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1.
Clin Lab ; 67(11)2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin D multiple myeloma (IgD-MM) is a rare but aggressive disease. The safety and effectiveness of anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody (daratumumab) have not been known in either IgD-MM or MM complicated with secondary neoplasm. METHODS: A fragile IgD-MM patient had an aggressively relapsed disease concurrent with lung cancer and severe thrombocytopenia, which led to a dilemma for management. After a failure of ixazomib-based chemotherapy, a salvage therapy with daratumumab unexpectedly induced complete remission and platelet recovery, and the patient successfully proceeded to lung cancer surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Our case indicates daratumumab is both safe and effective for refractory IgD-MM with severe complications.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms , Multiple Myeloma , Thrombocytopenia , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulin D , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy
2.
Thromb Res ; 211: 27-37, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621058

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Defects of platelet functional responses in COVID-19 were reported, but their origin and pathophysiological significance are unclear. The objective of this study was to characterize the thrombocytopathy in COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analysis of platelet functional responses to activation by flow cytometry and aggregometry in 46 patients with confirmed COVID-19 of different severity (non-ICU, ICU, and ECMO) over the course of hospitalization alongside with plasma coagulation, inflammatory markers (CRP, fibrinogen, NETosis assays in smears) was performed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: All patients had increased baseline percentage of procoagulant platelets (healthy: 0.9 ± 0.5%; COVID-19: 1.7 ± 0.6%). Patients had decreased agonist-induced platelet GPIb shedding (1.8 ± 0.7 vs 1.25 ± 0.4), P-Selectin exposure (1.51 ± 0.21 vs 1.1 ± 0.3) and aggregation. The values of these parameters among the non-ICU and ICU cohorts differed modestly, while the ECMO cohort differed significantly. Only ECMO patients had pronounced thrombocytopenia. While inflammatory markers improved over time, the observed platelet functional responses changed only moderately. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found in 8% of blood samples and it did not correlate with platelet counts or responses. All patients had increased NETosis that moderately correlated with platelet dysfunction. High cumulative dosages of LMWH (average > 12,000 IU/day over 5 days) resulted in an improvement in platelet parameters. The observed pattern of platelet refractoriness was reproduced by in vitro pre-treatment of washed platelets with subnanomolar thrombin or perfusion of blood through a collagen-covered flow chamber. We conclude that platelet dysfunction in COVID-19 is consistent with the intravascular-coagulation-induced refractoriness rather than with an inflammation-induced mechanism or a direct activation by the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Anticoagulants , Blood Platelets , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy
4.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211066945, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574469

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Argatroban is licensed for patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and is conventionally monitored by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) ratio. The target range is 1.5 to 3.0 times the patients' baseline APTT and not exceeding 100 s, however this baseline is not always known. APTT is known to plateau at higher levels of argatroban, and is influenced by coagulopathies, lupus anticoagulant and raised FVIII levels. It has been used as a treatment for COVID-19 and Vaccine-induced Immune Thrombocytopenia and Thrombosis (VITT). Some recent publications have favored the use of anti-IIa methods to determine the plasma drug concentration of argatroban. METHODS: Plasma of 60 samples from 3 COVID-19 patients and 54 samples from 5 VITT patients were tested by APTT ratio and anti-IIa method (dilute thrombin time dTT). Actin FS APTT ratios were derived from the baseline APTT of the patient and the mean normal APTT. RESULTS: Mean APTT ratio derived from baseline was 1.71 (COVID-19), 1.33 (VITT) compared to APTT ratio by mean normal 1.65 (COVID-19), 1.48 (VITT). dTT mean concentration was 0.64 µg/ml (COVID-19) 0.53 µg/ml (VITT) with poor correlations to COVID-19 baseline APTT ratio r2 = 0.1526 p <0.0001, mean normal r2 = 0.2188 p < 0.0001; VITT baseline APTT ratio r2 = 0.04 p < 0.001, VITT mean normal r2 = 0.0064 p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that dTT is a superior method to monitor the concentration of argatroban, we have demonstrated significant differences between APTT ratios and dTT levels, which could have clinical impact. This is especially so in COVID-19 and VITT.


