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1.
Microbiol Res ; 272: 127388, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320562

ABSTRACT

The stability of SARS-CoV-2 for varying periods on a wide range of inanimate surfaces has raised concerns about surface transmission; however, there is still no evidence to confirm this route. In the present review, three variables affecting virus stability, namely temperature, relative humidity (RH), and initial virus titer, were considered from different experimental studies. The stability of SARS-CoV-2 on the surfaces of six different contact materials, namely plastic, metal, glass, protective equipment, paper, and fabric, and the factors affecting half-life period was systematically reviewed. The results showed that the half-life of SARS-CoV-2 on different contact materials was generally 2-10 h, up to 5 d, and as short as 30 min at 22 °C, whereas the half-life of SARS-CoV-2 on non-porous surfaces was generally 5-9 h d, up to 3 d, and as short as 4 min at 22 â„ƒ. The half-life on porous surfaces was generally 1-5 h, up to 2 d, and as short as 13 min at 22 °C. Therefore, the half-life period of SARS-CoV-2 on non-porous surfaces is longer than that on porous surfaces, and thehalf-life of the virus decreases with increasing temperature, whereas RH produces a stable negative inhibitory effect only in a specific humidity range. Various disinfection precautions can be implemented in daily life depending on the stability of SARS-CoV-2 on different surfaces to interrupt virus transmission, prevent COVID-19 infections, and avoid over-disinfection. Owing to the more stringent control of conditions in laboratory studies and the lack of evidence of transmission through surfaces in the real world, it is difficult to provide strong evidence for the efficiency of transmission of the contaminant from the surface to the human body. Therefore, we suggest that future research should focus on exploring the systematic study of the entire transmission process of the virus, which will provide a theoretical basis for optimizing global outbreak prevention and control measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Temperature , Textiles , Disinfection
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 18: 2307-2324, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315052

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has demonstrated the need for novel, affordable, and efficient reagents to help reduce viral transmission, especially in high-risk environments including medical treatment facilities, close quarters, and austere settings. We examined transition-metal nanozeolite suspensions and quaternary ammonium compounds as an antiviral surface coating for various textile materials. Methods: Zeolites are crystalline porous aluminosilicate materials, with the ability of ion-exchanging different cations. Nanozeolites (30 nm) were synthesized and then ion-exchanged with silver, zinc and copper ions. Benzalkonium nitrate (BZN) was examined as the quaternary ammonium ion (quat). Suspensions of these materials were tested for antiviral activity towards SARS-CoV-2 using plaque assay and immunostaining. Suspensions of the nanozeolite and quat were deposited on polyester and cotton fabrics and the ability of these textiles towards neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 was examined. Results: We hypothesized that transition metal ion containing zeolites, particularly silver and zinc (AM30) and silver and copper (AV30), would be effective in reducing the infectivity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Additionally, AM30 and AV30 antiviral potency was tested when combined with a quaternary ammonium carrier, BZN. Our results indicate that exposure of SARS-CoV-2 to AM30 and/or AV30 suspensions reduced viral loads with time and exhibited dose-dependence. Antiviral activities of the combination of zeolite and BZN compositions were significantly enhanced. When used in textiles, AM30 and AV30-coated cotton and polyester fabrics alone or in combination with BZN exhibited significant antiviral properties, which were maintained even after various stress tests, including washes, SARS-CoV-2-repeated exposures, or treatments with soil-like materials. Conclusion: This study shows the efficacy of transition metal nanozeolite formulations as novel antiviral agents and establishes that nanozeolite with silver and zinc ions (AM30) and nanozeolite with silver and copper ions (AV30) when combined with benzalkonium nitrate (BZN) quickly and continuously inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in suspension and on fabric materials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Zeolites , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Silver/chemistry , Copper , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds , Benzalkonium Compounds , Suspensions , Nitrates , Textiles , Zinc , Polyesters
3.
ACS Nano ; 17(3): 1739-1763, 2023 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308516

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 provided a warning sign for society worldwide: that is, we urgently need to explore effective strategies for combating unpredictable viral pandemics. Protective textiles such as surgery masks have played an important role in the mitigation of the COVID-19 pandemic, while revealing serious challenges in terms of supply, cross-infection risk, and environmental pollution. In this context, textiles with an antivirus functionality have attracted increasing attention, and many innovative proposals with exciting commercial possibilities have been reported over the past three years. In this review, we illustrate the progress of textile filtration for pandemics and summarize the recent development of antiviral textiles for personal protective purposes by cataloging them into three classes: metal-based, carbon-based, and polymer-based materials. We focused on the preparation routes of emerging antiviral textiles, providing a forward-looking perspective on their opportunities and challenges, to evaluate their efficacy, scale up their manufacturing processes, and expand their high-volume applications. Based on this review, we conclude that ideal antiviral textiles are characterized by a high filtration efficiency, reliable antiviral effect, long storage life, and recyclability. The expected manufacturing processes should be economically feasible, scalable, and quickly responsive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Textiles , Masks , Filtration
4.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 22(10): 1438-1449, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301205

ABSTRACT

The present article reviews the effects of the textile in the wound healing process, as well as the availability of these products in the market. A brief description of applications is given based on the literature obtained from searching the scientific databases, besides the data obtained from secondary sources, like books and congress proceedings. The historical context of the textiles used in wounds, their general characteristics, particularities in the healing process, and incorporation of new technologies are discussed. It was evidenced that the textiles and associated technologies might influence directly or indirectly the stimulation of collagen, cell migration, angiogenesis, and reduction of pro-inflammatory factors and fibroblasts. However, the mechanisms by which the textiles act in the healing process are not well established in the literature. The interaction among textile engineering, biotechnology, medicine, and pharmacology is essential for the improvement and development of new products with better efficiency and accessibility.


Subject(s)
Textiles , Wound Healing
5.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 4(5): 3891-3908, 2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265619

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has transformed the daily lifestyles of people worldwide. COVID-19 was characterized as a pandemic owing to its global spread, and technologies based on engineered materials that help to reduce the spread of infections have been reported. Nanotechnology present in materials with enhanced physicochemical properties and versatile chemical functionalization offer numerous ways to combat the disease. Facemasks are a reliable preventive measure, although they are not 100% effective against viral infections. Nonwoven materials, which are the key components of masks, act as barriers to the virus through filtration. However, there is a high chance of cross-infection because the used mask lacks virucidal properties and can become an additional source of infection. The combination of antiviral and filtration properties enhances the durability and reliability of masks, thereby reducing the likelihood of cross-infection. In this review, we focus on masks, from the manufacturing stage to practical applications, and their abilities to combat COVID-19. Herein, we discuss the impacts of masks on the environment, while considering safe industrial production in the future. Furthermore, we discuss available options for future research directions that do not negatively impact the environment.


Subject(s)
Masks/trends , Nanotechnology/trends , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Decontamination , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Equipment Design , Filtration , Humans , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , SARS-CoV-2 , Textiles
6.
Biomater Sci ; 11(10): 3502-3511, 2023 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271279

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work was to develop a filtering biocidal polypropylene (PP) nonwoven textile structure to block and inactivate airborne bacteria and viruses. PP filters were functionalized with a cyclodextrin (CD)-polycarboxylic acid-crosslinked polymer (PP-CD) through a pad/dry/curing process, and were then activated by padding in an alkyl dimethyl benzalkonium chloride (ADBAC) solution. The textile finishing process parameters were optimized with the perspective of mass production, considering the threshold temperature necessary for provoking crosslinking and the limitation of the low thermal stability of PP. The use of an aqueous solution containing hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HPßCD), 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA), ammonium hypophosphite (AH), and a surfactant allowed immobilization of the optimal quantity of cyclodextrin polymer under curing for 5 minutes at 125 °C without affecting the nonwoven PP structure. The presence of CD drastically increased the sorption of ADBAC on the textiles. There was leaching of ADBAC at the first rinsing and then satisfactory fastness at the second and third rinsings, revealing adsorption mechanisms by weak physical interactions, ionic interactions, and inclusion of ADBAC inside the CD cavities. SEM revealed no clogging of the nonwoven pores, nor any increase in the air flow resistance, as evaluated by pressure drop measurements. The filtration efficiency of particulate matter PM3.0 and PM0.5 was moderately affected, in contrast to that of PM0.3, which greatly decreased due to the loss of the electrostatic charge of the filter upon the functionalization process. Bactericidal tests resulted in a reduction of 3 log10 against Staphylococcus aureus, and for virucidal tests on human coronavirus HCoV-229E, there was a reduction of 3.4 log10, with both strains undergoing 20 minutes of contact. Finally, the filter we developed is manufacturable by a scalable process, and because of its filtration and biocidal performances, it is a choice material as a self-disinfecting layer in the fabrication of facepiece respirators.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Polypropylenes , Humans , Polypropylenes/chemistry , Masks , Filtration/methods , Textiles
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(17): 50938-50951, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277621

