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1.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 56(3): 212-220, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233931

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study compared the epidemiological and clinical manifestations of patients hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic at a tertiary care hospital in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. METHODS: This retrospective observational study utilized data from all cases of laboratory-confirmed RSV infection at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital from January 2016 to December 2021. Differences in the clinical presentation of RSV infection before (2016 to 2019) and during (2020 to 2021) the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: In total, 358 patients hospitalized with RSV infections were reported from January 2016 to December 2021. During the COVID-19 pandemic, only 74 cases of hospitalized RSV infection were reported. Compared to pre-pandemic levels, the clinical presentations of RSV infection showed statistically significant decreases in fever on admission (p=0.004), productive cough (p=0.004), sputum (p=0.003), nausea (p=0.03), cyanosis (p=0.004), pallor (p<0.001), diarrhea (p<0.001), and chest pain (p<0.001). Furthermore, vigilant measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19, including lockdowns, also interrupted the RSV season in Thailand from 2020 to 2021. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of RSV infection was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, which also changed the clinical presentation and seasonal pattern of RSV infection in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Child , Humans , Infant , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Child, Hospitalized , Pandemics , Thailand/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control
2.
BMC Womens Health ; 23(1): 294, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic drastically affected societies globally, prompting rising unemployment, insufficient household incomes, and stress and undermining women's and children's health within families. This study examined family violence and identified influencing factors during the COVID-19 pandemic in Thailand. METHODS: A mixed-method design was used, entailing a questionnaire followed by focus group interviews. A cross-sectional survey was administered to investigate family violence among 1285 female respondents aged 15 years and above who were recruited through stratified sampling. The Cronbach alpha and and inter-raters Kappa coefficient values for the questionnaire were 0.67 and 1.00, respectively. In addition, a descriptive qualitative instrument was employed to analyze the data sets from four focus group interviews held with 32 staff members from agencies that deal with family violence. The researchers jointly developed the focus group questions, which focused on the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on family violence. They independently analyzed data using content analysis. RESULTS: The majority of the study participants were aged above 45 years (>50%), married (61.1%), lived in single-family settings (52.5%), had lost their jobs (64.4%), and had economic constraints that were moderate (37.8%) to severe (40.6%). The prevalence of family violence, which was primarily physical, was 42.2%. Family income, stress, and substance abuse were the main factors associated with family violence. These findings were correlated with those from the qualitative interviews. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had indirect impacts through family violence. Women were subjected to family violence behaviors, which were associated with household income, economic status, stress, and substance abuse. These behaviors included psychological and physical violence, as well as sexual abuse. Future interventions should focus on financial support and stress reduction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Intimate Partner Violence , Substance-Related Disorders , Child , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Women's Health , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Thailand/epidemiology , Pandemics , Child Health , Risk Factors
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(11)2023 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A 70% vaccination rate against COVID-19 in the general population was required for re-opening Phuket tourist industry. However, prior to this research, 39.61% of older people remained unvaccinated. This study aimed to examine perceptions and intentions around COVID-19 vaccination amongst older people and to explore the reasons and factors influencing their decisions to receive or refuse vaccination. METHODS: This was a mixed-methods approach with a sequential explanatory design. We conducted an online survey and semi-structured qualitative interview with a subsample. Multinomial logistic regression was applied and thematic content analysis was conducted. RESULTS: 92.4% of participants reported intention to receive the vaccine. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that perceived barriers (AdjOR = 0.032; 95% CI: 0.17-0.59), perceived benefit (AdjOR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.49-4.71), good health (AdjOR = 3.51; 95% CI: 1.01-12.12) and health not good (AdjOR = 0.10; 95% CI: 0.02-0.49) were predictors of vaccine uptake. In the qualitative interviews, four key influences on up-take for the 28 vaccinated participants were: prevention and protection, convenience, fear of death from COVID-19, and trust in the vaccine. Four key influences on refusal of vaccination in the eight unvaccinated participants were: rarely leaving the house, fear of vaccine side-effects, fear of death after getting the vaccine, and not enough information for decision-making. CONCLUSION: Intervention and campaigns addressing COVID-19 vaccination should employ strategies, including the widespread use of social and other popular media to increase older people's perceived benefit of vaccination on their current and future health status, while decreasing perceived barriers to receiving the vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , Humans , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Thailand/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(10)2023 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244042

