Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114574, 2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373117

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gekko gecko is used as a traditional medicine for various diseases including respiratory disorders in northeast Asian countries, mainly Korea, Japan, and China. AIM OF THE STUDY: Allergic asthma is a chronic respiratory disease caused by an inappropriate immune response. Due to the recent spread of coronavirus disease 2019, interest in the treatment of pulmonary disorders has rapidly increased. In this study, we investigated the anti-asthmatic effects of G. gecko extract (GGE) using an established mouse model of ovalbumin-induced asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To evaluate the anti-asthmatic effects of GGE, we evaluated histological changes and the responses of inflammatory mediators related to allergic airway inflammation. Furthermore, we investigated the regulatory effects of GGE on type 2 helper T (Th2) cell activation. RESULTS: Administration of GGE attenuated asthmatic phenotypes, including inflammatory cell infiltration, mucus production, and expression of Th2 cytokines. Furthermore, GGE treatment reduced Th2 cell activation and differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that GGE alleviates allergic airway inflammation by regulating Th2 cell activation and differentiation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Mucus/metabolism , Ovalbumin , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Animals , Asthma/chemically induced , Asthma/pathology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19 , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Flow Cytometry , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pandemics , Th2 Cells/drug effects , Th2 Cells/immunology , Tryptamines/pharmacology
2.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 192, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lippia javanica (lemon bush) is commonly used in the treatment of respiratory ailments, including asthma in southern African countries but there is no scientific evidence to support this claim. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-asthmatic effects of L. javanica using a rat model of asthma. METHODS: A 5% w/v L. javanica tea infusion was prepared and characterised by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (LC-MS). Animals were intraperitoneally sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and subsequently challenged intranasal with OVA on day 15 except the control group. Animals were grouped (n = 5/group) for treatment: unsensitised control, sensitised control, sensitised + prednisolone and sensitised + L. javanica at 50 mg/kg/day and 100 mg/kg/day - equivalent to 1 and 2 cups of tea per day, respectively. After 2 weeks of treatment, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected for total and differential white blood cell (WBC) count. Nitric oxide (NO), lipid peroxidation and antioxidants were also assessed in BALF. Ovalbumin specific IgE antibody and inflammatory cytokines: IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-alpha were measured in serum. Lung and muscle tissues were histological examined. RESULTS: L. javanica was rich in phenolic compounds. OVA sensitisation resulted in development of allergic asthma in rats. L. javanica treatment resulted in a reduction in total WBC count as well as eosinophils, lymphocytes and neutrophils in BALF. L. javanica inhibited Th2-mediated immune response, which was evident by a decrease in serum IgE and inflammatory cytokines: IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-α. L. javanica treatment also reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO, and increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione and total antioxidant capacity. Histology showed significant attenuation of lung infiltration of inflammatory cells, alveolar thickening, and bronchiole smooth muscle thickening. CONCLUSION: L. javanica suppressed allergic airway inflammation by reducing Th2-mediated immune response and oxidative stress in OVA-sensitized rats which may be attributed to the presence of phenolic compound in the plant. This finding validates the traditional use of L. javanica in the treatment of respiratory disorders.


Subject(s)
Asthma/drug therapy , Lippia , Teas, Herbal , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Asthma/pathology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Eosinophils/metabolism , Glutathione/metabolism , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lung/pathology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Th2 Cells/drug effects
3.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 192, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296592

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lippia javanica (lemon bush) is commonly used in the treatment of respiratory ailments, including asthma in southern African countries but there is no scientific evidence to support this claim. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-asthmatic effects of L. javanica using a rat model of asthma. METHODS: A 5% w/v L. javanica tea infusion was prepared and characterised by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (LC-MS). Animals were intraperitoneally sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and subsequently challenged intranasal with OVA on day 15 except the control group. Animals were grouped (n = 5/group) for treatment: unsensitised control, sensitised control, sensitised + prednisolone and sensitised + L. javanica at 50 mg/kg/day and 100 mg/kg/day - equivalent to 1 and 2 cups of tea per day, respectively. After 2 weeks of treatment, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected for total and differential white blood cell (WBC) count. Nitric oxide (NO), lipid peroxidation and antioxidants were also assessed in BALF. Ovalbumin specific IgE antibody and inflammatory cytokines: IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-alpha were measured in serum. Lung and muscle tissues were histological examined. RESULTS: L. javanica was rich in phenolic compounds. OVA sensitisation resulted in development of allergic asthma in rats. L. javanica treatment resulted in a reduction in total WBC count as well as eosinophils, lymphocytes and neutrophils in BALF. L. javanica inhibited Th2-mediated immune response, which was evident by a decrease in serum IgE and inflammatory cytokines: IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and TNF-α. L. javanica treatment also reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO, and increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione and total antioxidant capacity. Histology showed significant attenuation of lung infiltration of inflammatory cells, alveolar thickening, and bronchiole smooth muscle thickening. CONCLUSION: L. javanica suppressed allergic airway inflammation by reducing Th2-mediated immune response and oxidative stress in OVA-sensitized rats which may be attributed to the presence of phenolic compound in the plant. This finding validates the traditional use of L. javanica in the treatment of respiratory disorders.


Subject(s)
Asthma/drug therapy , Lippia , Teas, Herbal , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Asthma/pathology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/cytology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Eosinophils/metabolism , Glutathione/metabolism , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lung/pathology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Th2 Cells/drug effects
4.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 904: 174193, 2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230460

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading rapidly in the world and is still taking a heavy toll. Studies show that cytokine storms and imbalances in T-helper (Th)1/Th2 play a significant role in most acute cases of the disease. A number of medications have been suggested to treat or control the disease but have been discontinued due to their side effects. Melatonin, as an intrinsic molecule, possesses pharmacological anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that decreases in concentration with age; as a result, older people are more prone to various diseases. In this study, patients who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were given a melatonin adjuvant (9 mg daily, orally) for fourteen days. In order to measure markers of Th1 and Th2 inflammatory cytokines (such as interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and interferon (IFN)-γ) as well as the expression of Th1 and Th2 regulatory genes (signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)4, STAT6, GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), and T-box expressed in T cell (T-bet)), blood samples were taken from patients at the beginning and end of the treatment. Adjuvant therapy with melatonin controlled and reduced inflammatory cytokines in patients with COVID-19. Melatonin also controlled and modulated the dysregulated genes that regulate the humoral and cellular immune systems mediated by Th1 and Th2. In this study, it was shown for the first time that melatonin can be used as a medicinal adjuvant with anti-inflammatory mechanism to reduce and control inflammatory cytokines by regulating the expression of Th1 and Th2 regulatory genes in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines/blood , Melatonin , Signal Transduction , Th1 Cells , Th2 Cells , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/immunology , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Melatonin/immunology , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology , Th1 Cells/drug effects , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/drug effects , Th2 Cells/immunology , Treatment Outcome
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 892-898, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206802

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has developed into a global pandemic within a matter of months. While subunit vaccines are one of the prominent options for combating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the immunogenicity of spike protein-based antigens remains unknown. When immunized in mice, the S1 domain induced much higher IgG and IgA antibody levels than the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and more efficiently neutralized SARS-CoV-2 when adjuvanted with alum. It is inferred that a large proportion of these neutralization epitopes are located in the S1 domain but outside the RBD and that some of these are spatial epitopes. This finding indicates that expression systems with posttranslational modification abilities are important to maintain the natural configurations of recombinant spike protein antigens and are critical for effective COVID-19 vaccines. Further, adjuvants prone to a Th1 response should be considered for S1-based subunit COVID-19 vaccines to reduce the potential risk of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/biosynthesis , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Alum Compounds/administration & dosage , Animals , Antigens, Viral/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunization , Immunization Schedule , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin A/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protein Domains/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Th1 Cells/drug effects , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/drug effects , Th2 Cells/immunology
6.
J Inorg Biochem ; 219: 111454, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157503

ABSTRACT

In recent years, some viruses have caused a grave crisis to global public health, especially the human coronavirus. A truly effective vaccine is therefore urgently needed. Vaccines should generally have two features: delivering antigens and modulating immunity. Adjuvants have an unshakable position in the battle against the virus. In addition to the perennial use of aluminium adjuvant, nanoparticles have become the developing adjuvant candidates due to their unique properties. Here we introduce several typical nanoparticles and their antivirus vaccine adjuvant applications. Finally, for the combating of the coronavirus, we propose several design points, hoping to provide ideas for the development of personalized vaccines and adjuvants and accelerate the clinical application of adjuvants.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemistry , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Aluminum/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/drug effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Calcium Phosphates/chemistry , Chitosan/chemistry , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Th1 Cells/drug effects , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/drug effects , Th2 Cells/immunology , Viral Vaccines/chemistry
7.
Vaccine ; 38(48): 7581-7584, 2020 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-845859

ABSTRACT

Today, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health emergency and vaccination measures to counter its diffusion are deemed necessary. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of the disease, unleashes a T-helper 2 immune response in those patients requiring intensive care. Here, we illustrate the immunological mechanism to train the immune system towards a more effective and less symptomatic T-helper 1 immune response, to be exploited against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Bacterial Vaccines/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Propionibacteriaceae/immunology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Corynebacterium , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Interleukins/genetics , Interleukins/immunology , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Th1 Cells/drug effects , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/virology , Th1-Th2 Balance/drug effects , Th2 Cells/drug effects , Th2 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/virology , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 892-898, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-661060

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has developed into a global pandemic within a matter of months. While subunit vaccines are one of the prominent options for combating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the immunogenicity of spike protein-based antigens remains unknown. When immunized in mice, the S1 domain induced much higher IgG and IgA antibody levels than the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and more efficiently neutralized SARS-CoV-2 when adjuvanted with alum. It is inferred that a large proportion of these neutralization epitopes are located in the S1 domain but outside the RBD and that some of these are spatial epitopes. This finding indicates that expression systems with posttranslational modification abilities are important to maintain the natural configurations of recombinant spike protein antigens and are critical for effective COVID-19 vaccines. Further, adjuvants prone to a Th1 response should be considered for S1-based subunit COVID-19 vaccines to reduce the potential risk of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/biosynthesis , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Alum Compounds/administration & dosage , Animals , Antigens, Viral/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunization , Immunization Schedule , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin A/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protein Domains/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Th1 Cells/drug effects , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/drug effects , Th2 Cells/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL