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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7): 1485-1488, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879397

ABSTRACT

A veterinarian in Thailand was diagnosed with COVID-19 after being sneezed on by an infected cat owned by an infected patient. Genetic study supported the hypothesis of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from the owner to the cat, and then from the cat to the veterinarian.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thailand/epidemiology
2.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(6)2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874550

ABSTRACT

Despite Thailand having had universal health coverage (UHC) with comprehensive benefit packages since 2002, services are neither listed nor budget earmarked for COVID-19 responses. Policy decisions were made immediately after the first outbreak in 2020 to fully fund a comprehensive benefit package for COVID-19. The Cabinet approved significant additional budget to respond to the unfolding pandemic. The comprehensive benefit package includes laboratory tests, contact tracing, active case findings, 14-day quarantine measures (including tests, food and lodging), field hospitals, ambulance services for referral, clinical services both at hospitals and in home and community isolation, vaccines and vaccination cost, all without copayment by users. No-fault compensation for adverse events or deaths following vaccination is also provided. Services were purchased from qualified public and private providers using the same rate, terms and conditions. The benefit package applies to everyone living in Thailand including Thai citizens and migrant workers. A standardised and comprehensive COVID-19 benefit package for Thai and non-Thai population without copayment facilitates universal and equitable access to care irrespective of capacity to pay and social status and nationality, all while aiming to supporting pandemic containment. Making essential services available, notably laboratory tests, through the engagement of qualified both public and private sectors boost supply side capacity. These policies and implementations in this paper are useful lessons for other low-income and middle-income countries on how UHC reinforces pandemic containment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Private Sector , Thailand/epidemiology , Universal Health Insurance
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869601

ABSTRACT

As there were strict limits on contact between health professionals and patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, telemedicine increased in importance with regard to improving the provision of health care and became the preferred method of care. This study aims to determine the topics of concern expressed by individuals with COVID-19 receiving care at home via teleconsultation. The qualitative study was conducted using secondary data of chat messages from 213 COVID-19 patients who had consented to online consultation with the health care team. The messages were sent during the home isolation period, which was between 29th October and 20th December 2021. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. All patients had consented to the use of their data. A small majority of the patients were female (58.69%). The average age was 32.26 ± 16.92 years. A total of 475 questions were generated by 150 patients during the isolation period. Nearly thirty percent (29.58%) never asked any questions. From the analysis, the questions could be divided into three themes including: (1) complex care system; (2) uncertainty about self-care and treatment plan with regard to lack of knowledges and skills; and (3) concern about recovery and returning to the community after COVID-19 infection. In conclusion, there were enquiries about many aspects of medical care during home isolation, detailed answers from professionals were useful for the self-care of patients and to provide guidance for their future health behavior. The importance of the service being user friendly and accessible to all became increasingly evident.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Remote Consultation , Telemedicine , Text Messaging , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Thailand/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869590

ABSTRACT

The postnatal period is an underserved aspect of maternity care, potentially worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to identify postnatal care (PNC) use by health personnel within the 42 days of childbirth among postpartum mothers in Thailand. This web-based, cross-sectional study was conducted from July to October 2021 (n = 840). Multiple binary and ordinal logistic regressions were conducted to predict three outcome variables (≥2 times, ≥3 times, or level of PNC use). Women who received PNC were in low numbers (≥2: 30.7% and (≥3: 12.9%), while 54.4% of women reported no barriers to access PNC, and 31.9% reported barriers, including worries over COVID-19 infection, followed by movement restrictions imposed by the government (11.7%) and the closure of healthcare centers (10%). Women working in a self-employed capacity, living in urban areas, and undergoing a Caesarean section with no/less worry about COVID-19 infection were more likely to utilize postnatal care (≥2 or number of PNC). This study provides timely information, revealing that a relatively low percentage of postpartum women received PNC, particularly among the socially deprived group. Since the fear of COVID infection is listed as a major barrier, the provision of PNC services, including a telehealth program should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maternal Health Services , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cesarean Section , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , Postnatal Care , Pregnancy , Thailand/epidemiology
5.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0264614, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Novel infectious diseases have the potential to both strengthen or weaken interpersonal relationships within a society. In a collectivist setting such as Thailand amplification of relationships may be particularly marked, but may be associated with individual factors, including personal values and perceived control over the virus. METHODS: A national on-street survey in Thailand (April 2020, N = 1,000), collected data from five regions across the country (response rate 82.6%). Participants reported demographics, anxiety, perceived control, and personal values of security and universalism, and indicated changes, from negative to positive, across four relationship types (relationship partners, family, friendships and neighbourhood). RESULTS: While relationship changes were small overall, there was an improvement in close relations (partners, family members) but not amongst friends and neighbours. Respondents who were married without children recorded less enhancement of partnerships, friendships and neighbourhood relations. Those with less perceived control over the infection reported relationship decline, while single people reported fewer positive changes in their partnership or family relations. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated the prioritisation of security was associated with a decline in each of the relationships, while universalism was positively associated with change in the family, in friendships and neighbourly relations. CONCLUSIONS: Personal values and marital status may impact on relationship functioning during a national health crisis. These issues should be considered by clinicians and health practitioners when trying to assist those struggling with interpersonal relations during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Friends , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Thailand/epidemiology
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862781