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of disposable masks in mitigating the transmission of COVID-19 infection increased the consumption of masks. The cheaper cost and easy accessibility resulted in massive consumption and disposal of non-woven masks. The improper disposal of mask emits microfiber into the environment upon weathering. This research mechanically recycled the disposed-of masks and developed fabric from reclaimed polypropylene (rPP) fibers. Obtained rPP fibers were blended with cotton in different proportions (50/50, 60/40, 70/30 cotton/rPP) to produce rotor-spun yarns and evaluated for their performance. The results of the analysis revealed that the developed blended yarns have enough strength; however, they are inferior to the 100% virgin cotton yarns. Based on its suitability, knitted fabrics were developed from 60/40 cotton/rPP yarn. Along with the physical properties, the microfiber release behavior of the developed fabric was analyzed at its different phases of the lifecycle (wearing, washing, degradation at disposal). The microfiber release was compared with the release characteristics of disposable masks. The results showed that recycled fabrics could release 2.32 microfiber/sq. cm during wearing, 4.91 microfiber/sq. cm in laundry, and 15.50 microfiber/sq. cm at the end-of-life disposal by weathering. In contrast, the mask can release 79.43, 96.07, and 223.66 microfiber/sq. cm, respectively, for use, immediate disposal, and long-term disposal by weathering. Approximately, an 83.17% reduction in the microfiber release was reported when the masks were recycled into fabrics. The compact structure of fabric where the fibers are made into yarn resulted in lesser fiber release. Mechanical recycling of disposable masks is simple, less energy-intensive, less expensive, and can be quickly adopted. However, a 100% elimination of microfiber release was not possible in this method due to the inherent nature of the textiles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Masks , Textiles
8.
Int J Pharm ; 636: 122790, 2023 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284953

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the development of a coating for cotton and polypropylene (PP) fabrics based on a polymeric matrix embedded with cuprous oxide nanoparticles (Cu2O@SDS NPs) in order to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and manufactured by a simple process using a dip-assisted layer-by-layer technology, at low curing temperature and without the need for expensive equipment, capable of achieving disinfection rates of up to 99%. The polymeric bilayer coating makes the surface of the fabrics hydrophilic, enabling the transportation of the virus-infected droplets to achieve the rapid inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by contact with the Cu2O@SDS NPs incorporated in the coated fabrics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Textiles , Polymers
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(13): 36325-36336, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280437

ABSTRACT

The current work focuses on designing a low-cost, reusable, and highly efficient facemask for protection from respiratory droplets that cause COVID-19, other infection-causing organisms, and dust allergies. Several masks available in the market are single-use that would choke the environment through plastic pollution or are expensive for the commoner to afford. In the present study, the facemask incorporates a waste-derived polyethylene terephthalate (PET) layer and a non-woven polypropylene (PP) layer sandwiched between two tightly woven cotton layers. Combining these layers provides comfort and breathability, besides high bacterial and particulate filtration efficiency. Moreover, the unique PET layer provides mechanical strength and a 3D shape that enables hindrance-free speaking and prevents spectacle fogging. Compared to commercial N95 masks, the developed mask can be reused up to 30 washes and recycled with zero waste discharge ensuing green technology. Moreover, the mask was produced at an affordable cost of Rs. 17 (0.22 USD), including labor charges, and sold at a 100% profit margin @ Rs.35 (0.45 USD) per unit. Further, the mask was certified by neutral testing agencies and provided to a population of more than 6 lakhs, thus significantly contributing to the mitigation of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Humans , Plastics , Textiles , Polyethylene Terephthalates , Preventive Health Services
10.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 9(2): 1116-1131, 2023 02 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234581

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of COVID-19 and emerging antimicrobial drug resistance highlights the need for sustainable technology that enables more preparedness and active control measures. It is thus important to have a reliable solution to avert the present situations as well as preserve nature for habitable life in the future. One time use of PPE kits is promoting the accumulation of nondegradable waste, which may pose an unforeseen challenge in the future. We have developed a biocompatible, biodegradable, and nonirritating nanoemulsion coating for textiles. The study focused on coating cotton fabric to functionalize it with broad spectrum antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. The nanoemulsion comprises spherical particles of chitosan, oleic acid, and eugenol that are cross-linked to fibers. The nanoemulsion caused complete destruction of pathogens even for the most rigid biofilms formed by drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans on the surface of the coated fabric. The secondary coat with beeswax imparts super hydrophobicity and 20 wash cycle resistance and leads to enhanced barrier properties with superior particulate filtration, bacterial filtration, and viral penetration efficiency as compared to an N95 respirator. The coated fabric qualifies as per standard parameters like breathability, flammability, splash resistance, and filtration efficiency for submicrometer particles, bacteria, and viruses. The scaleup and bulk manufacturing of the coating technology on fabric masks complied with standards. The consumer feedback rated the coated mask with high scores in breathability and comfortability as compared to an N95. The strategy promises to provide a long-term sustainable model compared to single use masks and PPE that will remain a nondegradable burden on the ecosystem for years to come.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Ecosystem , Masks , Textiles , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Biopolymers
11.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275376, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054379

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the relevance of evaluating the effectiveness of face masks-especially those made at home using a variety of materials-has become obvious. However, quantifying mask protection often requires sophisticated equipment. Using a frugal stain technique, here we quantify the "ballistic" droplets reaching a receptor from a jet-emitting source which mimics a coughing, sneezing or talking human-in real life, such droplets may host active SARS-CoV-2 virus able to replicate in the nasopharynx. We demonstrate that materials often used in home-made face masks block most of the droplets. Mimicking situations eventually found in daily life, we also show quantitatively that less liquid carried by ballistic droplets reaches a receptor when a blocking material is deployed near the source than when located near the receptor, which supports the paradigm that your face mask does protect you, but protects others even better than you. Finally, the blocking behavior can be quantitatively explained by a simple mechanical model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Textiles
12.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 24(10): 1855-1866, 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036940

ABSTRACT

Disposable wipes and masks have come to be considered as underestimated sources of microfiber generation since the emergence of COVID-19. However, research into the creation of microfibers due to wiping with these non-woven products is scarce, and the potential effects of fabric properties on shedding behavior are unclear. This study investigated microfiber release from 7 wet wipes, 5 dry wipes, and 4 masks in response to the use of simulated daily wiping conditions on artificial skin. The dry wipes (77-568 p per sheet) shed more microfibers than the wet ones (21-190 p per sheet) after 2, 10, or 50 wiping cycles under a 9.8 N wiping force. In addition, an average of 56 microfibers could be released from per gram of wipe, and each square centimeter of wipe could release about 1.18 microfibers during wiping. Masks shed fewer microfibers than wipes due to the excellent shedding resistance of spunbond nonwoven fabrics and the strengthened mechanical properties granted by bonding points. Cellulose, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polypropylene (PP) were the major polymers in the microfibers shed by wipes, and the microfibers from masks were all PP. With regard to the influencing factors, the number of microfibers shed from wipes was positively associated with the number of wiping cycles (r = 0.983 and 0.960, p < 0.01) and wiping force (r = 0.980, p < 0.05), while it was negatively correlated with the moisture content (r = -0.992, p < 0.01). Interestingly, a stronger fiber entanglement degree in the wipes significantly improved the resistance to microfiber generation (r = -0.664, p < 0.05). The results highlighted for the first time that the bending coefficient (ß = -5.05; 95% CI: -7.71, -2.40; p = 0.002) and fiber extraction force (ß = -0.077; 95% CI: -0.123, -0.030; p = 0.005) significantly reduced the tendency for microfiber shedding. Although the number of microfibers shed from wiping was lower than those from domestic washing, there is still an urgent need to control the microfiber shedding tendencies of non-woven products through improving the manufacturing processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Polypropylenes , Humans , Polyethylene Terephthalates , Textiles , Cellulose
13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(38): 43732-43740, 2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036745

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has increased the use of single-use medical fabrics such as surgical masks, respirators, and other personal protective equipment (PPE), which have faced worldwide supply chain shortages. Reusable PPE is desirable in light of such shortages; however, the use of reusable PPE is largely restricted by the difficulty of rapid sterilization. In this work, we demonstrate successful bacterial and viral inactivation through remote and rapid radio frequency (RF) heating of conductive textiles. The RF heating behavior of conductive polymer-coated fabrics was measured for several different fabrics and coating compositions. Next, to determine the robustness and repeatability of this heating response, we investigated the textile's RF heating response after multiple detergent washes. Finally, we show a rapid reduction of bacteria and virus by RF heating our conductive fabric. 99.9% of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was removed from our conductive fabrics after only 10 min of RF heating; human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was completely sterilized after 5 min of RF heating. These results demonstrate that RF heating conductive polymer-coated fabrics offer new opportunities for applications of conductive textiles in the medical and/or electronic fields.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Bacteria , COVID-19/prevention & control , Detergents , Heating , Humans , Pandemics , Polymers , Textiles/microbiology , Virus Inactivation
14.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0270718, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029769

