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1.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275376, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054379

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the relevance of evaluating the effectiveness of face masks-especially those made at home using a variety of materials-has become obvious. However, quantifying mask protection often requires sophisticated equipment. Using a frugal stain technique, here we quantify the "ballistic" droplets reaching a receptor from a jet-emitting source which mimics a coughing, sneezing or talking human-in real life, such droplets may host active SARS-CoV-2 virus able to replicate in the nasopharynx. We demonstrate that materials often used in home-made face masks block most of the droplets. Mimicking situations eventually found in daily life, we also show quantitatively that less liquid carried by ballistic droplets reaches a receptor when a blocking material is deployed near the source than when located near the receptor, which supports the paradigm that your face mask does protect you, but protects others even better than you. Finally, the blocking behavior can be quantitatively explained by a simple mechanical model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Textiles
2.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 24(10): 1855-1866, 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036940

ABSTRACT

Disposable wipes and masks have come to be considered as underestimated sources of microfiber generation since the emergence of COVID-19. However, research into the creation of microfibers due to wiping with these non-woven products is scarce, and the potential effects of fabric properties on shedding behavior are unclear. This study investigated microfiber release from 7 wet wipes, 5 dry wipes, and 4 masks in response to the use of simulated daily wiping conditions on artificial skin. The dry wipes (77-568 p per sheet) shed more microfibers than the wet ones (21-190 p per sheet) after 2, 10, or 50 wiping cycles under a 9.8 N wiping force. In addition, an average of 56 microfibers could be released from per gram of wipe, and each square centimeter of wipe could release about 1.18 microfibers during wiping. Masks shed fewer microfibers than wipes due to the excellent shedding resistance of spunbond nonwoven fabrics and the strengthened mechanical properties granted by bonding points. Cellulose, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polypropylene (PP) were the major polymers in the microfibers shed by wipes, and the microfibers from masks were all PP. With regard to the influencing factors, the number of microfibers shed from wipes was positively associated with the number of wiping cycles (r = 0.983 and 0.960, p < 0.01) and wiping force (r = 0.980, p < 0.05), while it was negatively correlated with the moisture content (r = -0.992, p < 0.01). Interestingly, a stronger fiber entanglement degree in the wipes significantly improved the resistance to microfiber generation (r = -0.664, p < 0.05). The results highlighted for the first time that the bending coefficient (ß = -5.05; 95% CI: -7.71, -2.40; p = 0.002) and fiber extraction force (ß = -0.077; 95% CI: -0.123, -0.030; p = 0.005) significantly reduced the tendency for microfiber shedding. Although the number of microfibers shed from wiping was lower than those from domestic washing, there is still an urgent need to control the microfiber shedding tendencies of non-woven products through improving the manufacturing processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Polypropylenes , Humans , Polyethylene Terephthalates , Textiles , Cellulose
3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(38): 43732-43740, 2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036745

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has increased the use of single-use medical fabrics such as surgical masks, respirators, and other personal protective equipment (PPE), which have faced worldwide supply chain shortages. Reusable PPE is desirable in light of such shortages; however, the use of reusable PPE is largely restricted by the difficulty of rapid sterilization. In this work, we demonstrate successful bacterial and viral inactivation through remote and rapid radio frequency (RF) heating of conductive textiles. The RF heating behavior of conductive polymer-coated fabrics was measured for several different fabrics and coating compositions. Next, to determine the robustness and repeatability of this heating response, we investigated the textile's RF heating response after multiple detergent washes. Finally, we show a rapid reduction of bacteria and virus by RF heating our conductive fabric. 99.9% of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was removed from our conductive fabrics after only 10 min of RF heating; human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was completely sterilized after 5 min of RF heating. These results demonstrate that RF heating conductive polymer-coated fabrics offer new opportunities for applications of conductive textiles in the medical and/or electronic fields.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Bacteria , COVID-19/prevention & control , Detergents , Heating , Humans , Pandemics , Polymers , Textiles/microbiology , Virus Inactivation
4.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0270718, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029769

