Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 12 de 12
Filter
1.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 58: 128526, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592308

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically impacted global economies and public health. Although vaccine development has been successful, it was not sufficient against more infectious mutant strains including the Delta variant indicating a need for alternative treatment strategies such as small molecular compound development. In this work, a series of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) inhibitors were designed and tested based on the active compound from high-throughput diverse compound library screens. The most efficacious compound (16b-3) displayed potent SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibition with an IC50 value of 116 nM and selectivity against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro when compared to PLpro and RdRp. This new class of compounds could be used as potential leads for further optimization in anti COVID-19 drug discovery.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Discovery , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Protease Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Thiazoles/chemical synthesis , Thiazoles/chemistry
2.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580401

ABSTRACT

Medicinal chemistry optimization of a previously described stilbene inhibitor of HIV-1, 5350150 (2-(2-(5-nitro-2-thienyl)vinyl)quinoline), led to the identification of the thiazole-5-carboxamide derivative (GPS491), which retained potent anti-HIV-1 activity with reduced toxicity. In this report, we demonstrate that the block of HIV-1 replication by GPS491 is accompanied by a drastic inhibition of viral gene expression (IC50 ~ 0.25 µM), and alterations in the production of unspliced, singly spliced, and multiply spliced HIV-1 RNAs. GPS491 also inhibited the replication of adenovirus and multiple coronaviruses. Low µM doses of GPS491 reduced adenovirus infectious yield ~1000 fold, altered virus early gene expression/viral E1A RNA processing, blocked viral DNA amplification, and inhibited late (hexon) gene expression. Loss of replication of multiple coronaviruses (229E, OC43, SARS-CoV2) upon GPS491 addition was associated with the inhibition of viral structural protein expression and the formation of virus particles. Consistent with the observed changes in viral RNA processing, GPS491 treatment induced selective alterations in the accumulation/phosphorylation/function of splicing regulatory SR proteins. Our study establishes that a compound that impacts the activity of cellular factors involved in RNA processing can prevent the replication of several viruses with minimal effect on cell viability.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , HIV-1/drug effects , RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional/drug effects , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Adenoviridae/physiology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cell Line , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/physiology , Gene Expression/drug effects , HIV-1/physiology , Humans , RNA Splicing Factors/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Thiazoles/chemistry
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19998, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462031

ABSTRACT

Understanding the effects of metabolism on the rational design of novel and more effective drugs is still a considerable challenge. To the best of our knowledge, there are no entirely computational strategies that make it possible to predict these effects. From this perspective, the development of such methodologies could contribute to significantly reduce the side effects of medicines, leading to the emergence of more effective and safer drugs. Thereby, in this study, our strategy is based on simulating the electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS) fragmentation of the drug molecules and combined with molecular docking and ADMET models in two different situations. In the first model, the drug is docked without considering the possible metabolic effects. In the second model, each of the intermediates from the EI-MS results is docked, and metabolism occurs before the drug accesses the biological target. As a proof of concept, in this work, we investigate the main antiviral drugs used in clinical research to treat COVID-19. As a result, our strategy made it possible to assess the biological activity and toxicity of all potential by-products. We believed that our findings provide new chemical insights that can benefit the rational development of novel drugs in the future.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenine/adverse effects , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adenine/metabolism , Adenine/pharmacology , Adenosine/adverse effects , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/metabolism , Adenosine/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/metabolism , Alanine/pharmacology , Amides/adverse effects , Amides/metabolism , Amides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Chloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Chloroquine/metabolism , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Drug Design , Humans , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nitro Compounds/adverse effects , Nitro Compounds/metabolism , Nitro Compounds/pharmacology , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Pyrazines/metabolism , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/adverse effects , Pyrrolidines/metabolism , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Ribavirin/metabolism , Ribavirin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thiazoles/adverse effects , Thiazoles/metabolism , Thiazoles/pharmacology
4.
Science ; 373(6557): 931-936, 2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319369

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for antiviral agents that treat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We screened a library of 1900 clinically safe drugs against OC43, a human beta coronavirus that causes the common cold, and evaluated the top hits against SARS-CoV-2. Twenty drugs significantly inhibited replication of both viruses in cultured human cells. Eight of these drugs inhibited the activity of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, 3CLpro, with the most potent being masitinib, an orally bioavailable tyrosine kinase inhibitor. X-ray crystallography and biochemistry show that masitinib acts as a competitive inhibitor of 3CLpro. Mice infected with SARS-CoV-2 and then treated with masitinib showed >200-fold reduction in viral titers in the lungs and nose, as well as reduced lung inflammation. Masitinib was also effective in vitro against all tested variants of concern (B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thiazoles/pharmacology , A549 Cells , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzamides , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Piperidines , Pyridines , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thiazoles/chemistry , Thiazoles/metabolism , Thiazoles/therapeutic use , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
5.
SLAS Discov ; 26(6): 749-756, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136206