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has threatened health and well-being in all populations. This impact is also deepening structural inequalities for migrant workers in Thailand. Due to their vulnerability and limited opportunity to access health services, they have greater risks in many health aspects compared to other populations. This qualitative study sought to examine the key health concerns and barriers during the COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare access among migrant workers in Thailand through the lens of policymakers, healthcare professionals, experts on migrant health, and migrant workers. We conducted 17 semi-structured in-depth interviews of stakeholders from health and non-health sectors in Thailand from July to October 2021. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using both deductive and inductive thematic approaches. Thematic coding was applied. The results showed that financial constraints were a major barrier for healthcare access among migrant workers. These included affordability of healthcare and difficulty accessing funds (migrant health insurance). Structural barriers included some health facilities opening for emergency cases only. Insufficient healthcare resources were profound during the peak of positive cases. Cognitive barriers included negative attitudes and diverse understanding of healthcare rights. Language and communication barriers, and a lack of information also played an important role. Conclusion, our study highlights healthcare access barriers to migrant workers in Thailand during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recommendations for future resolution of these barriers were also proposed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Humans , Pandemics , Thailand/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Qualitative Research , Health Facilities
5.
J Environ Public Health ; 2023: 5719241, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243138

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study prevalence, risk factors, and consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic related to Burnout syndrome (BOS) among Thai healthcare providers (HCPs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study among HCPs, involved in caring for patients during the pandemic in two periods (1st period, May-Jun 2021, and 2nd period, Sep-Oct 2021). Data were distributed using electronic questionnaires. BOS was defined if respondents exhibited a high level of at least one domain in the Maslach Burnout Inventory criteria. The primary outcome was prevalence of BOS. Results: Altogether, 2,027 and 1,146 respondents were enrolled in the 1st and 2nd periods, respectively. Most respondents were female (73.3, 68.2%). The top three job positions were physicians (49.2, 58.9%), nurses (41.2, 30.6%), and nursing assistants (4.8, 6.5%), respectively. No difference was found in overall prevalence of Burnout syndrome during the 1st and 2nd periods (73 vs. 73.5%, p=0.80). Using multivariate analysis, significant risk factors for Burnout syndrome in both periods were (1) living with family (odds ratio (OR) 1.3 and 1.5), (2) tertiary care hospital (OR 1.92 and 2.13), (3) nurse (OR 1.38 and 2.29), (4) nursing assistant (OR 0.92 and 4.81), (5) salary ≤40,000 THB (OR 1.53 and 1.53), (6) >20 patients per shift (OR 1.55 and 1.88), (7) >6 shifts after hours monthly (OR 1.26 and 1.49), and (8) ≤1 rest day weekly (OR 1.3 and 1.4). Conclusion: We found a high prevalence of Burnout syndrome among Thai HCPs during the pandemic. Knowing those risk factors may provide a strategy to BOS during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Thailand/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/etiology , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Geospat Health ; 18(1)2023 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242394

ABSTRACT

A study of 2,569,617 Thailand citizens diagnosed with COVID-19 from January 2020 to March 2022 was conducted with the aim of identifying the spatial distribution pattern of incidence rate of COVID-19 during its five main waves in all 77 provinces of the country. Wave 4 had the highest incidence rate (9,007 cases per 100,000) followed by the Wave 5, with 8,460 cases per 100,000. We also determined the spatial autocorrelation between a set of five demographic and health care factors and the spread of the infection within the provinces using Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) and univariate and bivariate analysis with Moran's I. The spatial autocorrelation between the variables examined and the incidence rates was particularly strong during the waves 3-5. All findings confirmed the existence of spatial autocorrelation and heterogenicity of COVID-19 with the distribution of cases with respect to one or several of the five factors examined. The study identified significant spatial autocorrelation with regard to the COVID-19 incidence rate with these variables in all five waves. Depending on which province that was investigated, strong spatial autocorrelation of the High-High pattern was observed in 3 to 9 clusters and of the Low-Low pattern in 4 to 17 clusters, whereas negative spatial autocorrelation was observed in 1 to 9 clusters of the High-Low pattern and in 1 to 6 clusters of Low-High pattern. These spatial data should support stakeholders and policymakers in their efforts to prevent, control, monitor and evaluate the multidimensional determinants of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Thailand/epidemiology , Spatial Analysis , Incidence , China/epidemiology
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(10)2023 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241411