ABSTRACT

Medical textiles are subject to particularly harsh disinfection procedures in healthcare settings where exposure risks are high. This work demonstrates a fabric treatment consisting of a reactive silver ink and low surface energy PDMS polymer that provides for superhydrophobicity and antiviral properties against enveloped herpes simplex virus stocks even after extended ultrasonic bleach washing. The antiviral properties of reactive silver ink has not been previously reported or compared with silver nanoparticles. The fabric treatment exhibits high static contact angles and low contact angle hysteresis with water, even after 300 minutes of ultrasonic bleach washing. Similarly, after this bleach washing treatment, the fabric treatment shows reductions of infectious virus quantities by about 2 logs compared to controls for enveloped viruses. The use of silver ink provides for better antiviral efficacy and durability compared to silver nanoparticles due to the use of reactive ionic silver, which demonstrates more conformal coverage of fabric microfibers and better adhesion. This study provides insights for improving the wash durability of antiviral silver fabric treatments and demonstrates a bleach wash durable, repellent antiviral treatment for reusable, functional personal protective equipment applications.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Metal Nanoparticles , Antiviral Agents , Hypochlorous Acid , Ink , Silver/pharmacology , Sodium Compounds , Textiles , Ultrasonics
5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 933-936, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018757

ABSTRACT

A sensorized face mask could be a useful tool in the case of a viral pandemic event, as well as the Covid-19 emergency. In the context of the proposed project "RESPIRE", we have developed a "Smart-Mask" able to collect the signal patterns of body temperature, respiration, and symptoms such as cough, through a set of textile sensors. The signals have been analyzed by Artificial Intelligence algorithms in order to compare them with gold standard measurements, and to recognize the physiological changes associated with a viral infection. This low-cost prototype of a smart face mask is a reliable tool for the estimation of the individual physiological parameters. Moreover, it enables both personal protection and the early and rapid identification and tracking of potentially infected individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Textiles
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997618

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic highlighted the importance of disinfection processes in health safety. Textiles and footwear have been identified as vectors for spreading infections. Therefore, their disinfection can be crucial to controlling pathogens' dissemination. The present work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercial disinfectant aerosolized by an ultrasonic nebulizer closet as an effective method for disinfecting textiles and footwear. The disinfection was evaluated in three steps: suspension tests; nebulization in a 0.08 m3 closet; nebulization in the upscaled 0.58 m3 closet. The disinfection process of textiles and footwear was followed by the use of bacteriophages, bacterial spores, and bacterial cells. The disinfection in the 0.58 m3 closet was efficient for textiles (4 log reduction) when bacteriophage Lambda, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus subtilis were used. The footwear disinfection was achieved (4 log reduction) in the 0.08 m3 closet for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Disinfection in an ultrasonic nebulization closet has advantages such as being quick, not wetting, being efficient on porous surfaces, and is performed at room temperature. Ultrasonic nebulization disinfection in a closet proves to be useful in clothing and footwear stores to prevent pathogen transmission by the items' widespread handling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfection , Disinfection/methods , Humans , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Textiles , Ultrasonics
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13260, 2022 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996870

ABSTRACT

Immersive ultraviolet disinfection provides a chemical-free technology for safer textiles, surfaces, and public spaces by inactivating communicable pathogens. This study examined immersive UV disinfection, using a disinfection cabinet, of E. coli and MS2 that was inoculated on white cotton T-shirts. The impact that porous materials have on UV disinfection is poorly understood with the majority of previous surface disinfection research focusing on hard, smooth surfaces. Several approaches were used in this study to characterize the light dynamics within the disinfection cabinet including colorimetric dosimetry coupons, biodosimetry, and spectroradiometry. Micro and macro geometry of porous surfaces are important factors to consider when using immersive UV technologies. The geometry of the cabinet impacted the distribution of emitted UV light within the disinfection cabinet and the physical properties of a porous material, such as the woven pattern of cotton, both contribute to UV disinfection efficiency. This work identified that light distribution is crucial for immersive UV technologies as the delivered fluence was highly variable within the disinfection cabinet and resulted in a difference of several logs of reduction for adjacent areas of T-shirt samples. Other inoculated areas achieved upwards of 1-log reductions values for MS2 and upwards of 2-log reductions for E. coli.


Subject(s)
Disinfection , Levivirus , Disinfection/methods , Escherichia coli , Textiles , Ultraviolet Rays
8.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994113

ABSTRACT

Some new N- and C-modified biomolecular peptide analogues of both VV-hemorphin-5 and VV-hemorphin-7 with varied amino acids (Cys, Glu, His), 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid, and niacin (nicotinic acid) were synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis-Fmoc (9-fluorenylmethoxy-carbonyl) chemistry and were characterized in water solutions with different pH using spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. Basic physicochemical properties related to the elucidation of the peptide structure at physiological pH have been also studied. The results showed that the interaction of peptide compounds with light and electricity preserves the structural and conformational integrity of the compounds in the solutions. Moreover, textile cotton fibers were modified with the new compounds and the binding of the peptides to the surface of the material was proved by FTIR and SEM analysis. Washing the material with an alkaline soap solution did not show a violation of the modified structure of the cotton. Antiviral activity against the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV-S2) and human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-5), the antimicrobial activity against B. cereus and P. aeruginosa used as model bacterial strains and cytotoxic effect of the peptide derivatives and modified cotton textile material has been evaluated. Antimicrobial tests showed promising activity of the newly synthesized compounds against the used Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The compounds C-V, H-V, AC-V, and AH-V were found slightly more active than NH7C and NCH7. The activity has been retained after the deposition of the compounds on cotton fibers.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Cotton Fiber , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Humans , Textiles
9.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 4): 114106, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983020

ABSTRACT

The use of disposable face masks increased rapidly among the general public to control the COVID-19 spread. Eventually, it increased the disposal of masks and their associated impacts on environmental pollution. Hence, this study aims to analyze the impact of nonwoven fabric structural parameters and weathering on the microfiber release characteristics. Spunbond polypropylene nonwoven with four different weights and meltblown nonwoven with two different weights were used in this study to analyze microfiber release at dry, and wet conditions to simulate improper disposal in the environment. Exposure to sunlight significantly increases the microfiber release from 35 to 50% for spunbond fabric and 56-89% for meltblown fabric. Weathering in sunlight structurally affected the tensile properties of the polypropylene fibers due to photodegradation. The study showed that each mask can produce 1.5 × 102 and 3.45 × 101 mg of microfiber/mask respectively in dry and wet states. In the case of structural parameters, a higher GSM (grams per square meter), abrasion resistance, bursting strength, and thickness showed a positive correlation with microfiber release in both fabrics. Significantly a higher microfiber release was reported with meltblown fabric than the spunbond for a given GSM. The presence of finer fibers and more fibers per unit area in meltblown fabric was noted as the main cause. Nonwoven fabric GSM and the number of fibers in a specific area showed a higher influence on microfiber release. Based on the mask consumption reported in the literature, India alone can produce around 4.27 × 102 tons of microfibers/week as an average of dry and wet conditions. The study suggests that the proper selection of physical parameters can significantly reduce the microfiber fiber release at all stages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Humans , India , Polypropylenes , Textiles
10.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 234: 112538, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966877

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) occasioned global economic and health systems collapse. Also, it raised several concerns about using conventional cotton fabrics for manufacturing personal protective equipment without the antimicrobial capacity to inactivate viruses, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants. Therefore, developing antimicrobial cotton fibers is crucial to avoid new global pandemics or the transmission of dangerous pathogens that remain on surfaces for long periods, especially in hospitals and medical clinics. Herein, we developed antimicrobial cotton fabrics with Ag, ZnO, and Ag/ZnO nanoparticles and evaluated their bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), photocatalytic activity, and antiviral activity against Delta SARS-CoV-2. Although the antimicrobial fabrics are effective against these bacteria, they only reduce part of the SARS-CoV-2 virions during the first 15 min of direct contact via damage only to biological structures on the viral surface particle while the viral RNA remains intact.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Zinc Oxide , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria , COVID-19/drug therapy , Escherichia coli , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcus aureus , Textiles , Zinc Oxide/chemistry , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924217

