BACKGROUND: Several cases of unusual thrombotic events and thrombocytopenia have developed after vaccination with the recombinant adenoviral vector encoding the spike protein antigen of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (ChAdOx1 nCov-19, AstraZeneca). More data were needed on the pathogenesis of this unusual clotting disorder. METHODS: We assessed the clinical and laboratory features of 11 patients in Germany and Austria in whom thrombosis or thrombocytopenia had developed after vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19. We used a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect platelet factor 4 (PF4)-heparin antibodies and a modified (PF4-enhanced) platelet-activation test to detect platelet-activating antibodies under various reaction conditions. Included in this testing were samples from patients who had blood samples referred for investigation of vaccine-associated thrombotic events, with 28 testing positive on a screening PF4-heparin immunoassay. RESULTS: Of the 11 original patients, 9 were women, with a median age of 36 years (range, 22 to 49). Beginning 5 to 16 days after vaccination, the patients presented with one or more thrombotic events, with the exception of 1 patient, who presented with fatal intracranial hemorrhage. Of the patients with one or more thrombotic events, 9 had cerebral venous thrombosis, 3 had splanchnic-vein thrombosis, 3 had pulmonary embolism, and 4 had other thromboses; of these patients, 6 died. Five patients had disseminated intravascular coagulation. None of the patients had received heparin before symptom onset. All 28 patients who tested positive for antibodies against PF4-heparin tested positive on the platelet-activation assay in the presence of PF4 independent of heparin. Platelet activation was inhibited by high levels of heparin, Fc receptor-blocking monoclonal antibody, and immune globulin (10 mg per milliliter). Additional studies with PF4 or PF4-heparin affinity purified antibodies in 2 patients confirmed PF4-dependent platelet activation. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 can result in the rare development of immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia mediated by platelet-activating antibodies against PF4, which clinically mimics autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. (Funded by the German Research Foundation.).
Subject(s)Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Blood Chemical Analysis , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Activation , Thrombocytopenia/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology , Young Adult
BACKGROUND Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS), including vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT), is an extremely rare adverse effect, mostly seen after initial vaccination with the viral vector-based AstraZeneca-Oxford COVID-19 vaccine. It is characterized by mild to severe thrombocytopenia and venous or arterial thrombosis. CASE REPORT Herein, we present a case of an 18-year-old male patient who developed Level 1 TTS (probable VITT) eight days after immunization with the ChADOx1 nCOV-19 vaccine (Covishield; AZ-Oxford). Initial investigations revealed severe thrombocytopenia, hemiparesis, and intracranial hemorrhage, after which the patient was treated conservatively. However, a decompressive craniotomy was performed later due to patient deterioration. One week after surgery, the patient developed bilious vomiting, lower-gastrointestinal bleeding, and abdominal distension. An abdominal CT scan was performed that showed thrombosis of the portal vein with occlusion of the left iliac vein. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy followed by resection and anastomosis of the small bowel due to massive gut gangrene. Due to persistent thrombocytopenia after surgery, intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) was administered. The platelet count increased thereafter, and the patient stabilized. He was discharged on the 33rd day after admission and was followed up for a year. No post-hospitalization complications were observed in the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS Although vaccines have been proven to be highly safe and effective to end the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused pandemic, there is still a small risk of developing rare complications, including TTS and VITT. Early diagnosis and prompt intervention are key for patient management.
Subject(s)COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Adolescent , Humans , Male , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunization , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Vaccination
Platelets play a critical role in immune response. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with a severe course often show pathological coagulation parameters including thrombocytopenia, and at the same time the proportion of immature platelets increases. In this study, the platelet count and the immature platelet fraction (IPF) of hospitalized patients with different oxygenation requirements was investigated daily over a course of 40 days. In addition, the platelet function of COVID-19 patients was analyzed. It was found that the number of platelets in patients with the most severe course (intubation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)) was significantly lower (111.5 â 106 /mL) than in the other groups (mild (no intubation, no ECMO): 203.5 â 106 /mL, p < .0001, moderate (intubation, no ECMO): 208.0 â 106 /mL, p < .0001). IPF tended to be elevated (10.9%). Platelet function was reduced. Differentiation by outcome revealed that the deceased patients had a highly significant lower platelet count and higher IPF (97.3 â 106 /mL, p < .0001, 12.2%, p = .0003).
What is the context? Pathological coagulation is a feature of severe cases of COVID-19, with both bleeding complications and thrombosis. Patients with severe COVID-19 are frequently treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), which is often associated with bleeding complications. Platelets play an important role in blood clotting. The proportion of immature platelets has been characterized as hyperreactive and associated with high prothrombotic activity. In addition, they are discussed as predictors of COVID-19 disease severity.What is new? In grading the severity of disease in our patient cohort, we consider the required oxygenation measures. Thus, the focus is on severe cases requiring intubation and ECMO compared to moderate (intubation, no ECMO) and mild (no intubation, no ECMO) cases.What is the impact? This study focuses on severely ill patients who require ECMO treatment. Therefore, this study provides further evidence to use immature platelet fraction to predict the outcome of severe COVID-19 courses.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Humans , Blood Platelets , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Platelet Count , Blood Coagulation
Platelet factor 4 (PF4), also known as chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4 (CXCL4), is a specific protein synthesized from platelet α particles. The combination of PF4 and heparin to form antigenic complexes is an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), but vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) related to the COVID-19 vaccine makes PF4 a research hotspot again. Similar to HIT, vaccines, bacteria, and other non-heparin exposure, PF4 can interact with negatively charged polyanions to form immune complexes and participate in thrombosis. These anions include cell surface mucopolysaccharides, platelet polyphosphates, DNA from endothelial cells, or von Willebrand factor (VWF). Among them, PF4-VWF, as a new immune complex, may induce and promote the formation of immune-associated thrombosis and is expected to become a new target and therapeutic direction. For both HIT and VITT, there is no effective and targeted treatment except discontinuation of suspected drugs. The research and development of targeted drugs based on the mechanism of action have become an unmet clinical need. Here, this study systematically reviewed the characteristics and pathophysiological mechanisms of PF4 and VWF, elaborated the potential mechanism of action of PF4-VWF complex in immune-associated thrombosis, summarized the current status of new drug research and development for PF4 and VWF, and discussed the possibility of this complex as a potential biomarker for early immune-associated thrombosis events. Moreover, the key points of basic research and clinical evaluation are put forward in the study.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Humans , Acceleration , Antigen-Antibody Complex , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Heparin/metabolism , Immunologic Factors , Platelet Factor 4 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/complications , von Willebrand Factor
BACKGROUND: Patients with Hodgkin lymphoma exhibit various clinical presentations. Needle biopsy of the lymph nodes is a minimally invasive procedure and a useful diagnostic method for malignant lymphomas. However, at times it is difficult to differentiate malignant lymphomas from reactive lymph node changes using a small amount of biopsy material. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-year-old Japanese man was referred to the emergency department of our hospital owing to high fever and disturbance of consciousness. We diagnosed sepsis due to an acute biliary tract infection because he presented with Charcot's triad-fever, jaundice, and right-sided abdominal pain. However, he did not respond well to antimicrobial therapy and his high fever persisted. Considering the swelling of the right cervical, mediastinal, and intraperitoneal lymph nodes and splenomegaly detected on computed tomography, a differential diagnosis of malignant lymphoma was needed. Hence, we performed a needle biopsy of the right cervical lymph node; however, the amount of sample obtained was insufficient in establishing a definitive diagnosis of malignant lymphoma. Furthermore, during hospitalization, the patient developed thrombocytopenia, anasarca, and renal insufficiency. These symptoms seemed to be the typical signs of the thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis or renal insufficiency, and organomegaly syndrome. Next, an external incisional mass biopsy of the right cervical lymph node was performed, which helped identify Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells. Collectively, we established a definitive diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma with lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the importance of performing an external incisional mass biopsy of the lymph nodes for the early diagnosis and treatment, if malignant lymphoma is strongly suspected.
Subject(s)Hodgkin Disease , Renal Insufficiency , Thrombocytopenia , Male , Humans , Aged , Hodgkin Disease/complications , Hodgkin Disease/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Biopsy , Edema/etiology , Fever
A 48-year-old Japanese man who had no previous medical history received his first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. Ten days after the vaccine administration, he developed a headache. Laboratory results indicated throm-bocytopenia and DIC. A head CT revealed microbleeding in the left parietal lobe. Contrast-enhanced CT showed thrombus in the left transverse sinus and left sigmoid sinus. A brain MRI demonstrated venous hemorrhagic infarction and subarachnoid hemorrhages in the left parietal lobe, and whole-body enhanced CT also revealed portal vein embolism and renal infarction. He was diagnosed with thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome, and was treated according to the guideline. He has been recovering with the treatments. This is the first reported case of TTS associated with the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine in Japan.
Subject(s)Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Infarction , Male , Middle Aged , Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
In late February 2021, a prothrombotic syndrome was encountered for the first time in some of the recipients of ChAdOx1 CoV-19 vaccine (AstraZeneca, University of Oxford, and Serum Institute of India). Since the hallmark of this syndrome is the development of thrombocytopenia and/or thrombosis between 4 and 42 days after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine, it was named vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). Other names include "vaccine-induced prothrombotic immune thrombocytopenia" and "thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome" by the Centers for Disease Control and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). VITT appears similar to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in that "platelet activating" autoantibodies are produced in both these conditions due to prior exposure of COVID-19 vaccine and heparin respectively, in turn causing thrombotic complications and consumptive thrombocytopenia. In this article, recent advances in the understanding of pathobiology, clinical features, investigative work-up, and management of VITT are reviewed.
Subject(s)COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/therapy , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Vaccines/adverse effects
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has been extensively described in patients following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. There are now questions about what MIS-C may look like in vaccinated children. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children has many clinical and laboratory features in common with other inflammatory disorders including Kawasaki disease and toxic shock syndrome. Rheumatologic conditions can present with similar musculoskeletal complaints and elevated inflammatory markers. Laboratory markers and clinical symptoms of MIS-C usually improve once therapy is begun. We describe a child with persistent thrombocytopenia as an example of variable presentation of MIS-C in vaccinated children. This case report discusses an atypical progression of MIS-C in a vaccinated child with a known prior positive COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. She presented with nonspecific abdominal pain and fever and was found to have elevated inflammatory markers, lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Intravenous immunoglobulin and steroid treatment failed to induce rapid recovery in her clinical condition or thrombocytopenia. Rheumatologic, hematologic, oncologic, and infectious causes were considered and worked up due to the uncertainty of her case and persistence of pancytopenia but ultimately were ruled out with extensive testing and monitoring. It was key to include a broad differential including viral-induced bone marrow suppression, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and malignancy. The spectrum of MIS-C and response to treatment continues to evolve, and prior vaccination in this child's case complicated the clinical picture further. Additional evaluation of MIS-C in vaccinated cases will permit characterization of the range of MIS-C presentation and response to standard therapy.
Subject(s)Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Female , Humans , Child , COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia/etiology
Coronavirus disease has myriad manifestations and can present with predominantly extrapulmonary manifestations. We describe a 50-year-old man, a person living with HIV (PLHA), a non-Hodgkin lymphoma survivor, who presented with isolated severe thrombocytopenia. He was found to have immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, and showed excellent response to intravenous immunoglobulins.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Lymphoma , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/diagnosis
Subject(s)COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Female , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
Subject(s)COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Databases, Factual , Global Health , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , European Union , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
OBJECTIVES: During COVID-19 vaccination programmes, new safety signals have emerged for vaccines, including extremely rare cases of thrombosis with thrombocytopaenia syndrome (TTS). Background event rates before and during the pandemic are essential for contextualisation of such infrequent events. In the literature, most studies do not report an overall TTS event rate. Rather, background rates are mainly reported for subtypes of thrombotic/thromboembolic diagnoses included in the TTS clinical definition mostly by anatomical location, with reported rates for TTS subtypes varying widely. The objective of this study was to report prepandemic TTS background event rates in the general population. METHODS: Prepandemic background TTS rates were generated via secondary data analysis using a cohort design in the IBM Truven MarketScan (now Merative MarketScan) US health insurance claims database, from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2019. Two algorithms were applied: thrombocytopaenia occurring±7 days (algorithm 1) or occurring 1 day prior to ≤14 days after the thrombotic/thromboembolic event (algorithm 2). RESULTS: The study population derived from the MarketScan database analysis included approximately 9.8 million adults (aged ≥18 years; mean age 45 years, 52% females). Using this study population, prepandemic background TTS incidence was estimated as 9.8-11.1 per 100 000 person-years. Event rates were higher in males and increased with age. Similar patterns were observed with both algorithms. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents an estimate of aggregate prepandemic background TTS event rates including by type of thrombosis/thromboembolism and age group. The background event rates are dependent on the precision of capturing underlying TTS events in variable data sources, and the ability of electronic health records or insurance claims databases to reflect the TTS clinical definition. Differences between reported event rates demonstrate that estimating background event rates for rare, unprecedented safety events is methodologically challenging.