ABSTRACT

Medical textiles are subject to particularly harsh disinfection procedures in healthcare settings where exposure risks are high. This work demonstrates a fabric treatment consisting of a reactive silver ink and low surface energy PDMS polymer that provides for superhydrophobicity and antiviral properties against enveloped herpes simplex virus stocks even after extended ultrasonic bleach washing. The antiviral properties of reactive silver ink has not been previously reported or compared with silver nanoparticles. The fabric treatment exhibits high static contact angles and low contact angle hysteresis with water, even after 300 minutes of ultrasonic bleach washing. Similarly, after this bleach washing treatment, the fabric treatment shows reductions of infectious virus quantities by about 2 logs compared to controls for enveloped viruses. The use of silver ink provides for better antiviral efficacy and durability compared to silver nanoparticles due to the use of reactive ionic silver, which demonstrates more conformal coverage of fabric microfibers and better adhesion. This study provides insights for improving the wash durability of antiviral silver fabric treatments and demonstrates a bleach wash durable, repellent antiviral treatment for reusable, functional personal protective equipment applications.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Metal Nanoparticles , Antiviral Agents , Hypochlorous Acid , Ink , Silver/pharmacology , Sodium Compounds , Textiles , Ultrasonics
15.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 933-936, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018757

ABSTRACT

A sensorized face mask could be a useful tool in the case of a viral pandemic event, as well as the Covid-19 emergency. In the context of the proposed project "RESPIRE", we have developed a "Smart-Mask" able to collect the signal patterns of body temperature, respiration, and symptoms such as cough, through a set of textile sensors. The signals have been analyzed by Artificial Intelligence algorithms in order to compare them with gold standard measurements, and to recognize the physiological changes associated with a viral infection. This low-cost prototype of a smart face mask is a reliable tool for the estimation of the individual physiological parameters. Moreover, it enables both personal protection and the early and rapid identification and tracking of potentially infected individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Textiles
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997618

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic highlighted the importance of disinfection processes in health safety. Textiles and footwear have been identified as vectors for spreading infections. Therefore, their disinfection can be crucial to controlling pathogens' dissemination. The present work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercial disinfectant aerosolized by an ultrasonic nebulizer closet as an effective method for disinfecting textiles and footwear. The disinfection was evaluated in three steps: suspension tests; nebulization in a 0.08 m3 closet; nebulization in the upscaled 0.58 m3 closet. The disinfection process of textiles and footwear was followed by the use of bacteriophages, bacterial spores, and bacterial cells. The disinfection in the 0.58 m3 closet was efficient for textiles (4 log reduction) when bacteriophage Lambda, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus subtilis were used. The footwear disinfection was achieved (4 log reduction) in the 0.08 m3 closet for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Disinfection in an ultrasonic nebulization closet has advantages such as being quick, not wetting, being efficient on porous surfaces, and is performed at room temperature. Ultrasonic nebulization disinfection in a closet proves to be useful in clothing and footwear stores to prevent pathogen transmission by the items' widespread handling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfection , Disinfection/methods , Humans , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Textiles , Ultrasonics
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13260, 2022 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996870

ABSTRACT

Immersive ultraviolet disinfection provides a chemical-free technology for safer textiles, surfaces, and public spaces by inactivating communicable pathogens. This study examined immersive UV disinfection, using a disinfection cabinet, of E. coli and MS2 that was inoculated on white cotton T-shirts. The impact that porous materials have on UV disinfection is poorly understood with the majority of previous surface disinfection research focusing on hard, smooth surfaces. Several approaches were used in this study to characterize the light dynamics within the disinfection cabinet including colorimetric dosimetry coupons, biodosimetry, and spectroradiometry. Micro and macro geometry of porous surfaces are important factors to consider when using immersive UV technologies. The geometry of the cabinet impacted the distribution of emitted UV light within the disinfection cabinet and the physical properties of a porous material, such as the woven pattern of cotton, both contribute to UV disinfection efficiency. This work identified that light distribution is crucial for immersive UV technologies as the delivered fluence was highly variable within the disinfection cabinet and resulted in a difference of several logs of reduction for adjacent areas of T-shirt samples. Other inoculated areas achieved upwards of 1-log reductions values for MS2 and upwards of 2-log reductions for E. coli.