ABSTRACT

The continuous rise of the COVID-19 Omicron cases despite the vaccination program available has been progressing worldwide. To mitigate the COVID-19 contraction, different contact tracing applications have been utilized such as Thai Chana from Thailand. This study aimed to predict factors affecting the perceived usability of Thai Chana by integrating the Protection Motivation Theory and Technology Acceptance Theory considering the System Usability Scale, utilizing deep learning neural network and random forest classifier. A total of 800 respondents were collected through convenience sampling to measure different factors such as understanding COVID-19, perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, attitude towards using, intention to use, actual system use, and perceived usability. In total, 97.32% of the deep learning neural network showed that understanding COVID-19 presented the most significant factor affecting perceived usability. In addition, random forest classifier produced a 92% accuracy with a 0.00 standard deviation indicating that understanding COVID-19 and perceived vulnerability led to a very high perceived usability while perceived severity and perceived ease of use also led to a high perceived usability. The findings of this study could be considered by the government to promote the usage of contact tracing applications even in other countries. Finally, deep learning neural network and random forest classifier as machine learning algorithms may be utilized for predicting factors affecting human behavior in technology or system acceptance worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Mobile Applications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Thailand/epidemiology
7.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268704, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855032

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to measure the prevalence of burnout syndrome, anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic disorders (PTSD), as well as examine their associated factors among Thai healthcare workers (HCWs) during COVID-19 outbreak. METHOD: We employed a multiple-method design at a tertiary-care hospital in Bangkok between May 22, 2021 and June 30, 2021 by using an online survey. The information included demographic characteristics, work details, perceived support, PTSD symptoms, Maslach Burnout Inventory: General Survey (MBI-GS), General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2 and PHQ-9), and narrative response to an open-ended question. The associated factors of mental health problems were analysed by multiple logistic regression analyses. The qualitative data were analysed by the content analysis method. RESULTS: A total of 986 HCWs (89.1% female; mean age = 34.89 ± 11.05 years) responded to the survey. 16.3%,16%, and 53.5% of respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and diminished personal achievement, respectively. 33.1%, 13.8%, and 2.3% of respondents had anxiety, depression, and PTSD. Risk factors of emotional exhaustion were male sex (ORadj = 2.29), nurses (ORadj = 3.04), doctors (ORadj = 4.29), working at COVID-19 inpatient unit (ORadj = 2.97), and working at COVID-19 intensive care unit (ORadj = 3.00). Additionally, preexisting mental illness was associated with anxiety (ORadj = 2.89), depression (ORadj = 3.47), and PTSD (ORadj = 4.06). From qualitative analysis, participants reported that these factors would improve their mental health: supportive and respectful colleagues, appropriate financial compensation, reduced workload, clarity of policy and communication channel, and adequate personal protective equipment. CONCLUSIONS: Thai HCWs experienced negative mental health outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic substantially. This issue needs attention and actions should be implemented to support them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thailand/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8403, 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852501

