaged and tested against size selected NaCl aerosol with particle mobility diameters between 50 and 825 nm. Three of the top five best performing samples were woven 100% cotton with high to moderate yarn counts, and the other two were woven synthetics of moderate yarn counts. In contrast to recently published studies, samples utilizing mixed materials did not exhibit a significant difference in the measured FE when compared to the product of the individual FE for the components. The FE and ΔP increased monotonically with the number of cloth layers for a lightweight flannel, suggesting that multilayered cloth masks may offer increased protection from nanometer-sized aerosol with a maximum FE dictated by breathability (i.e., ΔP).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Masks/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiratory Protective Devices/standards , Textiles/standards , Aerosols/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Filtration , Humans , Masks/virology , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/virology , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , Respiratory Protective Devices/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Textiles/adverse effects , Textiles/virology
14.
ACS Nano ; 14(6): 7651-7658, 2020 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387149

ABSTRACT

Layered systems of commonly available fabric materials can be used by the public and healthcare providers in face masks to reduce the risk of inhaling viruses with protection that is about equivalent to or better than the filtration and adsorption offered by 5-layer N95 respirators. Over 70 different common fabric combinations and masks were evaluated under steady-state, forced convection air flux with pulsed aerosols that simulate forceful respiration. The aerosols contain fluorescent virus-like nanoparticles to track transmission through materials that greatly assist the accuracy of detection, thus avoiding artifacts including pore flooding and the loss of aerosol due to evaporation and droplet breakup. Effective materials comprise both absorbent, hydrophilic layers and barrier, hydrophobic layers. Although the hydrophobic layers can adhere virus-like nanoparticles, they may also repel droplets from adjacent absorbent layers and prevent wicking transport across the fabric system. Effective designs are noted with absorbent layers comprising terry cloth towel, quilting cotton, and flannel. Effective designs are noted with barrier layers comprising nonwoven polypropylene, polyester, and polyaramid.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Textiles , Aerosols , Air Microbiology , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Filtration , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Masks/supply & distribution , Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Particle Size , Permeability , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Water
15.
Ultrasonics ; 117: 106556, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364504

ABSTRACT

As a consequence of the large demand of face masks due to the COVID19 pandemic, cheap, fast and non-destructive tests that can verify in-line the variability of the filtration capacities, prove the potential disinfection and/or evaluate the performance of new filtering materials are needed. Using two different approaches based on air-coupled ultrasounds (0.15-1.6 MHz) with equivalent results, this work shows that each face mask presents a distinctive ultrasonic signature that enables the classification and the evaluation of their performance. Moreover, it is shown that the ultrasonic propagation through the face masks and the main filter layers takes place through the pore space and that low frequency response of the attenuation and the velocity is highly dispersive and is dominated by the interaction between the air in the pores and the fibers in the filters. Hence, the parameters that describe ultrasonic velocity, attenuation and dispersion can be related with their filtration efficiency and breathability. These techniques are fully contactless, non-invasive and fast.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Ultrasonics/methods , Equipment Design , Humans , Materials Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Textiles
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4876, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356557

ABSTRACT

While the printed circuit board (PCB) has been widely considered as the building block of integrated electronics, the world is switching to pursue new ways of merging integrated electronic circuits with textiles to create flexible and wearable devices. Herein, as an alternative for PCB, we described a non-printed integrated-circuit textile (NIT) for biomedical and theranostic application via a weaving method. All the devices are built as fibers or interlaced nodes and woven into a deformable textile integrated circuit. Built on an electrochemical gating principle, the fiber-woven-type transistors exhibit superior bending or stretching robustness, and were woven as a textile logical computing module to distinguish different emergencies. A fiber-type sweat sensor was woven with strain and light sensors fibers for simultaneously monitoring body health and the environment. With a photo-rechargeable energy textile based on a detailed power consumption analysis, the woven circuit textile is completely self-powered and capable of both wireless biomedical monitoring and early warning. The NIT could be used as a 24/7 private AI "nurse" for routine healthcare, diabetes monitoring, or emergencies such as hypoglycemia, metabolic alkalosis, and even COVID-19 patient care, a potential future on-body AI hardware and possibly a forerunner to fabric-like computers.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Precision Medicine/instrumentation , Textiles , Wearable Electronic Devices , Wireless Technology/instrumentation , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Equipment Design , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Precision Medicine/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sweat/physiology
17.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(11): 164, 2020 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343003

