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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264260, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793519

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reports on medium and long-term sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infections largely lack quantification of incidence and relative risk. We describe the rationale and methods of the Innovative Support for Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Registry (INSPIRE) that combines patient-reported outcomes with data from digital health records to understand predictors and impacts of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: INSPIRE is a prospective, multicenter, longitudinal study of individuals with symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in eight regions across the US. Adults are eligible for enrollment if they are fluent in English or Spanish, reported symptoms suggestive of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, and if they are within 42 days of having a SARS-CoV-2 viral test (i.e., nucleic acid amplification test or antigen test), regardless of test results. Recruitment occurs in-person, by phone or email, and through online advertisement. A secure online platform is used to facilitate the collation of consent-related materials, digital health records, and responses to self-administered surveys. Participants are followed for up to 18 months, with patient-reported outcomes collected every three months via survey and linked to concurrent digital health data; follow-up includes no in-person involvement. Our planned enrollment is 4,800 participants, including 2,400 SARS-CoV-2 positive and 2,400 SARS-CoV-2 negative participants (as a concurrent comparison group). These data will allow assessment of longitudinal outcomes from SARS-CoV-2 infection and comparison of the relative risk of outcomes in individuals with and without infection. Patient-reported outcomes include self-reported health function and status, as well as clinical outcomes including health system encounters and new diagnoses. RESULTS: Participating sites obtained institutional review board approval. Enrollment and follow-up are ongoing. CONCLUSIONS: This study will characterize medium and long-term sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection among a diverse population, predictors of sequelae, and their relative risk compared to persons with similar symptomatology but without SARS-CoV-2 infection. These data may inform clinical interventions for individuals with sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Palliative Care , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Palliative Care/methods , Palliative Care/organization & administration , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Prognosis , Registries , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Social Determinants of Health , Therapies, Investigational/methods , Time Factors , Young Adult
2.
Drug Discov Today ; 27(3): 686-689, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562140

ABSTRACT

Clinicians, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), contend with limited economic and healthcare resources in deciding appropriate and feasible care for their patients. Some of the LMICs affected by COVID-19 implemented convalescent plasma therapy without sufficient regulatory guidance. Based on this experience, there are several requirements going forward, including: the need for an immediately accessible data gathering and processing system; the necessity of establishing regulatory pathways for early access to experimental treatment during emergency situations; and the accompanying reporting and monitoring requirements must be set. The different stakeholders must also be properly incorporated in the system that such a pathway will create, without neglecting to properly inform the public of the patient rights especially during an emergency situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Developing Countries , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Poverty , Therapies, Investigational/methods
3.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 401-410, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319040

ABSTRACT

The twenty-first century has already recorded more than ten major epidemic or pandemic virus emergence events, including the ongoing and devastating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. As viral disease emergence is expected to accelerate, these data dictate a need for proactive approaches to develop broadly active family-specific and cross-family therapeutics for use in future disease outbreaks. Emphasis should focus not only on the development of broad-spectrum small-molecule and antibody direct-acting antivirals, but also on host-factor therapeutics, including repurposing previously approved or in-pipeline drugs. Another new class of therapeutics with great antiviral therapeutic potential is RNA-based therapeutics. Rather than only focusing on known risks, dedicated efforts must be made toward pre-emptive research focused on outbreak-prone virus families, ultimately offering a strategy to shorten the gap between outbreak and response. Emphasis should also focus on orally available drugs for outpatient use, if possible, and on identifying combination therapies that combat viral and immune-mediated pathologies, extend the effectiveness of therapeutic windows and reduce drug resistance. While such an undertaking will require new vision, dedicated funding and private, federal and academic partnerships, this approach offers hope that global populations need never experience future pandemics such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/therapy , Therapies, Investigational , Virus Diseases/therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Development/methods , Drug Development/trends , Drug Repositioning , History, 21st Century , Humans , Inventions/trends , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Therapies, Investigational/methods , Therapies, Investigational/trends
5.
Phytother Res ; 35(2): 629-636, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1098919

ABSTRACT

Currently, over 100 countries are fighting against a common enemy, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2, which causes COVID-19. This has created a demand for a substance whose effectiveness has already been demonstrated in a similar scenario. Glycyrrhizin (GZ) is a promising agent against SARS-CoV-2 as its antiviral activity against SARS-CoV has already been confirmed. It is worthwhile to extrapolate from its proven therapeutic effects as there is a high similarity in the structure and genome of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. There are many possible mechanisms through which GZ acts against viruses: increasing nitrous oxide production in macrophages, affecting transcription factors and cellular signalling pathways, directly altering the viral lipid-bilayer membrane, and binding to the ACE2 receptor. In this review, we discuss the possible use of GZ in the COVID-19 setting, where topical administration appears to be promising, with the nasal and oral cavity notably being the potent location in terms of viral load. The most recently published papers on the distribution of ACE2 in the human body and documented binding of GZ to this receptor, as well as its antiviral activity, suggest that GZ can be used as a therapeutic for COVID-19 and as a preventive agent against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemoprevention/methods , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Administration, Intranasal , Administration, Topical , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Glycyrrhizic Acid/administration & dosage , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Therapies, Investigational/methods
6.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20446, 2020 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004915

ABSTRACT

AIMS OF THE STUDY: Hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir have been used as experimental therapies to treat COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic. Randomised controlled trials have recently shown that there are no meaningful benefits of these two therapies in hospitalised patients. Uncertainty remains regarding the potential harmful impact of these therapies as very early treatments and their burden to the health care system. The present study investigated the length of hospital stay (LOS), mortality, and costs of hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir or their combination in comparison with standard of care among patients hospitalised for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This retrospective observational cohort study took place in the Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland (n = 840) between 26 February and 31 May 2020. Demographics, treatment regimens, comorbidities, the modified National Early Warning Score (mNEWS) on admission, and contraindications to COVID-19 treatment options were assessed. Outcomes included LOS, in-hospital mortality, and drug and LOS costs. RESULTS: After successful propensity score matching, patients treated with (1) hydroxychloroquine, (2) lopinavir/ritonavir or (3) their combination had on average 3.75 additional hospitalisation days (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37–6.12, p = 0.002), 1.23 additional hospitalisation days (95% CI −1.24 – 3.51, p = 0.319), and 4.19 additional hospitalisation days (95% CI 1.52–5.31, p <0.001), respectively, compared with patients treated with the standard of care. Neither experimental therapy was significantly associated with mortality. These additional hospital days amounted to 1010.77 additional days for hydroxychloroquine and hydroxychloroquine combined with lopinavir/ritonavir, resulting in an additional cost of US$ 2,492,214 (95%CI US$ 916,839–3,450,619). CONCLUSIONS: Prescribing experimental therapies for COVID-19 was not associated with a reduced LOS and might have increased the pressure put on healthcare systems.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Health Expenditures , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Infant , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Therapies, Investigational/methods , Young Adult
7.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 77(4): 1805-1813, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-982795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought great disruption to health systems worldwide. This affected ongoing clinical research, particularly among those most vulnerable to the pandemic, like dementia patients. Fundació ACE is a research center and memory clinic based in Barcelona, Spain, one of the hardest-hit countries. OBJECTIVE: To describe the ad-hoc strategic plan developed to cope with this crisis and to share its outcomes. METHODS: We describe participants' clinical and demographic features. Additionally, we explain our strategic plan aimed at minimizing the impact on clinical trial research activities, which included SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and IgG serological tests to all participants and personnel. The outcomes of the plan are described in terms of observed safety events and drop-outs during the study period. RESULTS: A total of 130 patients were participating in 16 active clinical trials in Fundació ACE when the lockdown was established. During the confinement, we performed 1018 calls to the participants, which led to identify adverse events in 26 and COVID-19 symptoms in 6. A total of 83 patients (64%) could restart on-site visits as early as May 11, 2020. All SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR diagnostic tests performed before on-site visits were negative and only three IgG serological tests were positive. Throughout the study period, we only observed one drop-out, due to an adverse event unrelated to COVID-19. DISCUSSION: The plan implemented by Fundació ACE was able to preserve safety and integrity of ongoing clinical trials. We must use the lessons learned from the pandemic and design crisis-proof protocols for clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Patient Care , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Clinical Trials as Topic/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care/methods , Patient Care/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Telemedicine/methods , Therapies, Investigational/methods
8.
CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol ; 10(2): 100-107, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932472

ABSTRACT

Many drugs that have been proposed for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are reported to cause cardiac adverse events, including ventricular arrhythmias. In order to properly weigh risks against potential benefits, particularly when decisions must be made quickly, mathematical modeling of both drug disposition and drug action can be useful for predicting patient response and making informed decisions. Here, we explored the potential effects on cardiac electrophysiology of four drugs proposed to treat COVID-19: lopinavir, ritonavir, chloroquine, and azithromycin, as well as combination therapy involving these drugs. Our study combined simulations of pharmacokinetics (PKs) with quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) modeling of ventricular myocytes to predict potential cardiac adverse events caused by these treatments. Simulation results predicted that drug combinations can lead to greater cellular action potential prolongation, analogous to QT prolongation, compared with drugs given in isolation. The combination effect can result from both PK and pharmacodynamic drug interactions. Importantly, simulations of different patient groups predicted that women with pre-existing heart disease are especially susceptible to drug-induced arrhythmias, compared with diseased men or healthy individuals of either sex. Statistical analysis of population simulations revealed the molecular factors that make certain women with heart failure especially susceptible to arrhythmias. Overall, the results illustrate how PK and QSP modeling may be combined to more precisely predict cardiac risks of COVID-19 therapies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , COVID-19/drug therapy , Models, Theoretical , Therapies, Investigational/methods , Action Potentials/drug effects , Action Potentials/physiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/metabolism , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Drug Combinations , Drug Interactions/physiology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Risk Factors , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects
9.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 57(1): 9-11, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-913632

ABSTRACT

Children with developmental disabilities are experiencing significant challenges to service access due to suspension of in-person assessments during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Telehealth is rapidly becoming the new service delivery model, which presents a unique opportunity for innovation in care that could be beneficial in the post-pandemic period. For example, using a combination of in-home video and telehealth options could form the first step in developmental assessment, allowing children to receive the necessary supports without delay. Recent telehealth funding is welcome but additional Medicare items for joint consultations including general practitioners (GPs), and paediatric, mental health and allied health professionals is critical.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Developmental Disabilities/therapy , Telemedicine/methods , Therapies, Investigational/methods , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Developmental Disabilities/economics , Financing, Government , Humans , National Health Programs/economics , Pandemics , Telemedicine/economics , Therapies, Investigational/economics
10.
Trials ; 21(1): 853, 2020 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-865129

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of two doses of the adsorbed vaccine COVID-19 (inactivated) produced by Sinovac in symptomatic individuals, with virological confirmation of COVID-19, two weeks after the completion of the two-dose vaccination regimen, aged 18 years or older who work as health professionals providing care to patients with possible or confirmed COVID-19. To describe the occurrence of adverse reactions associated with the administration of each of two doses of the adsorbed vaccine COVID-19 (inactivated) produced by Sinovac up to one week after vaccination in Adults (18-59 years of age) and Elderly (60 years of age or more). TRIAL DESIGN: This is a Phase III, randomized, multicenter, endpoint driven, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of the adsorbed vaccine COVID-19 (inactivated) produced by Sinovac. The adsorbed vaccine COVID-19 (inactivated) produced by Sinovac (product under investigation) will be compared to placebo. Voluntary participants will be randomized to receive two intramuscular doses of the investigational product or the placebo, in a 1: 1 ratio, stratified by age group (18 to 59 years and 60 years or more) and will be monitored for one year by active surveillance of COVID-19. Two databases will be established according to the age groups: one for adults (18-59 years) and one for the elderly (60 years of age or older). The threshold to consider the vaccine efficacious will be to reach a protection level of at least 50%, as proposed by the World Health Organization and the FDA. Success in this criterion will be defined by sequential monitoring with adjustment of the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval above 30% for the primary efficacy endpoint. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy participants and / or participants with clinically controlled disease, of both genders, 18 years of age or older, working as health professionals performing care in units specialized in direct contact with people with possible or confirmed cases of COVID-19. Participation of pregnant women and those who are breastfeeding, as well as those intending to become pregnant within three months after vaccination will not be allowed. Participants will only be included after signing the voluntary Informed Consent Form and ensuring they undergo screening evaluation and conform to all the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the clinical sites are located in Brazil. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Experimental intervention: The vaccine was manufactured by Sinovac Life Sciences (Beijing, China) and contains 3 µg/0.5 mL (equivalent to 600 SU per dose) of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus, and aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant. Control comparator: The placebo contains aluminium hydroxide in a 0.5 mL solution The schedule of both, experimental intervention and placebo is two 0.5 mL doses IM (deltoid) with a two week interval. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary efficacy endpoint is the incidence of symptomatic cases of virologically confirmed COVID-19 two weeks after the second vaccination. The virological diagnosis will be confirmed by detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in a clinical sample. The primary safety endpoint is the frequency of solicited and unsolicited local and systemic adverse reactions during the period of one week after vaccination according to age group in adult (18-59 years old) and elder (60 years of age or older) subjects. Adverse reactions are defined as adverse events that have a reasonable causal relationship to vaccination. RANDOMISATION: There will be two randomization lists, one for each age group, based on the investigational products to be administered, i.e., vaccine or placebo at a 1: 1 ratio. Each randomization list will be made to include up to 11,800 (18-59 year-old) adults, and 1,260 elderly (60 y-o and older) participants, the maximum number of participants needed per age group. An electronic central randomization system will be used to designate the investigational product that each participant must receive. BLINDING (MASKING): This trial is designed as a double-blind study to avoid introducing bias in the evaluation of efficacy, safety and immunogenicity. The clinical care team, the professionals responsible for the vaccination and the participants will not know which investigational product will be administered. Only pharmacists or nurses in the study who are responsible for the randomization, separation and blinding of the investigational product will have access to unblinded information. The sponsor's operational team will also remain blind. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The total number of participants needed to evaluate efficacy, 13,060 participants, satisfies the needed sample size calculated to evaluate safety. Therefore, the total number obtained for efficacy will be the number retained for the study. Up to 13,060 participants are expected to enter the study, with up to 11,800 participants aged 18 to 59 years and 1,260 elderly participants aged 60 and over. Half of the participants of each group will receive the experimental vaccine and half of them will receive the placebo. The recruitment of participants may be modified as recommended by the Data Safety Monitoring Committee at time of the interim unblinded analysis or blind assessment of the COVID-19 attack rate during the study. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 2.0 - 24-Aug-2020. Recruitment started on July 21st, 2020. The recruitment is expected to conclude in October 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT0445659 . Registry on 2 July 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Data Management , Double-Blind Method , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Informed Consent/ethics , Injections, Intramuscular , Male , Middle Aged , Placebos/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety , Therapies, Investigational/methods , Treatment Outcome , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccines/adverse effects , Young Adult
11.
Phytother Res ; 35(2): 864-876, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-800772

ABSTRACT

Recently, the novel life-threatening coronavirus infection (COVID-19) was reported at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, China, and spread throughout the world in little time. The effective antiviral activities of natural products have been proved in different studies. In this review, regarding the effective herbal treatments on other coronavirus infections, promising natural products for COVID-19 treatment are suggested. An extensive search in Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, ISI, and Scopus was done with search words include coronavirus, COVID-19, SARS, MERS, natural product, herb, plant, and extract. The consumption of herbal medicine such as Allium sativum, Camellia sinensis, Zingiber officinale, Nigella sativa, Echinacea spp. Hypericum perforatum, and Glycyrrhiza glabra, Scutellaria baicalensis can improve the immune response. It seems that different types of terpenoids have promising effects in viral replication inhibition and could be introduced for future studies. Additionally, some alkaloid structures such as homoharringtonine, lycorine, and emetine have strong anti-coronavirus effects. Natural products can inhibit different coronavirus targets such as S protein (emodin, baicalin) and viral enzymes replication such as 3CLpro (Iguesterin), PLpro (Cryptotanshinone), helicase (Silvestrol), and RdRp (Sotetsuflavone). Based on previous studies, natural products can be introduced as preventive and therapeutic agents in the fight against coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemoprevention/methods , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Phytotherapy/methods , Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/classification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Phenanthridines/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Scutellaria baicalensis , Therapies, Investigational/methods , Virus Replication/drug effects
12.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(2): G67-G77, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665892

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a major international emergency leading to unprecedented medical, economic and societal challenges. Countries around the globe are facing challenges with diabetes care and are similarly adapting care delivery, with local cultural nuances. People with diabetes suffer disproportionately from acute COVID-19 with higher rates of serious complications and death. In-patient services need specialist support to appropriately manage glycaemia in people with known and undiagnosed diabetes presenting with COVID-19. Due to the restrictions imposed by the pandemic, people with diabetes may suffer longer-term harm caused by inadequate clinical support and less frequent monitoring of their condition and diabetes-related complications. Outpatient management need to be reorganised to maintain remote advice and support services, focusing on proactive care for the highest risk, and using telehealth and digital services for consultations, self-management and remote monitoring, where appropriate. Stratification of patients for face-to-face or remote follow-up should be based on a balanced risk assessment. Public health and national organisations have generally responded rapidly with guidance on care management, but the pandemic has created a tension around prioritisation of communicable vs non-communicable disease. Resulting challenges in clinical decision-making are compounded by a reduced clinical workforce. For many years, increasing diabetes mellitus incidence has been mirrored by rising preventable morbidity and mortality due to complications, yet innovation in service delivery has been slow. While the current focus is on limiting the terrible harm caused by the pandemic, it is possible that a positive lasting legacy of COVID-19 might include accelerated innovation in chronic disease management.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Therapies, Investigational/trends , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Endocrinology/methods , Endocrinology/trends , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/trends , Therapies, Investigational/methods , United Kingdom/epidemiology
13.
Int J Cardiol ; 318: 160-164, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-623475

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease, affecting ~9 million people in the past five months and causing >460,000 deaths worldwide, is completely new to mankind. More than 2,000 research projects registered at ClinTrials.gov are aiming at finding effective treatments for rapid transfer to clinical practice. Unfortunately, just few studies have a sufficiently valid design to provide reliable information for clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Repositioning/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Therapies, Investigational/methods , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Clinical Trials as Topic/organization & administration , Clinical Trials as Topic/standards , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Italy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Research , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMJ Open ; 10(6): e039978, 2020 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592392