Subject(s)
Arginine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Partial Thromboplastin Time/methods , Pipecolic Acids/therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Aged , Arginine/pharmacology , Arginine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pipecolic Acids/pharmacology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombosis/chemically induced
6.
Int J Hematol ; 115(3): 424-427, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482297

ABSTRACT

Evans syndrome presents as concurrent autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the most frequent autoimmune disorder associated with Evans syndrome. We herein report a case of new-onset Evans syndrome associated with SLE after BNT162b2 mRNA coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in a 53-year-old woman. Blood examination at diagnosis showed hemolytic anemia with a positive Coombs test and thrombocytopenia. Hypocomplementemia and the presence of lupus anticoagulant indicated a strong association with SLE. Prednisolone administration rapidly restored hemoglobin level and platelet count. This case suggests that mRNA COVID-19 vaccination may cause an autoimmune disorder. Physicians should be aware of this adverse reaction by mRNA COVID-19 vaccination and should consider the benefits and risks of vaccination for each recipient.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/etiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Female , Hematologic Tests/methods , Hemoglobins , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/diagnosis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Risk Assessment , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy
7.
Crit Care Med ; 49(9): e870-e873, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455369

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the successful recovery from multiple and life-threatening venous thrombosis after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: University Hospital. PATIENT: Few days after the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine, a 21-year-old woman experienced massive thrombosis in the deep and superficial cerebral veins together with seizures, neurologic focal deficit, and thrombocytopenia. In the neurointensive care unit, her condition worsened despite early decompressive craniectomy. She developed bilateral segmental pulmonary embolism, left hepatic, and left external iliac venous thrombosis. INTERVENTION: Argatroban (0.5-2.2 µg/kg/min) and high-dose IV immunoglobulin (1 g/kg/d for 2 consecutive days) were initiated on day 6 after admission. With these therapies, there was a gradual resolution of multiple sites of venous thrombosis, and platelet count returned to normal. The patient left the ICU with full consciousness, expressive aphasia, and right hemiparesis. CONCLUSIONS: This case of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia shows that a good outcome can be obtained even with multiple and life-threatening venous thrombotic lesions. Argatroban and high-dose IV immunoglobulin along with management of severe cerebral venous thrombosis played a major role in this epilogue.


Subject(s)
Antithrombins/therapeutic use , Arginine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Pipecolic Acids/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Arginine/therapeutic use , Cerebral Veins/diagnostic imaging , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Fondaparinux/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Young Adult
8.
Radiology ; 302(2): 319-325, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360579

ABSTRACT

This case series reports six patients (four men and two women; median age, 38 years; interquartile range, 26-48 years) who presented with vaccine-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis beginning 3-26 days after receiving the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca) vaccine for COVID-19. The patients were admitted to a general hospital between 9 and 31 days after the first dose. All patients had strongly detected antiplatelet factor 4 antibodies and severe thrombosis. Laboratory features included thrombocytopenia and elevated d-dimer levels. Thrombotic events were predominantly venous; two patients had arterial or mixed arterial and venous thrombosis. All patients recovered after receiving intravenous immunoglobulin and nonheparin-based anticoagulation. © RSNA, 2021 An earlier incorrect version appeared online. This article was corrected on August 18, 2021.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/chemically induced , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327621

ABSTRACT

We report a case of vancomycin-induced thrombocytopenia (VIT) with rapid onset after re-exposure to vancomycin. A 58-year-old man with cellulitis was initiated on vancomycin. Approximately 1 hour into the vancomycin infusion, the patient developed an infusion-related reaction. Vancomycin infusion was stopped. A complete blood count obtained 4 hours after discontinuation of the vancomycin infusion revealed a platelet count of 31 ×10-9/L. Investigations ruled out likely causes of thrombocytopenia. VIT was diagnosed based on clinical symptoms and confirmed with drug-dependent platelet antibody testing. Without complications, platelet counts recovered within 7 days after discontinuation of vancomycin. No correlation between vancomycin level and VIT was observed.