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) represents a significant threat to human health. Despite its similarity to related coronaviruses, there are currently no specific treatments for COVID-19 infection, and therefore there is an urgent need to develop therapies for this and future coronavirus outbreaks. Formation of the cap at the 5' end of viral RNA has been shown to help coronaviruses evade host defenses. Nonstructural protein 14 (nsp14) is responsible for N7-methylation of the cap guanosine in coronaviruses. This enzyme is highly conserved among coronaviruses and is a bifunctional protein with both N7-methyltransferase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities that distinguish nsp14 from its human equivalent. Mutational analysis of SARS-CoV nsp14 highlighted its role in viral replication and translation efficiency of the viral genome. In this paper, we describe the characterization and development of a high-throughput assay for nsp14 utilizing RapidFire technology. The assay has been used to screen a library of 1771 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. From this, we have validated nitazoxanide as a selective inhibitor of the methyltransferase activity of nsp14. Although modestly active, this compound could serve as a starting point for further optimization.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Exoribonucleases/antagonists & inhibitors , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Nitro Compounds/pharmacology , RNA Caps/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA, Viral/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiparasitic Agents/chemistry , Antiparasitic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Cloning, Molecular , Drug Repositioning , Enzyme Assays , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Exoribonucleases/genetics , Exoribonucleases/metabolism , Gene Expression , Genetic Vectors/chemistry , Genetic Vectors/metabolism , Humans , Kinetics , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Methylation , Nitro Compounds/chemistry , Prescription Drugs/chemistry , Prescription Drugs/pharmacology , RNA Caps/genetics , RNA Caps/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Thiazoles/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
6.
Drug Discov Today ; 26(6): 1473-1481, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086904

ABSTRACT

The novel respiratory virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerged during late 2019 and spread rapidly across the world. It is now recognised that the nervous system can be affected in COVID-19, with several studies reporting long-term cognitive problems in patients. The metabolic pathway of tryptophan degradation, known as the kynurenine pathway (KP), is significantly activated in patients with COVID-19. KP metabolites have roles in regulating both inflammatory/immune responses and neurological functions. In this review, we speculate on the effects of KP activation in patients with COVID-19, and how modulation of this pathway might impact inflammation and reduce neurological symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognition , Inflammation/metabolism , Kynurenine/metabolism , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Tryptophan/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/psychology , Cognition/drug effects , Cognition/physiology , Humans , Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Signal Transduction
7.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 891: 173748, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1049786

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has brought the world to a grinding halt. A major cause of concern is the respiratory distress associated mortality attributed to the cytokine storm. Despite myriad rapidly approved clinical trials with repurposed drugs, and time needed to develop a vaccine, accelerated search for repurposed therapeutics is still ongoing. In this review, we present Nitazoxanide a US-FDA approved antiprotozoal drug, as one such promising candidate. Nitazoxanide which is reported to exert broad-spectrum antiviral activity against various viral infections, revealed good in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture assays, suggesting potential for repurposing in COVID-19. Furthermore, nitazoxanide displays the potential to boost host innate immune responses and thereby tackle the life-threatening cytokine storm. Possibilities of improving lung, as well as multiple organ damage and providing value addition to COVID-19 patients with comorbidities, are other important facets of the drug. The review juxtaposes the role of nitazoxanide in fighting COVID-19 pathogenesis at multiple levels highlighting the great promise the drug exhibits. The in silico data and in vitro efficacy in cell lines confirms the promise of nitazoxanide. Several approved clinical trials world over further substantiate leveraging nitazoxanide for COVID-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2 , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Nitro Compounds , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
8.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(1): 707-720, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030457

ABSTRACT

The whole world is battling through coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) which is a fatal pandemic. In the early 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared it as a global health emergency without definitive treatments and preventive approaches. In the absence of definitive therapeutic agents, this thorough review summarizes and outlines the potency and safety of all molecules and therapeutics which may have potential antiviral effects. A number of molecules and therapeutics licensed or being tested for some other conditions were found effective in different in vitro studies as well as in many small sample-sized clinical trials and independent case studies. However, in those clinical trials, there were some limitations which need to be overcome to find the most promising antiviral against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In conclusion, many of above-mentioned antivirals seems to have some therapeutic effects but none of them have been shown to have a strong evidence for their proper recommendation and approval in the treatment of COVID-19. Constantly evolving new evidences, exclusive adult data, language barrier, and type of study (observational, retrospective, small-sized clinical trials, or independent case series) resulted to the several limitations of this review. The need for multicentered, large sample-sized, randomized, placebo-controlled trials on COVID-19 patients to reach a proper conclusion on the most promising antiviral agent is warranted.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Amides/pharmacology , Amides/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Azetidines/pharmacology , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Indoles/pharmacology , Indoles/therapeutic use , Interferons/pharmacology , Interferons/therapeutic use , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Nitro Compounds , Oseltamivir/pharmacology , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Purines/pharmacology , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Ribavirin/pharmacology , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Thiazoles/therapeutic use
9.
Med Chem ; 16(1): 4-23, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-831506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thiazole is a good nucleus owing to its various pharmaceutical applications. Thiazole containing compounds (thiazoles) have shown various biological activities like antioxidant, analgesic, antibacterial, anticancer, antiallergic, antihypertensive, antiinflammatory, antimalarial, antifungal and antipsychotic. The scaffold is present in more than 18 FDA approved drugs and also in more than 70 experimental drugs. Only a few reviews are available in the literature despite its great medicinal importance. During the course of time, this scaffold has been studied extensively for its antiviral activities and provided compounds with activity in the nM range. However, no focused review is available on the compilation of antiviral activities shown by this scaffold. OBJECTIVE: In the present review, we have made an effort to compile antiviral literature of thiazoles reported from the year 2011 to till date. METHODS: We searched the SciFinder database (excluding patent literature) with keywords like "antiviral", "anti-HIV" and "virus". Further filters were applied for the year of publication and keywords thiazole, reviews etc. to find relevant literature reported on the antiviral activities of thiazoles. RESULTS: Nearly, 50 research articles were selected to compile and review the antiviral literature of thiazoles reported from the year 2011 to till date. Compounds 8, 25, 40, 62, 72, 73, 91, 112, 113, 131, 137, 175, 198, 200, 201 and 213 were reported in the literature with potent antiviral activity against CVB, SARS, RSV, HCV, HRV, VZV, TMV, FMDV, DENV, YFV, influenza virus, Junin virus, HIV-1, HSV, VV and EBV, respectively. CONCLUSION: There is further scope for the synthesis and evaluation of novel thiazole compounds by taking the most active compounds as lead structures. In conclusion, this review provides an overview of antiviral activities of thiazole compounds reported from the year 2011 to till date.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Viruses/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Structure-Activity Relationship , Thiazoles/chemistry
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14733, 2020 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-748189