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has prompted many initiatives to identify safe and efficacious treatments, yet little is known regarding where early efforts have focused. We aimed to characterise registered clinical trials assessing drugs or plasma treatments for COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional analysis of clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19 that were registered in the USA or in countries contributing to the WHO's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Relevant trial entries of drugs or plasma were downloaded on 26 March 2020, deduplicated, verified with reviews of major medical journals and WHO websites and independently analysed by two reviewers. MAIN OUTCOMES: Trial intervention, sponsorship, critical design elements and specified outcomes RESULTS: Overall, 201 clinical trials were registered for testing the therapeutic benefits of 92 drugs or plasma, including 64 in monotherapy and 28 different combinations. Only eight (8.7%) products or combinations involved new molecular entities. The other test therapies had a wide range of prior medical uses, including as antivirals, antimalarials, immunosuppressants and oncology treatments. In 152 trials (75.7%), patients were randomised to treatment or comparator, including 55 trials with some form of blinding and 97 open-label studies. The 49 (24.4%) of trials without a randomised design included 29 single armed studies and 20 trials with some comparison group. Most trial designs featured multiple endpoints. Clinical endpoints were identified in 134 (66.7%) of trials and included COVID-19 symptoms, death, recovery, required intensive care and hospital discharge. Clinical scales were being used in 33 (16.4%) trials, most often measures of oxygenation and critical illness. Surrogate endpoints or biomarkers were studied in 88 (42.3%) of trials, primarily assays of viral load. Although the trials were initiated in more than 17 countries or regions, 100 (49.8%) were registered in China and 78 (37.8%) in the USA. Registered trials increased rapidly, with the number of registered trials doubling from 1 March to 26 March 2020. CONCLUSIONS: While accelerating morbidity and mortality from the COVID-19 pandemic has been paralleled by early and rapid clinical investigation, many trials lack features to optimise their scientific value. Global coordination and increased funding of high-quality research may help to maximise scientific progress in rapidly discovering safe and effective treatments.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Pandemics , Plasma/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic/classification , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Clinical Trials as Topic/standards , Clinical Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Registries/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Therapies, Investigational/methods , Therapies, Investigational/statistics & numerical data
15.
JAMA Pediatr ; 174(10): e202422, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-540461

ABSTRACT

Importance: Children of all ages appear susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. To support pediatric clinical studies for investigational treatments of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), pediatric-specific dosing is required. Objective: To define pediatric-specific dosing regimens for hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir for COVID-19 treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants: Pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation were used to extrapolate investigated adult dosages toward children (March 2020-April 2020). Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling was used to inform pediatric dosing for hydroxychloroquine. For remdesivir, pediatric dosages were derived using allometric-scaling with age-dependent exponents. Dosing simulations were conducted using simulated pediatric and adult participants based on the demographics of a white US population. Interventions: Simulated drug exposures following a 5-day course of hydroxychloroquine (400 mg every 12 hours × 2 doses followed by 200 mg every 12 hours × 8 doses) and a single 200-mg intravenous dose of remdesivir were computed for simulated adult participants. A simulation-based dose-ranging study was conducted in simulated children exploring different absolute and weight-normalized dosing strategies. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome for hydroxychloroquine was average unbound plasma concentrations for 5 treatment days. Additionally, unbound interstitial lung concentrations were simulated. For remdesivir, the primary outcome was plasma exposure (area under the curve, 0 to infinity) following single-dose administration. Results: For hydroxychloroquine, the physiologically based pharmacokinetic model analysis included 500 and 600 simulated white adult and pediatric participants, respectively, and supported weight-normalized dosing for children weighing less than 50 kg. Geometric mean-simulated average unbound plasma concentration values among children within different developmental age groups (32-35 ng/mL) were congruent to adults (32 ng/mL). Simulated unbound hydroxychloroquine concentrations in lung interstitial fluid mirrored those in unbound plasma and were notably lower than in vitro concentrations needed to mediate antiviral activity. For remdesivir, the analysis included 1000 and 6000 simulated adult and pediatric participants, respectively. The proposed pediatric dosing strategy supported weight-normalized dosing for participants weighing less than 60 kg. Geometric mean-simulated plasma area under the time curve 0 to infinity values among children within different developmental age-groups (4315-5027 ng × h/mL) were similar to adults (4398 ng × h/mL). Conclusions and Relevance: This analysis provides pediatric-specific dosing suggestions for hydroxychloroquine and remdesivir and raises concerns regarding hydroxychloroquine use for COVID-19 treatment because concentrations were less than those needed to mediate an antiviral effect.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacokinetics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Therapies, Investigational/methods , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adolescent , Adult , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Dosage Calculations , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Patient Simulation , Young Adult
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