Subject(s)
Thrombocytopenia , Vancomycin , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Blood Platelets , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Vancomycin/adverse effects
12.
Ann Emerg Med ; 78(4): 511-514, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293546

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia is a newly described disease process in the setting of expanding access to COVID-19 vaccination. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends treatment with an alternative to heparin in patients suspected of having vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia. At this time there have been no reported outcomes from the treatment of vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia with bivalirudin as a heparin alternative. We describe the early outcomes from the treatment of vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia with bivalirudin as a heparin alternative. A 40-year-old Caucasian woman was found to have thrombocytopenia, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism following vaccination for COVID-19 with Ad26.COV2.S. She exhibited a steady rise in platelet count: 20×109/L at hospital day 0, 115×109/L at discharge on hospital day 6, and 182×109/L on outpatient follow-up on day 9. While the patient exhibited a transient drop in hemoglobin, there was no clinical evidence of bleeding. This patient did not demonstrate any clinical sequelae of thrombosis, and she reported resolution of her headache. Vaccination with Ad26.COV2.S appears to be associated with a small but significant risk for thrombotic thrombocytopenia within 13 days of receipt. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidance to consider an alternative to heparin was not accompanied by specifically recommended alternatives. A single patient treated with bivalirudin for suspected vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia subsequently experienced symptom improvement and a rise in platelet count and did not demonstrate any immediate negative outcomes. A provider may consider bivalirudin as an alternative to heparin in patients with suspected vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia following Ad26.COV2.S vaccination, pending more definitive research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Peptide Fragments/therapeutic use , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/drug therapy , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Adult , Blood Chemical Analysis , Blood Physiological Phenomena , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Hirudins , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology
14.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(7): 1819-1822, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194161

ABSTRACT

Cases of unusual thrombosis and thrombocytopenia after administration of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AstraZeneca) have been reported. The term vaccine-induced prothrombotic immune thrombocytopenia (VIPIT) was coined to reflect this new phenomenon. In vitro experiments with VIPIT patient sera indicated that high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) competitively inhibit the platelet-activating properties of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine induced antibodies. Here, we report a case of a 62-year-old woman who had received this vaccine and developed VIPIT. She visited the emergency ward because of petechiae and hematomas. In the laboratory work-up, thrombocytopenia, low fibrinogen, elevated D-dimer, and positivity in the platelet factor 4/heparin-enzyme-immunoassay were present. Signs and symptoms of thrombosis were absent. Upon immediate therapy with non-heparin anticoagulation, high-dose IVIG, and prednisolone, laboratory parameters steadily improved and the patient was discharged from hospital without thrombotic complications. We conclude that early initiation of VIPIT treatment results in a swift response without thrombotic complications.


Subject(s)
Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Heparin , Humans , Middle Aged , Platelet Factor 4 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/drug therapy , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy
18.
Ann Hematol ; 100(2): 309-320, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014126

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Primarily an infection of the lower respiratory tract, it is now well known to cause multisystem abnormalities. Hematologic manifestations constitute a significant area of concern. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infects monocytes and endothelial cells leading to a complex downstream cascade, cytokine storm, and eventual intravascular thrombosis. Coronavirus disease 2019 causes lymphopenia, neutrophilia, and thrombocytopenia. Prophylactic anticoagulation is vital in patients with coronavirus disease 2019, as its effect on the coagulation system is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The disease can cause both arterial and venous thromboses, especially pulmonary embolism and pulmonary microthrombi. A high index of suspicion is indispensable in recognizing these complications, and timely institution of therapeutic anticoagulation is vital in treating them. Virus-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation is uncommon but shares some similarities to sepsis-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation. Marked elevations in hematologic biomarkers such as lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer, ferritin, and C-reactive protein are associated with worse outcomes. Understanding the pathophysiology and recognizing factors associated with poor prognosis are crucial in improving patient outcomes with coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hematologic Diseases/blood , Hematologic Diseases/complications , Hematologic Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/complications , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/complications , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy
20.
J Hematol Oncol ; 13(1): 161, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953805

ABSTRACT

As our understanding on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) deepens, it is increasingly recognized that COVID-19 is more than a respiratory condition. Thrombocytopenia and thromboembolic complications are a composite factor associated with critical COVID-19 and increased mortality. Immune-inflammation-mediated destruction, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection per se and increased consumption are proposed to be responsible for thrombocytopenia. Multiple concomitant conditions or results caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection are high risk factors for thrombosis. Recently, platelet activation and platelet-mediated immune inflammation induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection were also found to be the contributors to the thrombosis in COVID-19 patients. In addition to thrombus scoring system, D-dimer is an excellent indicator for monitoring thrombosis. COVID-19 patients with high risk for thrombosis should be subjected to early thromboprophylaxis, and prolonged activated partial-thromboplastin time should not be a barrier to the use of anticoagulation therapies in the control of thrombosis in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Platelet Activation/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/drug therapy
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