ABSTRACT

Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is effective against helminths and numerous microorganisms, including bacteria and viruses. In vivo, NTZ is metabolized into Tizoxanide (TIZ), which is the active circulating metabolite. With the emergence of SARS-Cov-2 as a Pandemic agent, NTZ became one of the molecules already approved for human use to engage clinical trials, due to results in vitro showing that NTZ was highly effective against the SARS-Cov-2, agent of COVID-19. There are currently several ongoing clinical trials mainly in the USA and Brazil involving NTZ due not only to the in vitro results, but also for its long-known safety. Here, we study the response of Vero cells to TIZ treatment and unveil possible mechanisms for its antimicrobial effect, using a label-free proteomic approach (LC/MS/MS) analysis to compare the proteomic profile between untreated- and TIZ-treated cells. Fifteen differentially expressed proteins were observed related to various biological processes, including translation, intracellular trafficking, RNA processing and modification, and signal transduction. The broad antimicrobial range of TIZ points towards its overall effect in lowering cell metabolism and RNA processing and modification. The decreased levels of FASN, HNRNPH and HNRNPK with the treatment appear to be important for antiviral activity.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Proteome/drug effects , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Fatty Acid Synthases/genetics , Fatty Acid Synthases/metabolism , Proteome/genetics , Proteome/metabolism , Ribonucleoproteins/genetics , Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , Vero Cells
11.
Protein Cell ; 11(10): 723-739, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697126

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses occasionally cause epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we identified two potent inhibitors of human DHODH, S312 and S416, with favorable drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic profiles, which all showed broad-spectrum antiviral effects against various RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Zika virus, Ebola virus, and particularly against SARS-CoV-2. Notably, S416 is reported to be the most potent inhibitor so far with an EC50 of 17 nmol/L and an SI value of 10,505.88 in infected cells. Our results are the first to validate that DHODH is an attractive host target through high antiviral efficacy in vivo and low virus replication in DHODH knock-out cells. This work demonstrates that both S312/S416 and old drugs (Leflunomide/Teriflunomide) with dual actions of antiviral and immuno-regulation may have clinical potentials to cure SARS-CoV-2 or other RNA viruses circulating worldwide, no matter such viruses are mutated or not.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Oxidoreductases/antagonists & inhibitors , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , RNA Viruses/drug effects , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Binding Sites/drug effects , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Crotonates/pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gene Knockout Techniques , Humans , Hydroxybutyrates , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Leflunomide/pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nitriles , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding/drug effects , Pyrimidines/biosynthesis , RNA Viruses/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Structure-Activity Relationship , Thiazoles/therapeutic use , Toluidines/pharmacology , Ubiquinone/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
12.
Arch Med Res ; 51(5): 375-383, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186416

ABSTRACT

At the end of the year 2019, the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was spreading in Wuhan, China, and the outbreak process has a high speed. It was recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020. Coronaviruses are enveloped and single-stranded RNA that have several families including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). The pathogenesis mechanism and disease outcomes of SARS and MERS are now clear to some extent, but little information is available for 2019-nCoV. This newly identified corona virus infection represents flu-like symptoms, but usually the first symptoms are fever and dry cough. There has been no specific treatment against 2019-nCoV up to now, and physicians only apply supportive therapy. In the present article, we made an attempt to review the behavior of the virus around the world, epidemiology, a pathway for influx into the host cells, clinical presentation, as well as the treatments currently in use and future approaches; nitazoxanide may be our dream drug. We hope that this review has a positive impact on public knowledge for helping to deal with the 2019-nCoV and move one step forward toward its treatment in the near future.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Nitro Compounds , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thiazoles/pharmacology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL