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J Mol Cell Biol ; 13(3): 197-209, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145182


Although millions of patients have clinically recovered from COVID-19, little is known about the immune status of lymphocytes in these individuals. In this study, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a clinically recovered (CR) cohort were comparatively analyzed with those of an age- and sex-matched healthy donor cohort. We found that CD8+ T cells in the CR cohort had higher numbers of effector T cells and effector memory T cells but lower Tc1 (IFN-γ+), Tc2 (IL-4+), and Tc17 (IL-17A+) cell frequencies. The CD4+ T cells of the CR cohort were decreased in frequency, especially the central memory T cell subset. Moreover, CD4+ T cells in the CR cohort showed lower programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expression and had lower frequencies of Th1 (IFN-γ+), Th2 (IL-4+), Th17 (IL-17A+), and circulating follicular helper T (CXCR5+PD-1+) cells. Accordingly, the proportion of isotype-switched memory B cells (IgM-CD20hi) among B cells in the CR cohort showed a significantly lower proportion, although the level of the activation marker CD71 was elevated. For CD3-HLA-DR- lymphocytes in the CR cohort, in addition to lower levels of IFN-γ, granzyme B and T-bet, the correlation between T-bet and IFN-γ was not observed. Additionally, by taking into account the number of days after discharge, all the phenotypes associated with reduced function did not show a tendency toward recovery within 4‒11 weeks. The remarkable phenotypic alterations in lymphocytes in the CR cohort suggest that  severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection profoundly affects lymphocytes and potentially results in dysfunction even after clinical recovery.

CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/blood , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Lineage/genetics , Cell Lineage/immunology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Granzymes/genetics , Humans , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , T-Box Domain Proteins/genetics , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/virology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Th17 Cells/virology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/virology
Int Immunopharmacol ; 91: 107331, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065225


The present review provides an overview of recent advances regarding the function of Th17 cells and their produced cytokines in the progression of viral diseases. Viral infections alone do not lead to virus-induced malignancies, as both genetic and host safety factors are also involved in the occurrence of malignancies. Acquired immune responses, through the differentiation of Th17 cells, form the novel components of the Th17 cell pathway when reacting with viral infections all the way from the beginning to its final stages. As a result, instead of inducing the right immune responses, these events lead to the suppression of the immune system. In fact, the responses from Th17 cells during persistent viral infections causes chronic inflammation through the production of IL-17 and other cytokines which provide a favorable environment for tumor growth and its development. Additionally, during the past decade, these cells have been understood to be involved in tumor progression and metastasis. However, further research is required to understand Th17 cells' immune mechanisms in the vast variety of viral diseases. This review aims to determine the roles and effects of the immune system, especially Th17 cells, in the progression of viral diseases; which can be highly beneficial for the diagnosis and treatment of these infections.

Cell Transformation, Viral , Neoplasms/virology , Th17 Cells/virology , Tumor Virus Infections/virology , Viruses/pathogenicity , Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/metabolism , Th17 Cells/immunology , Th17 Cells/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment , Tumor Virus Infections/immunology , Tumor Virus Infections/metabolism , Viruses/immunology