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to compare masks (non-medical/fabric, surgical, and N95 respirators) on filtration efficiency, differential pressure, and leakage with the goal of providing evidence to improve public health messaging. Masks were tested on an anthropometric face filtration mount, comparing both sealed and unsealed. Overall, surgical and N95 respirators provided significantly higher filtration efficiency (FE) and differential pressure (dP). Leakage comparisons are one of the most significant factors in mask efficiency. Higher weight and thicker fabric masks had significantly higher filtration efficiency. The findings of this study have important implications for communication and education regarding the use of masks to prevent the spread of COVID-19 and other respiratory illnesses, specifically the differences between sealed and unsealed masks. The type and fabric of facial masks and whether a mask is sealed or unsealed has a significant impact on the effectiveness of a mask. Findings related to differences between sealed and unsealed masks are of critical importance for health care workers. If a mask is not completely sealed around the edges of the wearer, FE for this personal protective equipment is misrepresented and may create a false sense of security. These results can inform efforts to educate health care workers and the public on the importance of proper mask fit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Protective Devices , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Masks , Personal Protective Equipment , Public Health , Textiles
12.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 5(7): 3405-3417, 2022 07 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921548

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants have rapidly spread worldwide, causing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with numerous infected cases and millions of deaths. Therefore, developing approaches to fight against COVID-19 is currently the most priority goal of the scientific community. As a sustainable solution to stop the spread of the virus, a green dip-coating method is utilized in the current work to prepare antiviral Ag-based coatings to treat cotton and synthetic fabrics, which are the base materials used in personal protective equipment such as gloves and gowns. Characterization results indicate the successful deposition of silver (Ag) and stabilizers on the cotton and polypropylene fiber surface, forming Ag coatings. The deposition of Ag and stabilizers on cotton and etched polypropylene (EPP) fabrics is dissimilar due to fiber surface behavior. The obtained results of biological tests reveal the excellent antibacterial property of treated fabrics with large zones of bacterial inhibition. Importantly, these treated fabrics exhibit an exceptional antiviral activity toward human coronavirus OC43 (hCoV-OC43), whose infection could be eliminated up to 99.8% when it was brought in contact with these fabrics after only a few tens of minutes. Moreover, the biological activity of treated fabrics is well maintained after a long period of up to 40 days of post-treatment.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Polypropylenes , SARS-CoV-2 , Textiles
13.
Environ Int ; 167: 107364, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895021

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the current COVID-19 pandemic, for the first time a significant fraction of the world's population cover their respiratory system for an extended period with mostly medical facemasks and textile masks. This new situation raises questions about the extent of mask related debris (fibers and particles) being released and inhaled and possible adverse effects on human health. This study aimed to quantify the debris release from a textile-based facemask in comparison to a surgical mask and a reference cotton textile using both liquid and air extraction. Under liquid extractions, cotton-based textiles released up to 29'452 ± 1'996 fibers g-1 textile while synthetic textiles released up to 1'030 ± 115 fibers g-1 textile. However, when the masks were subjected to air-based extraction scenarios, only a fraction (0.1-1.1%) of this fiber amount was released. Several metals including copper (up to 40.8 ± 0.9 µg g-1) and iron (up to 7.0 ± 0.3 µg g-1) were detected in acid dissolved textiles. Additionally the acute in vitro toxicity of size-fractionated liquid extracts (below and above 0.4 µm) were assessed on human alveolar basal epithelial cells. The current study shows no acute cytotoxicity response for all the analyzed facemasks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Textiles
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892854

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the effects of face masks on physiological and voice parameters, focusing on cyclists that perform incremental sports activity. Three healthy male subjects were monitored in a climatic chamber wearing three types of masks with different acoustic properties, breathing resistance, and air filtration performance. Masks A and B were surgical masks made of hydrophobic fabric and three layers of non-woven fabric of 100% polypropylene, respectively. Mask S was a multilayer cloth mask designed for sports activity. Mask B and Mask S behave similarly and show lower sound attenuation and sound transmission loss and lower breathing resistance than Mask A, although Mask A exhibits slightly higher filtration efficiency. Similar cheek temperatures were observed for Masks A and B, while a significantly higher temperature was measured with Mask S at incremental physical activity. No differences were found between the masks and the no-mask condition for voice monitoring. Overall, Mask B and Mask S are suitable for sports activities without adverse effects on voice production while ensuring good breathing resistance and filtration efficiency. These outcomes support choosing appropriate masks for sports activities, showing the best trade-off between breathing resistance and filtration efficiency, sound attenuation, and sound transmission loss.