Subject(s)
Disinfection , Levivirus , Disinfection/methods , Escherichia coli , Textiles , Ultraviolet Rays
18.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994113

ABSTRACT

Some new N- and C-modified biomolecular peptide analogues of both VV-hemorphin-5 and VV-hemorphin-7 with varied amino acids (Cys, Glu, His), 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid, and niacin (nicotinic acid) were synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis-Fmoc (9-fluorenylmethoxy-carbonyl) chemistry and were characterized in water solutions with different pH using spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. Basic physicochemical properties related to the elucidation of the peptide structure at physiological pH have been also studied. The results showed that the interaction of peptide compounds with light and electricity preserves the structural and conformational integrity of the compounds in the solutions. Moreover, textile cotton fibers were modified with the new compounds and the binding of the peptides to the surface of the material was proved by FTIR and SEM analysis. Washing the material with an alkaline soap solution did not show a violation of the modified structure of the cotton. Antiviral activity against the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV-S2) and human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-5), the antimicrobial activity against B. cereus and P. aeruginosa used as model bacterial strains and cytotoxic effect of the peptide derivatives and modified cotton textile material has been evaluated. Antimicrobial tests showed promising activity of the newly synthesized compounds against the used Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The compounds C-V, H-V, AC-V, and AH-V were found slightly more active than NH7C and NCH7. The activity has been retained after the deposition of the compounds on cotton fibers.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Cotton Fiber , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Humans , Textiles
19.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 4): 114106, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983020

ABSTRACT

The use of disposable face masks increased rapidly among the general public to control the COVID-19 spread. Eventually, it increased the disposal of masks and their associated impacts on environmental pollution. Hence, this study aims to analyze the impact of nonwoven fabric structural parameters and weathering on the microfiber release characteristics. Spunbond polypropylene nonwoven with four different weights and meltblown nonwoven with two different weights were used in this study to analyze microfiber release at dry, and wet conditions to simulate improper disposal in the environment. Exposure to sunlight significantly increases the microfiber release from 35 to 50% for spunbond fabric and 56-89% for meltblown fabric. Weathering in sunlight structurally affected the tensile properties of the polypropylene fibers due to photodegradation. The study showed that each mask can produce 1.5 × 102 and 3.45 × 101 mg of microfiber/mask respectively in dry and wet states. In the case of structural parameters, a higher GSM (grams per square meter), abrasion resistance, bursting strength, and thickness showed a positive correlation with microfiber release in both fabrics. Significantly a higher microfiber release was reported with meltblown fabric than the spunbond for a given GSM. The presence of finer fibers and more fibers per unit area in meltblown fabric was noted as the main cause. Nonwoven fabric GSM and the number of fibers in a specific area showed a higher influence on microfiber release. Based on the mask consumption reported in the literature, India alone can produce around 4.27 × 102 tons of microfibers/week as an average of dry and wet conditions. The study suggests that the proper selection of physical parameters can significantly reduce the microfiber fiber release at all stages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Humans , India , Polypropylenes , Textiles
20.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 234: 112538, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966877

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) occasioned global economic and health systems collapse. Also, it raised several concerns about using conventional cotton fabrics for manufacturing personal protective equipment without the antimicrobial capacity to inactivate viruses, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants. Therefore, developing antimicrobial cotton fibers is crucial to avoid new global pandemics or the transmission of dangerous pathogens that remain on surfaces for long periods, especially in hospitals and medical clinics. Herein, we developed antimicrobial cotton fabrics with Ag, ZnO, and Ag/ZnO nanoparticles and evaluated their bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), photocatalytic activity, and antiviral activity against Delta SARS-CoV-2. Although the antimicrobial fabrics are effective against these bacteria, they only reduce part of the SARS-CoV-2 virions during the first 15 min of direct contact via damage only to biological structures on the viral surface particle while the viral RNA remains intact.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Metal Nanoparticles , Zinc Oxide , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria , Escherichia coli , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcus aureus , Textiles , Zinc Oxide/chemistry , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology
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