Subject(s)Anemia , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thromboembolism , Thrombosis , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Pandemics , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
Population-based studies can provide important evidence on the safety of COVID-19 vaccines. Here we compare rates of thrombosis and thrombocytopenia following vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 with the background (expected) rates in the general population. In addition, we compare the rates of the same adverse events among persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 with background rates. Primary care and linked hospital data from Catalonia, Spain informed the study, with participants vaccinated with BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 (27/12/2020-23/06/2021), COVID-19 cases (01/09/2020-23/06/2021) or present in the database as of 01/01/2017. We included 2,021,366 BNT162b2 (1,327,031 with 2 doses), 592,408 ChAdOx1, 174,556 COVID-19 cases, and 4,573,494 background participants. Standardised incidence ratios for venous thromboembolism were 1.18 (95% CI 1.06-1.32) and 0.92 (0.81-1.05) after first- and second dose BNT162b2, and 0.92 (0.71-1.18) after first dose ChAdOx1. The standardised incidence ratio for venous thromboembolism in COVID-19 was 10.19 (9.43-11.02). Standardised incidence ratios for arterial thromboembolism were 1.02 (0.95-1.09) and 1.04 (0.97-1.12) after first- and second dose BNT162b2, 1.06 (0.91-1.23) after first-dose ChAdOx1 and 4.13 (3.83-4.45) for COVID-19. Standardised incidence ratios for thrombocytopenia were 1.49 (1.43-1.54) and 1.40 (1.35-1.45) after first- and second dose BNT162b2, 1.28 (1.19-1.38) after first-dose ChAdOx1 and 4.59 (4.41- 4.77) for COVID-19. While rates of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia were generally similar to background rates, the standardised incidence ratio for pulmonary embolism with thrombocytopenia after first-dose BNT162b2 was 1.70 (1.11-2.61). These findings suggest that the safety profiles of BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 are similar, with rates of adverse events seen after vaccination typically similar to background rates. Meanwhile, rates of adverse events are much increased for COVID-19 cases further underlining the importance of vaccination.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
Population-based studies can provide important evidence on the safety of COVID-19 vaccines. Using data from the United Kingdom, here we compare observed rates of thrombosis and thrombocytopenia following vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 and infection with SARS-CoV-2 with background (expected) rates in the general population. First and second dose cohorts for ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 between 8 December 2020 and 2 May 2021 in the United Kingdom were identified. A further cohort consisted of people with no prior COVID-19 vaccination who were infected with SARS-Cov-2 identified by a first positive PCR test between 1 September 2020 and 2 May 2021. The fourth general population cohort for background rates included those people in the database as of 1 January 2017. In total, we included 3,768,517 ChAdOx1 and 1,832,841 BNT162b2 vaccinees, 401,691 people infected with SARS-CoV-2, and 9,414,403 people from the general population. An increased risk of venous thromboembolism was seen after first dose of ChAdOx1 (standardized incidence ratio: 1.12 [95% CI: 1.05 to 1.20]), BNT162b2 (1.12 [1.03 to 1.21]), and positive PCR test (7.27 [6.86 to 7.72]). Rates of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis were higher than otherwise expected after first dose of ChAdOx1 (4.14 [2.54 to 6.76]) and a SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive test (3.74 [1.56 to 8.98]). Rates of arterial thromboembolism after vaccination were no higher than expected but were increased after a SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive test (1.39 [1.21 to 1.61]). Rates of venous thromboembolism with thrombocytopenia were higher than expected after a SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive test (5.76 [3.19 to 10.40]).