Subject(s)
Masks , Textiles , Bicycling , Filtration , Humans , Male , Respiration
15.
Molecules ; 27(12)2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884289

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, textile laundering hygiene has proved to be a fundamental measure in preventing the spread of infections. The first part of our study evaluated the decontamination efficiency of various treatments (thermal, photothermal, and microwave) for bio contaminated textiles. The effects on textile decontamination of adding saturated steam into the drum of a household textile laundering machine were investigated and evaluated in the second part of our study. The results show that the thermal treatment, conducted in a convection heating chamber, provided a slight reduction in efficiency and did not ensure the complete inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus on cotton swatches. The photothermal treatment showed higher reduction efficiency on contaminated textile samples, while the microwave treatment (at 460 W for a period of 60 s) of bio contaminated cotton swatches containing higher moisture content provided satisfactory bacterial reduction efficiency (more than 7 log steps). Additionally, the treatment of textiles in the household washing machine with the injection of saturated steam into the washing drum and a mild agitation rhythm provided at least a 7 log step reduction in S. aureus. The photothermal treatment of bio contaminated cotton textiles showed promising reduction efficiency, while the microwave treatment and the treatment with saturated steam proved to be the most effective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Steam , Decontamination/methods , Humans , Microwaves , Pandemics , Staphylococcus aureus , Textiles
16.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0265126, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883657

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization has advocated mandatory face mask usage to combat the spread of COVID-19, with multilayer masks recommended for enhanced protection. However, this recommendation has not been widely adopted, with noncompliant persons citing discomfort during prolonged usage of face masks. And yet, a scientific understanding on how face mask fabrics/garment systems affect thermophysiological comfort remains lacking. We aimed to investigate how fabric/garment properties alter the thermal and evaporative resistances responsible for thermophysiological strain. We constructed 12 different layered facemasks (D1-D5, T1-T6, Q1) with various filters using commercially available fabrics. Three approaches were employed: (1) the evaporative and thermal resistances were measured in all the test face masks using the medium size to determine the effect of fabric properties; (2) the effect of face mask size by testing close-fitted (small), fitted (medium) and loose fitted (large) face mask T-6; (3) the effect of face mask fit by donning a large size face mask T-6, both loose and tightened using thermal manikin, Newton. ANOVA test revealed that the additional N95 middle layer filter has no significant effect on the thermal resistances of all the face masks, and evaporative resistances except for face masks T-2 and T-3 (P-values<0.05) whereas size significantly affected thermal and evaporative resistances (P-values<0.05). The correlation coefficient between the air gap size and the thermal and evaporative resistance of face masks T-6 were R2 = 0.96 and 0.98, respectively. The tight fit large face mask had superior performance in the dissipation of heat and moisture from the skin (P-values <0.05). Three-layer masks incorporating filters and water-resistant and antimicrobial/antiviral finishes did not increase discomfort. Interestingly, using face masks with fitters improved user comfort, decreasing thermal and evaporative resistances in direct opposition to the preconceived notion that safer masks decrease comfort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Manikins , Textiles
17.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(5)2022 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875483

ABSTRACT

Respiration monitoring is a very important indicator of health status. It can be used as a marker in the recognition of a variety of diseases, such as sleep apnea, asthma or cardiac arrest. The purpose of the present study is to overcome limitations of the current state of the art in the field of respiration monitoring systems. Our goal was the development of a lightweight handheld device with portable operation and low power consumption. The proposed approach includes a textile capacitive sensor with interdigitated electrodes embroidered into the facemask, integrated with readout electronics. Readout electronics is based on the direct interface of the capacitive sensor and a microcontroller through just one analog and one digital pin. The microcontroller board and sensor are powered by a smartphone or PC through a USB cable. The developed mobile application for the Android™ operating system offers reliable data acquisition and acts as a bridge for data transfer to the remote server. The embroidered sensor was initially tested in a humidity-controlled chamber connected to a commercial impedance analyzer. Finally, in situ testing with 10 volunteering subjects confirmed stable operation with reliable respiration monitoring.