ABSTRACT

In May 2021, there was a COVID-19 outbreak on board a construction support ship traveling from India to Thailand. Controlling the outbreak on this offshore vessel from 11 May to 2 June 2021 was applied. This case report describes the teamwork management of COVID-19 control on the vessel in the Gulf of Thailand. We summarized the COVID-19 outbreak control process on board, including active COVID-19-infected cases (CoIC) and close contacts (CoCC) identification, isolation, quarantine, treatment, and clinical monitoring using telemedicine to report their health measurements twice daily, including emergency conditions if they occurred. Active COVID-19 cases were identified by two rounds of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests in all crew members, in which 7 of 29 (24.1%) showed positive results. Both the CoIC and CoCC were strictly and absolutely isolated and quarantined on the vessel. No serious medical conditions were reported during the monitoring. The third-round RT-PCR tests were conducted, and all tested negative one week later. Teamwork management in proactive COVID-19 case identification, isolation, comprehensive treatment, and close monitoring of health conditions using telemedicine devices is beneficial for controlling the COVID-19 outbreak on board.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thailand/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Quarantine/methods
8.
Health Secur ; 21(3): 183-192, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325983

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 necessitated the rapid deployment of tests to diagnose COVID-19. To monitor the accuracy of testing across the COVID-19 laboratory network in Thailand, the Department of Medical Sciences under the Ministry of Public Health launched a national external quality assessment (EQA) scheme using samples containing inactivated SARS-CoV-2 culture supernatant from a predominant strain in the early phase of the Thailand outbreak. All 197 laboratories in the network participated; 93% (n=183) of which reported correct results for all 6 EQA samples. Ten laboratories reported false-negative results, mostly for samples with low viral concentrations, and 5 laboratories reported false-positive results (1 laboratory reported false positives and false negatives). An intralaboratory investigation of 14 laboratories reporting incorrect results revealed 2 main causes of error: (1) RNA contamination of the rRT-PCR reaction and (2) poor-quality RNA extraction. Specific reagent combinations were significantly associated with false-negative reports. Thailand's approach to national EQA for SARS-CoV-2 can serve as a roadmap for other countries interested in implementing a national EQA program to ensure laboratories provide accurate testing results, which is crucial in diagnosis, prevention, and control strategies. A national EQA program can be less costly and thus more sustainable than commercial EQA programs. National EQA is recommended to detect and correct testing errors and provide postmarket surveillance for diagnostic test performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Laboratories , Pandemics/prevention & control , Thailand/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/genetics
9.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 911, 2023 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thailand was the first country in Asia to legalize the use and purchase of cannabis leaves in February 2021 and the whole plant in June 2022 after the 2019 allowance for medical purposes. The study explored trends in cannabis use in Thailand before and after the recreational cannabis allowance was imposed. METHODS: Cannabis and other variables of substance use, cannabis use disorder, and attitude towards cannabis of the Thai population aged 18 to 65 years in 2019 (n = 5,002), 2020 (n = 5,389) and 2021 (n = 5,669) were obtained from annual surveys conducted in the last two months of each year by the Centre for Addiction Studies. The surveys were repeat cross-sectional surveys of the general population of Thailand. Repeated variables from at least two annual surveys were included for analysis using the Chi-square test and the t-test. RESULTS: The prevalence of cannabis use in the past year had increased from 2.2% in 2019 to 2.5% and 4.2% in 2020 and 2021 respectively, while those of methamphetamine, alcohol, and tobacco use had decreased. Trends in past-year drinking/eating cannabis products had increased, especially among the middle age group (40-49 years) from 2.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 3.1) in 2019 and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.6, 1.9) in 2020 to 3.8% (95% CI: 2.8, 5.0) in 2021. The younger population aged 18-19 had an increase in cannabis smoking from 0.9% (95% CI: 0.1, 3.3) in 2019 to 2.0% (95% CI: 0.5, 5.1) and 2.2% (95% CI: 0.7, 5.1) in 2020 and 2021 respectively. Symptoms of cannabis use disorder among cannabis users increased from 2019 to 2020 and then reversed afterwards in 2021. Thais had greater health knowledge about the benefits and harms of cannabis and had attitudes toward more harm of cannabis in 2021; however, 35.6% or a third of the sample in 2021 truly believed that cannabis was a cure for cancer, and 23.2% or one-fourth were uncertain or did not believe that cannabis was addictive. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the substances had a lower prevalence of use during the COVID-19 pandemic in Thailand, cannabis had a higher use after legalization. Thai youth had a growing trend to smoke cannabis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Marijuana Abuse , Substance-Related Disorders , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Humans , Marijuana Abuse/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Developing Countries , Pandemics , Thailand/epidemiology
10.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285737, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325525

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 virus infection has imposed a significant healthcare burden globally. To contain its spread and decrease infection-related mortality, several vaccines have been deployed worldwide in the past 3 years. We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study to assess the immune response against the virus among blood donors at a tertiary care hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. From December 2021 to March 2022, total of 1,520 participants were enrolled, and their past history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination was recorded. Two serology test, namely, quantitative IgG spike protein (IgGSP) and qualitative IgG nucleocapsid antibody (IgGNC) were performed. The median age of study participants was 40 years (IQR 30-48) and 833 (54.8%) were men. Vaccine uptake was reported in 1,500 donors (98.7%) and 84 (5.5%) reported the past infection history. IgGNC was detected in 46/84 donors with the past infection history (54.8%) and in 36 out of the rest 1,436 (2.5%) with no past history. IgGSP positivity was observed in 1484 donors (97.6%). When compared to unvaccinated donors (n = 20), IgGSP level was higher in the donors who had received one vaccine dose (p< 0.001) and these antibody levels increased significantly among those with 3rd and 4th vaccine doses. Factors associated with low IgGSP (lowest quartile) by multivariate analysis included: no past infection history, homologous vaccination, < 3 vaccine doses, and > 90 days duration since last vaccination. In conclusion, vaccine uptake among our study donors was high (98.7%) and IgGSP antibody was observed in nearly all the vaccinated donors (97.6%). Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, use of heterologous vaccination, vaccines ≥ 3 doses, and duration of the last vaccination >90 days affected IgGSP levels. Use of serological assays were found beneficial in the evaluation and differentiation of immune response to vaccination, and natural infection including the identification of previous asymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Thailand/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination , Immunoglobulin G
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(9)2023 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318338

ABSTRACT

One significant concern during the COVID-19 pandemic is parents' mental health, which may consequently affect children's health and well-being. The objective of this study is to investigate generalized anxiety and depression in parents of primary-school-aged children and identify risk factors for mental health problems. A cross-sectional survey comprising 701 parents of primary school children in five of Thailand's major provinces was carried out from January to March 2022. Generalized anxiety and depression levels were assessed using the GAD-7 and PHQ-9. Logistic regression was performed to determine the effects of independent variables on anxiety and depression. Results showed that the prevalence of generalized anxiety and depression was 42.7% and 28.5%, respectively, among Thai parents. Three strong associative factors included: (1) having a youngest child with mental health problems; (2) not assisting their children every day; and (3) drinking alcohol. These findings show that the parents must deal with several difficulties when trying to maintain work and parenting duties while being confined at home during emergency situations. The government should provide sufficient assistance to parents who lack skills in handling children with emotional and behavioral problems. Meanwhile, health promotion to reduce alcohol consumption should continue to be an area of focus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , Humans , Child , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Self Report , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Thailand/epidemiology , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Schools
12.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 67(5): 637-649, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316853

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Personal protective equipment (PPE) use is associated with reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare personnel (HCP). There are limited data on the impact of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the PPE use of HCP. We describe the changes in PPE use from just before the widespread of community outbreaks ('pre-pandemic') to intra-pandemic time points, and examine factors associated with not changing in PPE use behavior among HCP in four Thai hospitals. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort evaluation using two-time points: (i) February-March 2020 (pre-pandemic period); and (ii) January-March 2021 (intra-pandemic period). Self-reported frequency of appropriate PPE use was measured by a Likert scale. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with no increase in self-reported PPE use. RESULTS: Of 343 HCP, the proportion of participants reporting 'always' using PPE rose from 66% during the pre-pandemic period to 80% during the pandemic. Factors associated with HCP who did not increase in PPE use included having high baseline reported PPE, being a non-registered HCP (e.g. nurse assistants, dental assistants, porters), being male, and having a low perceived risk of becoming infected with any respiratory virus while working in the hospital. CONCLUSION: PPE education, training, and risk communication content should target all cadres of HCP, regardless of registered/non-registered status, with a focus on behavior change for improved prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses in healthcare settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Exposure , Male , Humans , Female , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Thailand/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Personal Protective Equipment
13.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0284130, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has evolved quickly, with different variants of concern resulting in the need to offer continued protection through booster vaccinations. The duration of enhanced protection with booster doses against severe COVID-19 is still unclear. Understanding this is critical to recommendations on the frequency of future booster doses. METHODS: Utilising a Hospital Information System for COVID-19 established in Chiang Mai, Thailand, we conducted a cohort study by linking patient-level data of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases to the national immunization records, during the omicron predominant period (1 February- 31 July 2022). RESULTS: Out of 261,103 adults with COVID-19 included in the study, there were 333 (0.13%) severe COVID-19 cases and 190 (0.07%) deaths. Protection against severe COVID-19 was highest with boosters received >14-60 days prior to positive test (93%) and persisted at >60-120 days (91%) but started to wane at >120-180 days (77%) and further at >180 days (68%). The rate of waning differed with age. Those ≥70 years showed faster waning of booster vaccine responses as compared to those aged 18-49 years, who retained good responses up to 180 days. Equivalent risk reduction against severe COVID-19 was seen with all the vaccine types used as boosters in Thailand. CONCLUSIONS: Booster doses provided high levels of protection against severe COVID-19 with omicron, up to 4 months. Repeat boosters will be required to continue protection beyond 4 months, particularly in the elderly. mRNA and viral vector vaccines can be used flexibly to improve booster coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adult , Aged , Humans , Cohort Studies , Pandemics , Thailand/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control
14.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0284492, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297375

ABSTRACT

The use of facemasks is essential to prevent the transmission of COVID-19. University students are a significant demographic that generates substantial infectious waste due to the new normal practice of using disposable facemasks. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the facemask disposal knowledge and practices among university students in Thailand between September and October 2022. We used a self-report questionnaire comprising 29 questions to determine the students' demographic characteristics and facemask disposal knowledge and practices. We then applied a logistic regression model to estimate the association between the students' facemask disposal knowledge and practices and their demographic characteristics. A total of 433 participants completed the questionnaire comprising health science (45.27%) and non-health science (54.73%) students. Surgical masks were the most popular masks (89.84%), followed by N95 (26.33%) and cloth masks (9.94%). While their levels of knowledge regarding facemask disposal were poor, the students' practices were good. The factors associated with proper facemask disposal were sex (AOR = 0.469, 95% CI: 0.267, 0.825), academic grade (AOR = 0.427, 95% CI: 0.193, 0.948), and knowledge level (AOR = 0.594, 95% CI: 0.399, 0.886). No demographic factors influenced knowledge. Our findings highlight the influence of facemask disposal knowledge on students' disposal practices. Information promoting the appropriate disposal practices should therefore be promoted extensively. Furthermore, continuous reinforcement by raising awareness and educating students on proper facemask disposal combined with the provision of adequate infectious waste disposal facilities could help reduce the environmental contamination of infectious waste and thus improve general waste management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Humans , Thailand/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Universities , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Students
15.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0279147, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304396

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can be asymptomatic in young children. Therefore, the true rate of infection is likely underestimated. Few data are available on the rate of infections in young children, and studies on SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among children during the omicron wave are limited. We assessed the SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced seroprevalence among children and estimated the associated risk factors for seropositivity. METHODS: A longitudinal serological survey was conducted from January 2021 through December 2022. The inclusion criteria were healthy children between 5 and 7 years old and their parents or legal guardians provided written informed consent. Samples were tested for anti-nucleocapsid (N) IgG and anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA), and total anti-RBD immunoglobulin (Ig) was detected using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). The vaccination and SARS-CoV-2 infection history were collected. RESULTS: In all, 457 serum samples were obtained from 241 annually followed-up children in this longitudinal serological survey. Of these, 201 participants provided samples at two serial time points-during the pre-omicron and omicron-dominant wave. Overall, seroprevalence induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection increased from 9.1% (22/241) during the pre-omicron to 48.8% (98/201) during the omicron wave. Amongst seropositive individuals, the infection-induced seropositivity was lower in vaccinated participants with two doses of BNT162b2 than in the unvaccinated participants (26.4% vs. 56%; OR, 0.28; 95%CI: 0.14-0.58). Nevertheless, the ratio of seropositive cases per recalled infection was 1.63 during the omicron dominant wave. The overall seroprevalence induced by infection, vaccination, and hybrid immunity was 77.1% (155/201) between January and December 2022. CONCLUSIONS: We report an increase in infection-induced seroprevalence among children during the omicron wave. These findings highlight that a seroprevalence survey can help determine the true rate of infection, particularly in asymptomatic infection, and optimize public health policies and vaccine strategies in the pediatric population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Longitudinal Studies , Thailand/epidemiology , BNT162 Vaccine , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral
16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 409, 2023 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301863

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The healthcare services for non-communicable diseases (NCD) are commonly affected by public health crises like the COVID-19 pandemic. During the pandemic, all healthcare facilities in Bangkok had been overwhelmed by the extreme caseload of COVID-19. Health service resiliency is crucial for the continued service of healthcare facilities post pandemic. This study aims to explore the impacts of COVID-19 on NCD service disruption and addressed the resilience of healthcare services at the operational level. METHODS: Healthcare facility-based surveys and in-depth interviews were conducted among representatives of the facilities in Bangkok from April 2021 to July 2021. The web-based, self-administered questionnaire, was sent to directors or authorities of all healthcare facilities in Bangkok Thailand (n = 169). Two healthcare facilities from three levels of health services were purposively selected. The directors or medical doctors and nurses who are in charge of the NCD service, and working at the six selected health facilities, were invited to participate in the in-depth interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the survey data, and thematic analysis was used to analyze the data from the in-depth interviews. RESULTS: The impact of COVID-19 on NCD service disruption in the second wave (2021) was more severe than in the first wave (2020). The main reasons for NCD service disruptions are insufficient staff, and the closure of some services offered by the healthcare facilities. Surprisingly, both the budget and medical supply for healthcare facilities in Bangkok are less affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Our study revealed resilience capability i.e. absorptive, adaptive, and transformative capabilityamong the healthcare facilities that provide a continuum of care by increasing availability and accessibility to healthcare services for chronic illness as DM. The service disruption in Bangkok may alter from other provinces because of variations in COVID-19 incidence and health services contexts. CONCLUSION: During the public health crisis, using affordable and common digital technologies to ensure DM patients can access a continuum of care and providing alternative services such as mobile medical laboratories, medication delivery, and medical refill at drug stores can increase consistent monitoring of glycemic levels and use of prescribed medication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Primary Health Care , Public Health , Pandemics , Thailand/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology
17.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 663, 2023 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301537

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can develop into a long-term COVID in some cases, which can have a major impact on various health systems requiring appropriate treatment involving multi-disciplinary healthcare. The COVID-19 Yorkshire Rehabilitation Scale (C19-YRS) is a standardized tool widely used for screening the symptoms and severity of long-term COVID. Translation of the English version of the C19-YRS into the Thai language and testing it is essential for the psychometric evaluation of the severity of the long-term COVID syndrome prior to providing rehabilitation care for community members. METHODS: Forward-and back-translations including cross-cultural aspects were conducted in order to develop a preliminary Thai version of that tool. Five experts evaluated the content validity of the tool and produced a highly valid index. A cross-sectional study was then conducted on a sample of 337 Thai community members recovering from COVID-19. Assessment of internal consistency and individual item analyses were also performed. RESULTS: The content validity resulted in valid indices. The analyses showed that 14 items had acceptable internal consistency, based on the corrected item correlations. However, five symptom severity items and two functional ability items were deleted. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the final C19-YRS was 0.723, indicating acceptable internal consistency and reliability of the survey instrument. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that the Thai C19-YRS tool had acceptable validity and reliability for the evaluation and testing of the psychometric variables in a Thai community population. The survey instrument also had acceptable validity and reliability for screening the symptoms and severity of long-term COVID. Further studies are warranted in order to standardize the various applications of this tool.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Southeast Asian People , Humans , Thailand/epidemiology , Psychometrics/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Language
18.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 9: e40186, 2023 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278108