Subject(s)COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , United Kingdom
Despite their proven efficacy and huge contribution to the health of humankind, vaccines continue to be a source of concern for some individuals around the world. Vaccinations against COVID-19 increased the number of distressed people and intensified their distrust, particularly as the pandemic was still emerging and the populations were encouraged to be vaccinated under various slogans like "back to normal life" and "stop coronavirus", goals which are still to be achieved. As fear of vaccination-related adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) is the main reason for vaccine hesitancy, we reviewed immune and autoimmune AEFIs in particular, though very rare, as the most worrisome aspect of the vaccines. Among others, autoimmune AEFIs of the most commonly administered COVID-19 vaccines include neurological ones such as Guillain-Barre syndrome, transverse myelitis, and Bell's palsy, as well as myocarditis. In addition, the newly introduced notion related to COVID-19 vaccines, "vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia/vaccine-induced prothrombotic immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia" (VITT/VIPITT)", is of importance as well. Overviewing recent medical literature while focusing on the major immune and autoimmune AEFIs, demonstrating their rate of occurrence, presenting the cases reported, and their link to the specific type of COVID-19 vaccines represented the main aim of our work. In this narrative review, we illustrate the different vaccine types in current use, their associated immune and autoimmune AEFIs, with a focus on the 3 main COVID-19 vaccines (BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, and ChAdOx1). While the rate of AEFIs is extremely low, addressing the issue in this manner, in our opinion, is the best strategy for coping with vaccine hesitancy.
Subject(s)COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
INTRODUCTION: The massive vaccination against the SARS-CoV-2 virus has demonstrated to be one of the major measures for the reduction of the morbidity and mortality that this virus causes. However, during the last months the administration of the vaccine has been also associated with some rare, but life-threatening, adverse effects. CASE REPORT: In this article we describe the case of a patient that developed a Guillain-Barre syndrome and an Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura nine days after the vaccination with the third dose for the SARS-CoV-2 virus (Moderna). He had received previously two doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine. Moreover, the patient was positive for auto-antibodies anti-SSA/Ro60 and auto-antibodies IgG anti-GM1 and IgG anti-GM3. DISCUSSION: Even though it is not possible to stablish a clear relation of causality between the administration of the vaccine booster for SARS-CoV-2 and the diseases developed by the patient, the association of two concomitant autoimmune processes is remarkable. As well as the positivity for the auto-antibodies anti-SSA/Ro60, which have been described in the bibliography in cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
TITLE: Síndrome de Guillain-Barré y trombocitopenia tras la vacunación contra el SARS-CoV-2 con Moderna. Descripción de un caso.Introducción. La vacunación masiva contra el virus SARS-CoV-2 constituye una de las principales estrategias en la reducción de la morbimortalidad que presenta dicho virus. No obstante, a lo largo de los últimos meses, su administración también se ha relacionado con diversos efectos adversos raros, pero potencialmente graves. Caso clínico. En el presente artículo describimos el caso de un paciente que desarrolló un síndrome de Guillain-Barré y una púrpura trombocitopénica idiopática nueve días después de la vacunación con la tercera dosis contra el virus SARS-CoV-2 (Moderna), con dos dosis previas de AstraZeneca. Adicionalmente, destaca la presencia de positividad para autoanticuerpos anti-SSA/Ro60 y para anticuerpos inmunoglobulina G anti-GM1 e inmunoglobulina G anti-GM3. Conclusión. Aunque no es posible establecer una relación de causalidad entre la administración del booster de la vacuna y el desarrollo de la enfermedad, es destacable la asociación de dos procesos autoinmunes concomitantes, junto con la positividad en los autoanticuerpos anti-SSA/Ro60, lo cual se ha descrito en la bibliografía en casos de infección del virus SARS-CoV-2.
Subject(s)COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Viral Vaccines
BACKGROUND: In response to reports of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) post-vaccination, the Johnson & Johnson (J&J) vaccine was paused and then restarted in April 2021. Our objective was to assess whether this pause adversely impacted vaccine confidence. METHODS: Two large internet-based surveys were conducted in the US among adults to measure knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of the J&J vaccine pause and rates of vaccine hesitancy among unvaccinated persons before, during and after the pause. RESULTS: Among 66% of respondents aware of the pause, 44% identified blood clots as the reason for the pause without prompting. The impact of the pause on vaccine behavior among unvaccinated persons and perception of the vaccine safety system was mixed and modified by trust in the public health authorities. Those who were less willing to get vaccinated because of the pause were less inclined for all vaccines, not only the J&J product. Moreover, a notable proportion (22.1%) of the small number of persons (n = 30) vaccinated with the J&J vaccine after the pause reported not receiving information about the risk of TTS. The proportion of unvaccinated persons who were hesitant was increasing before and during the pause and then leveled off after the pause. CONCLUSIONS: The J&J vaccine pause is unlikely to be a major barrier to vaccine uptake. Public attitudes about vaccines may be more resilient than appreciated, especially when safety issues are investigated with transparent communication. This paper has important implications for messaging and program administration with future vaccine-specific adverse events. Efforts may be warranted to ensure all persons being offered the J&J vaccine are made aware of the risk of TTS.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Ad26COVS1 , Adult , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Parents , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination Hesitancy
Subject(s)Castleman Disease , Leukopenia , Thrombocytopenia , Edema/etiology , Humans , Inflammation , Thrombocytopenia/etiology
INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating impact on health, society and economics worldwide. Therefore, vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have recently emerged as an important measure to fight the pandemic. ChAdOx1-S (Oxford-AstraZeneca) is an adenovirus-vectored vaccine that expresses the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. It shows an acceptable safety profile. Nevertheless, several cases of unusual thrombosis and thrombocytopenia have been reported after initial vaccination with ChAdOx1-S mimicking autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. This condition has been called thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) and complications such as intracerebral haemorrhage have been described. CASE REPORT: We present a case of intracerebral haemorrhage after ChAdOx1-S vaccination. Middle-aged patient with no prior medical history was seen in the emergency room 16 days after the first dose of ChAdOx1-S vaccine with sudden onset left hemiplegia and severe holocranial oppressive headache. She did not receive heparin treatment in the previous 100 days. Blood test showed moderate thrombocytopenia and a right frontal lobar haemorrhage was seen on computed tomography scan, computed tomography venography was negative for thrombosis. The presence of antibodies against platelet factor 4 was confirmed. The patient's neurological condition progressively worsened. She developed a treatment resistant intracranial hypertension syndrome and she died three weeks later. CONCLUSIONS: TTS is a rare adverse effect of ChAdOx1-S vaccine, defined by the presence of thrombosis in uncommon locations. In our case we report an spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage probable due to the thrombocytopenia related to probable TTS. It represents a rare clinical presentation of TTS.
TITLE: Hemorragia intracerebral fatal asociada al síndrome de trombosis con trombocitopenia tras la vacuna ChAdOx1-S.Introducción. La pandemia por COVID-19 ha tenido un impacto devastador en la salud, la sociedad y la economía en el mundo. Por ello, las vacunas contra el coronavirus del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2) han surgido como medida importante para combatir la pandemia. ChAdOx1-S (Oxford-AstraZeneca) es una vacuna vectorizada por adenovirus que expresa la proteína de espiga del SARS-CoV-2. Se han notificado varios casos de trombosis y trombocitopenia inusuales tras la ChAdOx1-S que imitan la trombocitopenia autoinmune inducida por heparina. Esta situación se denomina síndrome de trombosis con trombocitopenia (STT), y se han descrito casos de hemorragia intracerebral secundaria. Caso clínico. Presentamos un caso de hemorragia intracerebral tras la vacunación con ChAdOx1-S. Una paciente de mediana edad sin antecedentes médicos de interés fue atendida en urgencias 16 días después de la primera dosis de ChAdOx1-S con una hemiplejía izquierda de inicio repentino y una cefalea opresiva holocraneal grave. No recibió heparina los 100 días anteriores. El análisis de sangre mostró trombocitopenia moderada y en la tomografía computarizada se observó una hemorragia lobar frontal derecha sin trombosis en la venografía por tomografía computarizada. Se confirmó la presencia de anticuerpos contra el factor 4 de las plaquetas en la sangre. La paciente presentó un síndrome de hipertensión intracraneal resistente al tratamiento y falleció tres semanas después. Conclusiones. El STT es un efecto adverso infrecuente de la vacuna ChAdOx1-S que se define por la presencia de trombosis en localizaciones infrecuentes. En nuestro caso, describimos una hemorragia intracerebral espontánea secundaria a la trombocitopenia desencadenada por el STT. Representa una presentación clínica poco frecuente del STT.