ABSTRACT

In June-September 2021, we investigated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in domestic dogs and cats (n = 225) in Bangkok and the vicinities, Thailand. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in a dog and a cat from COVID-19 positive households. Whole genome sequence analysis identified SARS-CoV-2 delta variant of concern (B.1.617.2). Phylogenetic analysis showed that SARS-CoV-2 isolated from dog and cat were grouped into sublineage AY.30 and AY.85, respectively. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 could be detected in both dog (day 9) and cat (day 14) after viral RNA detection. This study raises awareness on spill-over of variant of concern in domestic animals due to human-animal interface. Thus, surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in domestic pets should be routinely conducted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thailand/epidemiology
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 133-137, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, which is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and its variants, poses an ongoing global threat, particularly in low-immunization coverage regions. Thus, rapid, accurate, and easy-to-perform diagnostic methods are in urgent demand to halt the spread of the virus. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to validate the clinical performance of the FastProof 30 min-TTR SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method using leftover RNA samples extracted from 315 nasopharyngeal swabs. The sensitivity and specificity of RT-LAMP were determined in comparison with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Of 315 nasopharyngeal swabs, viral RNA was detected in 154 samples (48.9%) by RT-PCR assay. Compared with RT-PCR, overall sensitivity and specificity of RT-LAMP were 81.82% (95% CI: 74.81-87.57) and 100% (95% CI: 97.73-100), respectively. A 100% positivity rate was achieved in samples with cycle threshold (Ct) <31 for RT-PCR targeting the ORF1ab gene. However, samples with Ct >31 accounted for false-negative results by RT-LAMP in 28 samples. CONCLUSIONS: RT-LAMP reliably detected viral RNA with high sensitivity and specificity and has potential application for mass screening of patients with acute COVID-19 infection when viral load is high.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thailand/epidemiology
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 472, 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interactions between humans and animals are the key elements of zoonotic spillover leading to zoonotic disease emergence. Research to understand the high-risk behaviors associated with disease transmission at the human-animal interface is limited, and few consider regional and local contexts. OBJECTIVE: This study employed an integrated behavioral-biological surveillance approach for the early detection of novel and known zoonotic viruses in potentially high-risk populations, in an effort to identify risk factors for spillover and to determine potential foci for risk-mitigation measures. METHOD: Participants were enrolled at two community-based sites (n = 472) in eastern and western Thailand and two hospital (clinical) sites (n = 206) in northeastern and central Thailand. A behavioral questionnaire was administered to understand participants' demographics, living conditions, health history, and animal-contact behaviors and attitudes. Biological specimens were tested for coronaviruses, filoviruses, flaviviruses, influenza viruses, and paramyxoviruses using pan (consensus) RNA Virus assays. RESULTS: Overall 61/678 (9%) of participants tested positive for the viral families screened which included influenza viruses (75%), paramyxoviruses (15%), human coronaviruses (3%), flaviviruses (3%), and enteroviruses (3%). The most salient predictors of reporting unusual symptoms (i.e., any illness or sickness that is not known or recognized in the community or diagnosed by medical providers) in the past year were having other household members who had unusual symptoms and being scratched or bitten by animals in the same year. Many participants reported raising and handling poultry (10.3% and 24.2%), swine (2%, 14.6%), and cattle (4.9%, 7.8%) and several participants also reported eating raw or undercooked meat of these animals (2.2%, 5.5%, 10.3% respectively). Twenty four participants (3.5%) reported handling bats or having bats in the house roof. Gender, age, and livelihood activities were shown to be significantly associated with participants' interactions with animals. Participants' knowledge of risks influenced their health-seeking behavior. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that there is a high level of interaction between humans, livestock, and wild animals in communities at sites we investigated in Thailand. This study highlights important differences among demographic and occupational risk factors as they relate to animal contact and zoonotic disease risk, which can be used by policymakers and local public health programs to build more effective surveillance strategies and behavior-focused interventions.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Animals , Animals, Wild , Cattle , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Humans , Poultry , Swine , Thailand/epidemiology , Zoonoses/epidemiology
11.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(4): 400-405, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers are considered to be at a higher risk of acquiring tuberculosis (TB) infection than the general population. Clinical medical students are part of the healthcare team and clinical practice are done during their clinical rotation. They could be exposed to similar occupational risks as the healthcare workers. Most students who become infected have latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and may not exhibit any clinical symptoms. Some students with LTBI can progress to TB disease during clinical rotations in the hospitals. Therefore, screening for LTBI in this population represents hospital aspect of public health strategy and infection control in medical school in high TB burden countries. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the prevalence of LTBI among fourth-year medical students and sixth-year medical students by using QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus) and Tuberculin Skin Test (TST). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of fourth-year medical students (n = 73) and sixth-year medical students (n = 85) was conducted at the School of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand. The medical students (n = 158) who met the eligibility criteria were recruited into the study. LTBI was detected by using QFT-Plus and some of the participants had a tuberculin skin test (TST). The TST was interpreted after 48-72 h. The participants who tested positive by QFT-Plus were considered to have LTBI. Demographic information and data on occupational TB exposure were collected via a questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression was used to test for associations between independent variables and results of the QFT-Plus. RESULTS: A total of 158 participants were included in this study. The overall prevalence of LTBI was 6.3% (n = 10) as determined by QFT-Plus. The LTBI prevalence was higher in the sixth-year medical students (9.4%) compared to the fourth-year medical students (2.7%). Higher risk of LTBI was associated with sixth-year medical students (odds ratio, 3.69 [95%CI, 0.75-17.96]), but this was not significant. Moreover, history of occupational TB exposure without PPE yielded an odds ratio of 2.98 [95%CI, 0.68-13.12] but it was not statistically significant due to the small sample size. One hundred thirty-nine (88%) participants were BCG vaccinated as per the national vaccination requirements. No abnormal chest X-rays were found for any of the positive participants. Of the 158 participants, 41 (25.9%) of them had TST. Of the 41 participants, 6 (14.6%) tested positive at a cut-off of ≥ 10 mm for TST, which was concordant with QFT-Plus results. The agreement between the two tests was 0.57 using kappa coefficients. CONCLUSION: The screening of TB infection in new healthcare workers (HCWs), especially medical students, is essential to reduce future nosocomial TB incidences in the hospitals. This study showed that there was a high prevalence of LTBI among sixth-year medical students compared to fourth-year medical students. Our results suggest that tendency of higher LTBI prevalence might be associated with advanced clinical years, thus tailored public health education strategy and infection control in tertiary care hospitals for new healthcare workers in TB endemic countries may prevent nosocomial TB disease from developing in the future. Therefore, active surveillance should be done for all new HCWs, and TB preventive therapy should be administered to recent converters.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Latent Tuberculosis , Students, Medical , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Interferon-gamma Release Tests , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Prevalence , Thailand/epidemiology , Tuberculin Test
12.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 48: 102348, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819613

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has promoted stringent public health measures such as hand hygiene, face mask wearing, and physical distancing to contain the spread of the viral infection. In this retrospective study, the secondary outcomes of those public health measures on containing other respiratory infections among the Thai population were investigated. Hospitalization data spanning from 2016 to 2021 of six respiratory infectious diseases, namely influenza, measles, pertussis, pneumonia, scarlet fever, and tuberculosis (TB), were examined. First, the expected respiratory infectious cases where no public health measures are in place are estimated using the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model. Then the expected number of cases and the observed cases were compared. The results showed a significant drop in the incidence of respiratory infectious diseases by an average of 61%. The reduction in hospitalization is significant for influenza, measles, pertussis, pneumonia, and scarlet fever (p < 0.05), while insignificant for TB (p = 0.54). The notable decrease in the incidence of cases is ascribed to the implementation of public health measures that minimized the opportunity for spread of disease. This decline in cases following relaxation of pandemic countermeasure is contingent on its scope and nature, and it is proof that selective physical distancing, hand hygiene, and use of face masks in public places is a viable route for mitigating respiratory morbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Influenza, Human , Measles , Scarlet Fever , Whooping Cough , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Scarlet Fever/epidemiology , Thailand/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/epidemiology
13.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0263316, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817477

ABSTRACT

This study determined the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 4964 individuals, comprising 300 coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) prepandemic serum samples, 142 COVID-19 patients, 2113 individuals at risk due to their occupations, 1856 individuals at risk due to sharing workplaces or communities with COVID-19 patients, and 553 Thai citizens returning after spending extended periods of time in countries with a high disease prevalence. We recruited participants between May 2020 and May 2021, which spanned the first two epidemic waves and part of the third wave of the COVID-19 outbreaks in Thailand. Their sera were tested in a microneutralization and a chemiluminescence immunoassay for IgG against the N protein. Furthermore, we performed an immunofluorescence assay to resolve discordant results between the two assays. None of the prepandemic sera contained anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, while antibodies developed in 88% (15 of 17) of the COVID-19 patients at 8-14 days and in 94-100% of the patients between 15 and 60 days after disease onset. Neutralizing antibodies persisted for at least 8 months, longer than IgG antibodies. Of the 2113 individuals at risk due to their occupation, none of the health providers, airport officers, or public transport drivers were seropositive, while antibodies were present in 0.44% of entertainment workers. Among the 1856 individuals at risk due to sharing workplaces or communities with COVID-19 patients, seropositivity was present in 1.9, 1.5, and 7.5% of the Bangkok residents during the three epidemic waves, respectively, and in 1.3% of the Chiang Mai people during the first epidemic wave. The antibody prevalence varied between 6.5 and 47.0% in 553 Thai people returning from high-risk countries. This serosurveillance study found a low infection rate of SARS-CoV-2 in Thailand before the emergence of the Delta variant in late May 2021. The findings support the Ministry of Public Health's data, which are based on numbers of patients and contact tracing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Thailand/epidemiology
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 357, 2022 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is associated with increased risk for severe COVID-19. Few studies have examined knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to pregnancy during the pandemic. This study investigated the association between socio-demographic characteristics and KAP related to COVID-19 among pregnant women in an urban community in Thailand. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was distributed among pregnant women in Bangkok, Thailand from July-August 2021. Binary logistic regression was conducted to test the association between socio-demographic characteristics and KAP related to COVID-19, and a Spearman's analysis tested correlations between KAP scores. RESULTS: A total of 150 pregnancy survey responses were received. Most participants were third trimester (27-40 weeks gestation; 68.0%). Pregnancy had never been risked contracting COVID-19 (84.7%). Most expressed concerns about being infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy and following birth (94.0 and 70.0%, respectively). The results of binary logistic regression analysis found associations between knowledge and marital status (OR = 4.983, 95%CI 1.894-13.107). In addition, having a bachelor's degree or higher was associated with higher attitude scores (OR = 2.733, 95%CI 1.045-7.149), as was being aged 26-30 (OR = 2.413 95%CI 0.882-6.602) and 31-35 years of age (OR = 2.518-2.664, 95%CI 0.841-8.442). Higher practice scores were associated with having a bachelor's degree or higher (OR = 2.285 95%CI 1.110-6.146), and income ≥15,001 bath (OR = 4.747 95%CI 1.588-14.192). Correlation analysis found a weak positive correlation between knowledge and practice scores (r = 0.210, p-value = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Participants overall had high KAP scores. This study can guide public health strategies regarding pregnant women and COVID-19. We recommend that interventions to improve and attitude and practice scores. Knowledge on pregnancy and COVID-19 should focus on reducing fear and improving attitudes toward the care of patients as well as the promotion of preventive practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Parturition , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thailand/epidemiology
15.
Epilepsia Open ; 7(2): 325-331, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782589

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) measures on the hospitalization of patients with epilepsy and status epilepticus (SE). METHODS: This interrupted time series design included data from the Thai Universal Coverage Scheme electronic database between January 2017 and September 2020. The monthly hospitalization rate of epilepsy and SE was calculated by the number of hospitalizations divided by the midyear population. Segmented regression fitted by ordinary least squares (OLS) was used to detect the immediate and overtime effects of COVID-19 measures on the hospitalization rate. RESULTS: During January 2017 and September 2020, the numbers of epilepsy and SE patients admitted to the hospital were 129 402 and 15 547 episodes, respectively. The monthly trend of the hospitalization rate in epilepsy decreased immediately after the COVID-19 measure (0.739 per 100 000 population [95% CI: 0.219 to 1.260]). In particular, the number of children declined to 1.178 per 100 000 population, and the number of elderly individuals dropped to 0.467 per 100 000 population, while there was a nonstatistically significant change in SE. SIGNIFICANCE: COVID-19 measures reduced the hospital rate in epilepsy, particularly in children and adults. However, there was no change in SE patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Status Epilepticus , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Epilepsy/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Status Epilepticus/diagnosis , Status Epilepticus/epidemiology , Status Epilepticus/therapy , Thailand/epidemiology
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(4)2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776283

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: The pandemic of COVID-19 is a global concern requiring urgent and effective action. However, the data on prevention practices and the impact of COVID-19 among the Thai population have not been clearly described. This study aimed to examine the knowledge, attitudes, perception, practices, and factors predicting practices in the prevention of COVID-19 and to study the impact of COVID-19 on people's livelihoods. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed between April and November 2020. A questionnaire eliciting demographic data and information on knowledge, attitudes, perception, prevention practices, and impact of COVID-19 was given to 500 people who lived in Chiang Mai, and 480 usable questionnaires were returned, for a response rate of 96.0%. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate linear regression. Results: Less than half of the participants had a high level of knowledge (45.4%) about COVID-19. Most of them had a high level of attitudes (95.6%), perception (72.1%), and prevention practices (90.4%). Female (ß = 0.11, p = 0.006), patient status (ß = 0.17, p < 0.001), knowledge (ß = -0.10, p = 0.020), attitudes (ß = 0.37, p < 0.001), and perception (ß = 0.21, p < 0.001) about COVID-19 prevention were the predicting factors for overall prevention practices (R2 = 0.288). Most participants perceived the overall impact of COVID-19 at moderate and high levels (47.1 and 37.8%, respectively). The highest impact was an economic burden, followed by psychological, social, and physical impacts. Conclusions: Policymakers should enhance attitudes and perception about COVID-19 prevention to improve the COVID-19 prevention practices. This may help to reduce the new cases of COVID-19 and may result in reducing the impact of COVID-19 on people's livelihoods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thailand/epidemiology
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776239