Subject(s)
Masks , Respiration , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic , Smartphone , Textiles
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8630, 2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860389

ABSTRACT

We expanded a published mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission with complex, age-structured transmission and with laboratory-derived source and wearer protection efficacy estimates for a variety of face masks to estimate their impact on COVID-19 incidence and related mortality in the United States. The model was also improved to allow realistic age-structured transmission with a pre-specified R0 of transmission, and to include more compartments and parameters, e.g. for groups such as detected and undetected asymptomatic infectious cases who mask up at different rates. When masks are used at typically-observed population rates of 80% for those ≥ 65 years and 60% for those < 65 years, face masks are associated with 69% (cloth) to 78% (medical procedure mask) reductions in cumulative COVID-19 infections and 82% (cloth) to 87% (medical procedure mask) reductions in related deaths over a 6-month timeline in the model, assuming a basic reproductive number of 2.5. If cloth or medical procedure masks' source control and wearer protection efficacies are boosted about 30% each to 84% and 60% by cloth over medical procedure masking, fitters, or braces, the COVID-19 basic reproductive number of 2.5 could be reduced to an effective reproductive number ≤ 1.0, and from 6.0 to 2.3 for a variant of concern similar to delta (B.1.617.2). For variants of concern similar to omicron (B.1.1.529) or the sub-lineage BA.2, modeled reductions in effective reproduction number due to similar high quality, high prevalence mask wearing is more modest (to 3.9 and 5.0 from an R0 = 10.0 and 13.0, respectively). None-the-less, the ratio of incident risk for masked vs. non-masked populations still shows a benefit of wearing masks even with the higher R0 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Masks , Textiles , United States/epidemiology
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(12): 8350-8362, 2022 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838051

ABSTRACT

The pandemic revealed significant gaps in our understanding of the antiviral potential of porous textiles used for personal protective equipment and nonporous touch surfaces. What is the fate of a microbe when it encounters an abiotic surface? How can we change the microenvironment of materials to improve antimicrobial properties? Filling these gaps requires increasing data generation throughput. A method to accomplish this leverages the use of the enveloped bacteriophage ϕ6, an adjustable spacing multichannel pipette, and the statistical design opportunities inherent in the ordered array of the 24-well culture plate format, resulting in a semi-automated small drop assay. For 100 mm2 nonporous coupons of Cu and Zn, the reduction in ϕ6 infectivity fits first-order kinetics, resulting in half-lives (T50) of 4.2 ± 0.1 and 29.4 ± 1.6 min, respectively. In contrast, exposure to stainless steel has no significant effect on infectivity. For porous textiles, differences associated with composition, color, and surface treatment of samples are detected within 5 min of exposure. Half-lives for differently dyed Zn-containing fabrics from commercially available masks ranged from 2.1 ± 0.05 to 9.4 ± 0.2 min. A path toward full automation and the application of machine learning techniques to guide combinatorial material engineering is presented.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Bacteriophages , Porosity , Textiles
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785729

ABSTRACT

The development of affordable, effective, and environmentally friendly barrier fabrics is a current goal in antimicrobial textile development. The discovery of new routes to achieve non-toxic naturally occurring molecules with antimicrobial activity is of interest in the development of materials that promote wound healing, improve hygiene, and offer protection against nosocomial infection. Highly cleaned and sterile unbleached cotton has constituents that produce hydrogen peroxide at levels commensurate with those that favor cell signaling in wound healing. Here, we show the antimicrobial and antiviral properties of spunlaced griege cotton-containing nonwovens treated with ascorbic acid formulations. The mechanism of action occurs through the promotion of enhanced hydrogen peroxide activity. The levels of hydrogen peroxide activity afford antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and antiviral activity against MS2 bacteriophages. Spun-bond nonwoven unbleached cotton was treated with ascorbic acid using traditional pad-dry-cure methods. An assessment of antibacterial and antiviral activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and MS2 bacteriophages with the AATCC 100 test method showed a 99.99% inhibitory activity. An approach to the covalent attachment of ascorbic to cellulose through citric acid crosslinking chemistry is also discussed. Thus, a simple, low-cost approach to antimicrobial and antiviral cotton-based nonwovens applicable to dressings, nosocomial barrier fabrics, and face masks can be adopted by combining ascorbic acid with spunlace greige cotton nonwoven fabrics.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Cotton Fiber , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Gossypium , Hydrogen Peroxide , Textiles
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