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The third most severe COVID-19 wave in the middle of 2021 coincided with the dual challenges of limited vaccine supply and lagging acceptance in Bangkok, Thailand. Understanding of persistent vaccine hesitancy during the "608" campaign to vaccinate those aged over 60 years and 8 medical risk groups was needed. On-the-ground surveys place further demands on resources and are scale limited. We leveraged the University of Maryland COVID-19 Trends and Impact Survey (UMD-CTIS), a digital health survey conducted among daily Facebook user samples, to fill this need and inform regional vaccine rollout policy. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to characterize COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, frequent reasons for hesitancy, mitigating risk behaviors, and the most trusted sources of COVID-19 information through which to combat vaccine hesitancy in Bangkok, Thailand during the 608 vaccine campaign. METHODS: We analyzed 34,423 Bangkok UMD-CTIS responses between June and October 2021, coinciding with the third COVID-19 wave. Sampling consistency and representativeness of the UMD-CTIS respondents were evaluated by comparing distributions of demographics, 608 priority groups, and vaccine uptake over time with source population data. Estimates of vaccine hesitancy in Bangkok and 608 priority groups were tracked over time. Frequently cited hesitancy reasons and trusted information sources were identified according to the 608 group and degree of hesitancy. Kendall tau was used to test statistical associations between vaccine acceptance and vaccine hesitancy. RESULTS: The Bangkok UMD-CTIS respondents had similar demographics over weekly samples and compared to the Bangkok source population. Respondents self-reported fewer pre-existing health conditions compared to census data overall but had a similar prevalence of the important COVID-19 risk factor diabetes. UMD-CTIS vaccine uptake rose in parallel with national vaccination statistics, while vaccine hesitancy and degree of hesitancy declined (-7% hesitant per week). Concerns about vaccination side effects (2334/3883, 60.1%) and wanting to wait and see (2410/3883, 62.1%) were selected most frequently, while "not liking vaccines" (281/3883, 7.2%) and "religious objections" (52/3883, 1.3%) were selected least frequently. Greater vaccine acceptance was associated positively with wanting to "wait and see" and negatively with "don't believe I need (the vaccine)" (Kendall tau 0.21 and -0.22, respectively; adjusted P<.001). Scientists and health experts were most frequently cited as trusted COVID-19 information sources (13,600/14,033, 96.9%), even among vaccine hesitant respondents. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide policy and health experts with evidence that vaccine hesitancy was declining over the study timeframe. Hesitancy and trust analyses among the unvaccinated support Bangkok policy measures to address vaccine safety and efficacy concerns through health experts rather than government or religious officials. Large-scale surveys enabled by existing widespread digital networks offer an insightful minimal-infrastructure resource for informing region-specific health policy needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Thailand/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination
19.
J Phys Act Health ; 20(5): 364-373, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284330

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding patterns of physical activity and sedentary behavior is essential, but evidence from low- and middle-income countries remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior in the Thai population; their sociodemographic correlates; and the contribution of specific domains to total physical activity. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2021 Health Behavior Survey, a nationally representative survey, conducted by the Thailand National Statistical Office during the COVID-19 pandemic. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. "Sufficiently active" was defined according to the World Health Organization guidelines. "Highly sedentary" was defined as sitting ≥7 hours per day. The contribution of work, transport, and recreational physical activity was determined as the proportion of total physical activity. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine the correlates of being sufficiently active and being highly sedentary. RESULTS: Of the total study population (N = 78,717), 71.9% were sufficiently active, whereas 75.8% were highly sedentary. Females, having a labor-intensive work, and living in Bangkok had a higher likelihood of being sufficiently active. Those with higher education and income levels, and living in Bangkok and the Central region had a greater likelihood of being highly sedentary. The work domain contributed the highest proportion toward physical activity (82.1%), followed by the recreation (10.0%) and transport domains (7.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Policies should focus on promoting transport and recreational physical activity and activity that can break up sedentary behavior among adults because when countries become technologically advanced, physical activity at work declines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise , Adult , Female , Humans , Sedentary Behavior , Thailand/epidemiology , Pandemics , Southeast Asian People , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Health Surveys
20.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 298, 2023 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282873

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This paper investigates the role of local women village health volunteers, women on the frontline, during COVID-19 in the northern province of Thailand. METHODS: This research employs a qualitative method with grounded-based analysis of primary data from in-depth interviews of 40 local women village health volunteers that were selected by a purposeful sampling of 10 key informants per district, live in 4 sub-districts in Chiang Mai, the northern province of Thailand: Suthep Subdistrict, Mae Hia Subdistrict, Fa Ham Subdistrict, and Tha Sala Subdistrict. RESULTS: The role of local women village health volunteers during COVID-19 is diverse, such as community health caregivers, the Surveillance and Rapid Response Team (SRRT), health facilitators and mediators, and the manager of community health funds and resources mobilization. Volunteering for local women in community health services at the local level, participating based on personal desire and foreseeable opportunities, could create meaningful participation for the local women in terms of empowering them and as a driver of local community (health) development. CONCLUSIONS: Findings reveal that understanding local women's perspectives on their roles could be made through the lens of the intersection of femininity, social role, motivation, and their contribution to their community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Thailand/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Community Health Services , Volunteers
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