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1.
Molecules ; 27(2)2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624914

ABSTRACT

A novel series of 1-aryl-N-[4-phenyl-5-(arylazo)thiazol-2-yl)methanimines has been synthesized via the condensation of 2-amino-4-phenyl-5-arylazothiazole with various aromatic aldehydes. The synthesized imines were characterized by spectroscopic techniques, namely 1H and 13C-NMR, FTIR, MS, and Elemental Analysis. A molecular comparative docking study for 3a-f was calculated, with reference to two approved drugs, Molnupiravir and Remdesivir, using 7BQY (Mpro; PDB code 7BQY; resolution: 1.7 A°) under identical conditions. The binding scores against 7BQY were in the range of -7.7 to -8.7 kcal/mol for 3a-f. The high scores of the compounds indicated an enhanced binding affinity of the molecules to the receptor. This is due to the hydrophobic interactions and multi-hydrogen bonds between 3a-f ligands and the receptor's active amino acid residues. The main aim of using in silco molecular docking was to rank 3a-f with respect to the approved drugs, Molnupiravir and Remdesivir, using free energy methods as greener pastures. A further interesting comparison presented the laydown of the ligands before and after molecular docking. These results and other supporting statistical analyses suggested that ligands 3a-f deserve further investigation in the context of potential therapeutic agents for COVID-19. Free-cost, PASS, SwissADME, and Way2drug were used in this research paper to determine the possible biological activities and cytotoxicity of 3a-f.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Imines/chemistry , Thiazoles/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Binding Sites , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Cytidine/chemistry , Hydroxylamines/chemistry , Imines/chemical synthesis , Imines/pharmacokinetics , Imines/toxicity , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thiazoles/chemical synthesis , Thiazoles/pharmacokinetics , Thiazoles/toxicity
2.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 58: 128526, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592308

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically impacted global economies and public health. Although vaccine development has been successful, it was not sufficient against more infectious mutant strains including the Delta variant indicating a need for alternative treatment strategies such as small molecular compound development. In this work, a series of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) inhibitors were designed and tested based on the active compound from high-throughput diverse compound library screens. The most efficacious compound (16b-3) displayed potent SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibition with an IC50 value of 116 nM and selectivity against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro when compared to PLpro and RdRp. This new class of compounds could be used as potential leads for further optimization in anti COVID-19 drug discovery.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Discovery , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Protease Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Thiazoles/chemical synthesis , Thiazoles/chemistry
3.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580401

ABSTRACT

Medicinal chemistry optimization of a previously described stilbene inhibitor of HIV-1, 5350150 (2-(2-(5-nitro-2-thienyl)vinyl)quinoline), led to the identification of the thiazole-5-carboxamide derivative (GPS491), which retained potent anti-HIV-1 activity with reduced toxicity. In this report, we demonstrate that the block of HIV-1 replication by GPS491 is accompanied by a drastic inhibition of viral gene expression (IC50 ~ 0.25 µM), and alterations in the production of unspliced, singly spliced, and multiply spliced HIV-1 RNAs. GPS491 also inhibited the replication of adenovirus and multiple coronaviruses. Low µM doses of GPS491 reduced adenovirus infectious yield ~1000 fold, altered virus early gene expression/viral E1A RNA processing, blocked viral DNA amplification, and inhibited late (hexon) gene expression. Loss of replication of multiple coronaviruses (229E, OC43, SARS-CoV2) upon GPS491 addition was associated with the inhibition of viral structural protein expression and the formation of virus particles. Consistent with the observed changes in viral RNA processing, GPS491 treatment induced selective alterations in the accumulation/phosphorylation/function of splicing regulatory SR proteins. Our study establishes that a compound that impacts the activity of cellular factors involved in RNA processing can prevent the replication of several viruses with minimal effect on cell viability.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , HIV-1/drug effects , RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional/drug effects , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Adenoviridae/physiology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cell Line , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/physiology , Gene Expression/drug effects , HIV-1/physiology , Humans , RNA Splicing Factors/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Thiazoles/chemistry
4.
ChemMedChem ; 16(23): 3548-3552, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1400781

ABSTRACT

Over half a century since the description of the first antiviral drug, "old" re-emerging viruses and "new" emerging viruses still represent a serious threat to global health. Their high mutation rate and rapid selection of resistance toward common antiviral drugs, together with the increasing number of co-infections, make the war against viruses quite challenging. Herein we report a host-targeted approach, based on the inhibition of the lipid kinase PI4KIIIß, as a promising strategy for inhibiting the replication of multiple viruses hijacking this protein. We show that bithiazole inhibitors of PI4KIIIß block the replication of human rhinoviruses (hRV), Zika virus (ZIKV) and SARS-CoV-2 at low micromolar and sub-micromolar concentrations. However, while the anti-hRV/ZIKV activity can be directly linked to PI4KIIIß inhibition, the role of PI4KIIIß in SARS-CoV-2 entry/replication is debated.