ABSTRACT

Thai Chana is one of the mobile applications for COVID-19 disease-control tracking, especially among the Thais. The purpose of this study was to determine factors affecting the perceived usability of Thai Chana by integrating protection motivation theory, the extended technology acceptance model, and the system usability scale. In all, 800 Thais participated and filled an online questionnaire with 56 questions during the early COVID-19 omicron period (15 December 2021 to 14 January 2022). Structural equation modeling (SEM) showed that the understanding of COVID-19 has significant effects on perceived severity and perceived vulnerability, which subsequently leads to perceived usefulness. In addition, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have significant direct effects on attitude, which subsequently leads to the intention to use, actual use, and perceived usability. This study is one of the first studies that have analyzed the mobile application for COVID-19 disease-control tracking. The significant and substantial findings can be used for a theoretical foundation, particularly in designing a new mobile application for disease-control tracking worldwide. Finally, protection motivation theory, the extended technology acceptance model, and the system usability scale can be used for evaluating other disease-control tracking mobile applications worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Humans , Intention , Thailand/epidemiology
18.
Leadersh Health Serv (Bradf Engl) ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774537

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Covid-19 cases are rising at a high rate in Thailand. Thailand's administration has formulated many initiatives to combat the spread of coronavirus. However, during a pandemic, health-care workers have a diverse range of tasks that make it more challenging to continue working in hospitals. Consequently, the authors modeled the turnover intentions of health-care personnel to capture relevant psychological aspects of employees during the pandemic. Specifically, this study aims to focused on the moderating role of Covid-19 burnout (CBO) in the relationship between transformational leadership (TL) and job turnover intentions (JTI) with job satisfaction (JS) and knowledge hiding (KH) as mediators. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: This research collected data using self-administered questionnaire. A two-stage partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) is carried out as an analysis technique to measure the linear relationship among constructs. The study tests hypotheses (direct and indirect effects) using 310 sample size of health-care personnel. FINDINGS: The findings indicated that CBO intensified the JTI of health-care personnel and strengthened the association of JS and KH with JTI during the Covid-19 pandemic. TL had a negative indirect effect on JTI. In addition, JS had a negative impact on JTI. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The study highlights the importance of TL and JS as ways to reduce or alleviate JTI in health-care personnel during the Covid-19 pandemic in Thailand. Furthermore, CBO and KH can enhance JTI in health-care personnel.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Intention , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thailand/epidemiology
19.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265733, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759960

ABSTRACT

Dry eye disease (DED) is one of the most common ophthalmological disorders, resulting from several systemic and ocular etiologies including meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). During the COVID-19 pandemic, medical students are among the high-risk group for DED, mainly due to the increasing use of a visual display terminal (VDT) for online lectures and psychological stress from encountering several changes. Our study aimed to explore the prevalence of DED using the symptom-based definition and potential risk factors in medical students. This is a prospective cross-sectional study that included medical students at Chiang Mai University between November 2020 and January 2021. All participants were assessed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, the Thai version of the 10-Item Perceived Stress Scale-10 (T-PSS-10), the LipiView® II interferometer, and an interview for other possible risk factors. Overall, 528 participants were included in the study; half of the participants were female. The prevalence of DED was 70.8%. In the univariate analysis, female sex, contact lens wear, and T-PSS-10 stress scores were significantly higher in the DED group (P = 0.002, 0.002, and <0.001, respectively). Moreover, participants with severe DED were likely to have higher meibomian gland tortuosity but not statistically significant. In the multivariate analysis, contact lens use and T-PSS-10 score were significant risk factors associated with the severity of DED. In conclusions, the prevalence of DED in medical students was as high as 70.8%. Contact lens use and psychological stress evaluated using the T-PSS-10 questionnaire had a significant correlation with a risk of DED. Female gender and duration of VDT use were also associated. Most of the risk factors were modifiable and may be used as initial management in patients with DED.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dry Eye Syndromes/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Screen Time , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Dry Eye Syndromes/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Occupational Stress/complications , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Students, Medical/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thailand/epidemiology , Young Adult
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