ABSTRACT

Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) are multi-copper oxidases that can degrade several xenobiotics, including textile dyes. Present study investigated the nature of laccase isoforms induced by 2,6-dimethylaniline in Cyathus bulleri cultivated on basal salt medium. Two isoforms, LacI and LacII were identified and purified by a combination of ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography. The MS spectrum of the two proteins displayed a number of non-identical and identical molecular peaks (m/z), and, the latter were mapped to protein originating from the previously reported Laccase (Lcc) 1 gene. The LacI isoform exhibited higher catalytic efficiency (Kcat/Km) towards 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, guaiacol and pyrogallol and was tolerant to high levels of chloride ions and resistant to EDTA. Higher decolorization of several dyes such as Direct Scarlet B (67%), Reactive Brilliant blue-R (96%), Direct Orange 34 (50%) and Reactive Red198 (95%) by the LacI isoform makes it a good candidate for degradation of synthetic dyes. The decolorization of Direct Orange 34 by laccases is being reported for the first time. Many of the properties exhibited by this isoform make it a good candidate for large scale production and applications for use in the dyeing industry.


Subject(s)
Coloring Agents/metabolism , Cyathus/metabolism , Laccase/metabolism , Textiles , Amino Acid Sequence , Aniline Compounds/metabolism , Culture Media/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Substrate Specificity , Sulfonic Acids/metabolism
18.
Nat Biotechnol ; 39(11): 1366-1374, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286462

ABSTRACT

Integrating synthetic biology into wearables could expand opportunities for noninvasive monitoring of physiological status, disease states and exposure to pathogens or toxins. However, the operation of synthetic circuits generally requires the presence of living, engineered bacteria, which has limited their application in wearables. Here we report lightweight, flexible substrates and textiles functionalized with freeze-dried, cell-free synthetic circuits, including CRISPR-based tools, that detect metabolites, chemicals and pathogen nucleic acid signatures. The wearable devices are activated upon rehydration from aqueous exposure events and report the presence of specific molecular targets by colorimetric changes or via an optical fiber network that detects fluorescent and luminescent outputs. The detection limits for nucleic acids rival current laboratory methods such as quantitative PCR. We demonstrate the development of a face mask with a lyophilized CRISPR sensor for wearable, noninvasive detection of SARS-CoV-2 at room temperature within 90 min, requiring no user intervention other than the press of a button.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Synthetic Biology , Wearable Electronic Devices , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Textiles
19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(26): 30317-30325, 2021 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284676

ABSTRACT

Influenza A viruses (IAV) and SARS-CoV-2 can spread via liquid droplets and aerosols. Face masks and other personal protective equipment (PPE) can act as barriers that prevent the spread of these viruses. However, IAV and SARS-CoV-2 are stable for hours on various materials, which makes frequent and correct disposal of these PPE important. Metal ions embedded into PPE may inactivate respiratory viruses, but confounding factors such as adsorption of viruses make measuring and optimizing the inactivation characteristics difficult. Here, we used polyamide 6.6 (PA66) fibers containing embedded zinc ions and systematically investigated if these fibers can adsorb and inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and IAV H1N1 when woven into a fabric. We found that our PA66-based fabric decreased the IAV H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2 titer by approximately 100-fold. Moreover, we found that the zinc content and the virus inactivating property of the fabric remained stable over 50 standardized washes. Overall, these results provide insights into the development of reusable PPE that offer protection against RNA virus spread.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/physiology , Nylons/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Textiles , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Zinc/pharmacology , Adsorption , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cotton Fiber , Dogs , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Ions , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Polypropylenes/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology
20.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 7(6): 2791-2802, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275857

ABSTRACT

Cloth masks can be an alternative to medical masks during pandemics. Recent studies have examined the performance of fabrics under various conditions; however, the performance against violent respiratory events such as human sneezes is yet to be explored. Accordingly, we present a comprehensive experimental study using sneezes by a healthy adult and a tailored image-based flow measurement diagnostic system evaluating all dimensions of protection of commonly available fabrics and their layered combinations: the respiratory droplet blocking efficiency, water resistance, and breathing resistance. Our results reveal that a well-designed cloth mask can outperform a three-layered surgical mask for such violent respiratory events. Specifically, increasing the number of layers significantly increases the droplet blocking efficiency, on average by ∼20 times per additional fabric layer. A minimum of three layers is necessary to resemble the droplet blocking performance of surgical masks, and a combination of cotton/linen (hydrophilic inner layer)-blends (middle layer)-polyester/nylon (hydrophobic outer layer) exhibited the best performance among overall indicators tested. In an optimum three-layered design, the average thread count should be greater than 200, and the porosity should be less than 2%. Furthermore, machine washing at 60 °C did not significantly impact the performance of cloth masks. These findings inform the design of high-performing homemade cloth masks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Textiles
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...