Subject(s)
1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Rhinovirus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thiazoles/chemistry , Virus Replication/drug effects , Zika Virus/physiology , 1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Drug Stability , Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thiazoles/metabolism , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Zika Virus Infection/pathology
5.
Science ; 373(6557): 931-936, 2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319369

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for antiviral agents that treat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We screened a library of 1900 clinically safe drugs against OC43, a human beta coronavirus that causes the common cold, and evaluated the top hits against SARS-CoV-2. Twenty drugs significantly inhibited replication of both viruses in cultured human cells. Eight of these drugs inhibited the activity of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, 3CLpro, with the most potent being masitinib, an orally bioavailable tyrosine kinase inhibitor. X-ray crystallography and biochemistry show that masitinib acts as a competitive inhibitor of 3CLpro. Mice infected with SARS-CoV-2 and then treated with masitinib showed >200-fold reduction in viral titers in the lungs and nose, as well as reduced lung inflammation. Masitinib was also effective in vitro against all tested variants of concern (B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thiazoles/pharmacology , A549 Cells , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzamides , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Piperidines , Pyridines , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thiazoles/chemistry , Thiazoles/metabolism , Thiazoles/therapeutic use , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
6.
ChemMedChem ; 16(15): 2339-2344, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272172

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection continues to be a global health problem. Despite the current implementation of COVID-19 vaccination schedules, identifying effective antiviral drug treatments for this disease continues to be a priority. A recent study showed that masitinib (MST), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocks the proteolytic activity of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro ). Although MST is a potential candidate for COVID-19 treatment, a comprehensive analysis of its interaction with Mpro has not been done. In this work, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of the MST-Mpro complex crystal structure. The effect of the protonation states of Mpro H163 residue and MST titratable groups were studied. Furthermore, we identified the MST substituents and Mpro mutations that affect the stability of the complex. Our results provide valuable insights into the design of new MST analogs as potential treatments for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Thiazoles/metabolism , Benzamides , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Hydrogen Bonding , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutation , Piperidines , Protein Binding , Pyridines , Static Electricity , Thiazoles/chemistry
7.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 76(11-12): 467-480, 2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202282

ABSTRACT

A series of ethyl 2-(2-(arylidene)hydrazinyl)thiazole-4-carboxylates (2a-r) was synthesized in two steps from thiosemicarbazones (1a-r), which were cyclized with ethyl bromopyruvate to ethyl 2-(2-(arylidene)hydrazinyl)thiazole-4-carboxylates (2a-r). The structures of compounds (2a-r) were established by FT-IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR. The structure of compound 2a was confirmed by HRMS. The compounds (2a-r) were then evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant assays. The antioxidant studies revealed, ethyl 2-(2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)hydrazinyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate (2g) and ethyl 2-(2-(1-phenylethylidene)hydrazinyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate (2h) as promising antioxidant agents with %FRSA: 84.46 ± 0.13 and 74.50 ± 0.37, TAC: 269.08 ± 0.92 and 269.11 ± 0.61 and TRP: 272.34 ± 0.87 and 231.11 ± 0.67 µg AAE/mg dry weight of compound. Beside bioactivities, density functional theory (DFT) methods were used to study the electronic structure and properties of synthesized compounds (2a-m). The potential of synthesized compounds for possible antiviral targets is also predicted through molecular docking methods. The compounds 2e and 2h showed good binding affinities and inhibition constants to be considered as therapeutic target for Mpro protein of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). The present in-depth analysis of synthesized compounds will put them under the spot light for practical applications as antioxidants and the modification in structural motif may open the way for COVID-19 drug.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemical synthesis , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Thiazoles/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Density Functional Theory , Fusarium/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Structure-Activity Relationship , Thiazoles/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
8.
SLAS Discov ; 26(6): 749-756, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136206

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) represents a significant threat to human health. Despite its similarity to related coronaviruses, there are currently no specific treatments for COVID-19 infection, and therefore there is an urgent need to develop therapies for this and future coronavirus outbreaks. Formation of the cap at the 5' end of viral RNA has been shown to help coronaviruses evade host defenses. Nonstructural protein 14 (nsp14) is responsible for N7-methylation of the cap guanosine in coronaviruses. This enzyme is highly conserved among coronaviruses and is a bifunctional protein with both N7-methyltransferase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities that distinguish nsp14 from its human equivalent. Mutational analysis of SARS-CoV nsp14 highlighted its role in viral replication and translation efficiency of the viral genome. In this paper, we describe the characterization and development of a high-throughput assay for nsp14 utilizing RapidFire technology. The assay has been used to screen a library of 1771 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. From this, we have validated nitazoxanide as a selective inhibitor of the methyltransferase activity of nsp14. Although modestly active, this compound could serve as a starting point for further optimization.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Exoribonucleases/antagonists & inhibitors , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Nitro Compounds/pharmacology , RNA Caps/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA, Viral/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiparasitic Agents/chemistry , Antiparasitic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Cloning, Molecular , Drug Repositioning , Enzyme Assays , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Exoribonucleases/genetics , Exoribonucleases/metabolism , Gene Expression , Genetic Vectors/chemistry , Genetic Vectors/metabolism , Humans , Kinetics , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Methylation , Nitro Compounds/chemistry , Prescription Drugs/chemistry , Prescription Drugs/pharmacology , RNA Caps/genetics , RNA Caps/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Thiazoles/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
9.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 141(2): 215-233, 2021.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055838

