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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19998, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462031

ABSTRACT

Understanding the effects of metabolism on the rational design of novel and more effective drugs is still a considerable challenge. To the best of our knowledge, there are no entirely computational strategies that make it possible to predict these effects. From this perspective, the development of such methodologies could contribute to significantly reduce the side effects of medicines, leading to the emergence of more effective and safer drugs. Thereby, in this study, our strategy is based on simulating the electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS) fragmentation of the drug molecules and combined with molecular docking and ADMET models in two different situations. In the first model, the drug is docked without considering the possible metabolic effects. In the second model, each of the intermediates from the EI-MS results is docked, and metabolism occurs before the drug accesses the biological target. As a proof of concept, in this work, we investigate the main antiviral drugs used in clinical research to treat COVID-19. As a result, our strategy made it possible to assess the biological activity and toxicity of all potential by-products. We believed that our findings provide new chemical insights that can benefit the rational development of novel drugs in the future.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenine/adverse effects , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adenine/metabolism , Adenine/pharmacology , Adenosine/adverse effects , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/metabolism , Adenosine/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/metabolism , Alanine/pharmacology , Amides/adverse effects , Amides/metabolism , Amides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Chloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Chloroquine/metabolism , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Drug Design , Humans , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nitro Compounds/adverse effects , Nitro Compounds/metabolism , Nitro Compounds/pharmacology , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Pyrazines/metabolism , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/adverse effects , Pyrrolidines/metabolism , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Ribavirin/metabolism , Ribavirin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thiazoles/adverse effects , Thiazoles/metabolism , Thiazoles/pharmacology
2.
ChemMedChem ; 16(23): 3548-3552, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1400781

ABSTRACT

Over half a century since the description of the first antiviral drug, "old" re-emerging viruses and "new" emerging viruses still represent a serious threat to global health. Their high mutation rate and rapid selection of resistance toward common antiviral drugs, together with the increasing number of co-infections, make the war against viruses quite challenging. Herein we report a host-targeted approach, based on the inhibition of the lipid kinase PI4KIIIß, as a promising strategy for inhibiting the replication of multiple viruses hijacking this protein. We show that bithiazole inhibitors of PI4KIIIß block the replication of human rhinoviruses (hRV), Zika virus (ZIKV) and SARS-CoV-2 at low micromolar and sub-micromolar concentrations. However, while the anti-hRV/ZIKV activity can be directly linked to PI4KIIIß inhibition, the role of PI4KIIIß in SARS-CoV-2 entry/replication is debated.


Subject(s)
1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Rhinovirus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thiazoles/chemistry , Virus Replication/drug effects , Zika Virus/physiology , 1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Drug Stability , Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thiazoles/metabolism , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Zika Virus Infection/pathology
3.
Science ; 373(6557): 931-936, 2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319369

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for antiviral agents that treat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We screened a library of 1900 clinically safe drugs against OC43, a human beta coronavirus that causes the common cold, and evaluated the top hits against SARS-CoV-2. Twenty drugs significantly inhibited replication of both viruses in cultured human cells. Eight of these drugs inhibited the activity of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, 3CLpro, with the most potent being masitinib, an orally bioavailable tyrosine kinase inhibitor. X-ray crystallography and biochemistry show that masitinib acts as a competitive inhibitor of 3CLpro. Mice infected with SARS-CoV-2 and then treated with masitinib showed >200-fold reduction in viral titers in the lungs and nose, as well as reduced lung inflammation. Masitinib was also effective in vitro against all tested variants of concern (B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thiazoles/pharmacology , A549 Cells , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzamides , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Piperidines , Pyridines , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thiazoles/chemistry , Thiazoles/metabolism , Thiazoles/therapeutic use , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
4.
ChemMedChem ; 16(15): 2339-2344, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272172

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection continues to be a global health problem. Despite the current implementation of COVID-19 vaccination schedules, identifying effective antiviral drug treatments for this disease continues to be a priority. A recent study showed that masitinib (MST), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocks the proteolytic activity of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro ). Although MST is a potential candidate for COVID-19 treatment, a comprehensive analysis of its interaction with Mpro has not been done. In this work, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of the MST-Mpro complex crystal structure. The effect of the protonation states of Mpro H163 residue and MST titratable groups were studied. Furthermore, we identified the MST substituents and Mpro mutations that affect the stability of the complex. Our results provide valuable insights into the design of new MST analogs as potential treatments for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Thiazoles/metabolism , Benzamides , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/genetics , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Hydrogen Bonding , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutation , Piperidines , Protein Binding , Pyridines , Static Electricity , Thiazoles/chemistry
5.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 76(11-12): 467-480, 2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202282

ABSTRACT

A series of ethyl 2-(2-(arylidene)hydrazinyl)thiazole-4-carboxylates (2a-r) was synthesized in two steps from thiosemicarbazones (1a-r), which were cyclized with ethyl bromopyruvate to ethyl 2-(2-(arylidene)hydrazinyl)thiazole-4-carboxylates (2a-r). The structures of compounds (2a-r) were established by FT-IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR. The structure of compound 2a was confirmed by HRMS. The compounds (2a-r) were then evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant assays. The antioxidant studies revealed, ethyl 2-(2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)hydrazinyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate (2g) and ethyl 2-(2-(1-phenylethylidene)hydrazinyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate (2h) as promising antioxidant agents with %FRSA: 84.46 ± 0.13 and 74.50 ± 0.37, TAC: 269.08 ± 0.92 and 269.11 ± 0.61 and TRP: 272.34 ± 0.87 and 231.11 ± 0.67 µg AAE/mg dry weight of compound. Beside bioactivities, density functional theory (DFT) methods were used to study the electronic structure and properties of synthesized compounds (2a-m). The potential of synthesized compounds for possible antiviral targets is also predicted through molecular docking methods. The compounds 2e and 2h showed good binding affinities and inhibition constants to be considered as therapeutic target for Mpro protein of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). The present in-depth analysis of synthesized compounds will put them under the spot light for practical applications as antioxidants and the modification in structural motif may open the way for COVID-19 drug.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemical synthesis , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Thiazoles/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Density Functional Theory , Fusarium/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Structure-Activity Relationship , Thiazoles/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17716, 2020 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880701

ABSTRACT

In the rapidly evolving coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, repurposing existing drugs and evaluating commercially available inhibitors against druggable targets of the virus could be an effective strategy to accelerate the drug discovery process. The 3C-Like proteinase (3CLpro) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as an important drug target due to its role in viral replication. The lack of a potent 3CLpro inhibitor and the availability of the X-ray crystal structure of 3CLpro (PDB-ID 6LU7) motivated us to perform computational studies to identify commercially available potential inhibitors. A combination of modeling studies was performed to identify potential 3CLpro inhibitors from the protease inhibitor database MEROPS ( https://www.ebi.ac.uk/merops/index.shtml ). Binding energy evaluation identified key residues for inhibitor design. We found 15 potential 3CLpro inhibitors with higher binding affinity than that of an α-ketoamide inhibitor determined via X-ray structure. Among them, saquinavir and three other investigational drugs aclarubicin, TMC-310911, and faldaprevir could be suggested as potential 3CLpro inhibitors. We recommend further experimental investigation of these compounds.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Aclarubicin/chemistry , Aclarubicin/metabolism , Aminoisobutyric Acids , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Databases, Factual , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Oligopeptides/chemistry , Oligopeptides/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Quinolines , SARS-CoV-2 , Thermodynamics , Thiazoles/chemistry , Thiazoles/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
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