ABSTRACT

Studies on functional molecules starting from syntheses of cysteine-containing peptides and protein are described. Starting from evaluation of a cysteine specific side-reaction, a specific reaction for disulfide-bond formation was developed. The reaction made it possible to independently construct a disulfide bridge without effecting the existing disulfide bonds, which resulted in a unique approach for the synthesis of human insulin by site-specific disulfide bond formation. In a series of studies on sulfur-containing amino acids, another cysteine related un-natural amino acid, α-methyl cysteine, was used for the total syntheses of natural products containing a unique thiazorine/thiazole ring system. Chloroimidazolidium coupling reagent developed by us was effective for the successive couplings of the α-methyl cysteine residues. Based on these synthetic studies, design and evaluation of protease inhibitors were then studied, since a stereo-specific synthesis of the key structure is crucial to make the inhibitor an effective functional molecule in the interactions with its target protease. As the target proteases, ß-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and chymotrypsin-like protease of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS 3CL protease) were selected: the former is a crucial enzyme for amyloid ß production and the latter is an essential enzyme for the re-construction of SARS corona virus in host cells. Structure optimization procedure of the respective inhibitors are described based on X-ray crystal structure analyses of the inhibitor-protease complex.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/chemistry , Peptides/chemical synthesis , Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases/chemistry , Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases/chemistry , Biological Products/chemical synthesis , Biological Products/chemistry , Chymases/chemistry , Crystallography, X-Ray , Cysteine , Disulfides/chemistry , Insulin/chemical synthesis , Peptides/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS Virus , Sulfur/chemistry , Thiazoles/chemistry
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17716, 2020 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880701

ABSTRACT

In the rapidly evolving coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, repurposing existing drugs and evaluating commercially available inhibitors against druggable targets of the virus could be an effective strategy to accelerate the drug discovery process. The 3C-Like proteinase (3CLpro) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as an important drug target due to its role in viral replication. The lack of a potent 3CLpro inhibitor and the availability of the X-ray crystal structure of 3CLpro (PDB-ID 6LU7) motivated us to perform computational studies to identify commercially available potential inhibitors. A combination of modeling studies was performed to identify potential 3CLpro inhibitors from the protease inhibitor database MEROPS ( https://www.ebi.ac.uk/merops/index.shtml ). Binding energy evaluation identified key residues for inhibitor design. We found 15 potential 3CLpro inhibitors with higher binding affinity than that of an α-ketoamide inhibitor determined via X-ray structure. Among them, saquinavir and three other investigational drugs aclarubicin, TMC-310911, and faldaprevir could be suggested as potential 3CLpro inhibitors. We recommend further experimental investigation of these compounds.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Aclarubicin/chemistry , Aclarubicin/metabolism , Aminoisobutyric Acids , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Databases, Factual , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Oligopeptides/chemistry , Oligopeptides/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Quinolines , SARS-CoV-2 , Thermodynamics , Thiazoles/chemistry , Thiazoles/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
12.
Med Chem ; 16(1): 4-23, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-831506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thiazole is a good nucleus owing to its various pharmaceutical applications. Thiazole containing compounds (thiazoles) have shown various biological activities like antioxidant, analgesic, antibacterial, anticancer, antiallergic, antihypertensive, antiinflammatory, antimalarial, antifungal and antipsychotic. The scaffold is present in more than 18 FDA approved drugs and also in more than 70 experimental drugs. Only a few reviews are available in the literature despite its great medicinal importance. During the course of time, this scaffold has been studied extensively for its antiviral activities and provided compounds with activity in the nM range. However, no focused review is available on the compilation of antiviral activities shown by this scaffold. OBJECTIVE: In the present review, we have made an effort to compile antiviral literature of thiazoles reported from the year 2011 to till date. METHODS: We searched the SciFinder database (excluding patent literature) with keywords like "antiviral", "anti-HIV" and "virus". Further filters were applied for the year of publication and keywords thiazole, reviews etc. to find relevant literature reported on the antiviral activities of thiazoles. RESULTS: Nearly, 50 research articles were selected to compile and review the antiviral literature of thiazoles reported from the year 2011 to till date. Compounds 8, 25, 40, 62, 72, 73, 91, 112, 113, 131, 137, 175, 198, 200, 201 and 213 were reported in the literature with potent antiviral activity against CVB, SARS, RSV, HCV, HRV, VZV, TMV, FMDV, DENV, YFV, influenza virus, Junin virus, HIV-1, HSV, VV and EBV, respectively. CONCLUSION: There is further scope for the synthesis and evaluation of novel thiazole compounds by taking the most active compounds as lead structures. In conclusion, this review provides an overview of antiviral activities of thiazole compounds reported from the year 2011 to till date.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Viruses/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Structure-Activity Relationship , Thiazoles/chemistry
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