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2.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(10): e75, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742199

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare but life-threatening complication. VITT strongly mimics heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and shares clinical features. Heparin is commonly used to prevent coagulation during hemodialysis. Therefore, nephrologists might encounter patients needing dialysis with a history of heparin exposure who developed thrombotic thrombocytopenia after vaccination. A 70-year-old male presented with acute kidney injury and altered mental status due to lithium intoxication. He needed consecutive hemodialysis using heparin. Deep vein thrombosis of left lower extremity and accompanying severe thrombocytopenia of 15,000/µL on 24 days after vaccination and at the same time, nine days after heparin use. Anti-platelet factor 4 antibody test was positive. Anticoagulation with apixaban and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion resolved swelling of his left calf and thrombocytopenia. There were no definitive diagnostic tools capable of differentiating between VITT and HIT in this patient. Although VITT and HIT share treatment with IVIG and non-heparin anticoagulation, distinguishing between VITT and HIT will make it possible to establish a follow-up vaccination plan in a person who has had a thrombocytopenic thrombotic event. Further research is needed to develop the tools to make a clear distinction between the clinical syndromes.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Heparin/adverse effects , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Autoantibodies/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Lithium/toxicity , Male , Platelet Count , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/blood , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Renal Dialysis/methods , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis
3.
Blood Adv ; 6(6): 1637-1644, 2022 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741920

ABSTRACT

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired autoimmune disorder that is characterized by low platelet count and increased bleeding risk. COVID-19 vaccination has been described as a risk factor for de novo ITP, but the effects of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with ITP are unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with ITP on platelet count, bleeding complications, and ITP exacerbation (≥50% decline in platelet count, or nadir platelet count < 30 × 109/L with a >20% decrease from baseline, or use of rescue therapy). Platelet counts in patients with ITP and healthy controls were collected immediately before and 1 and 4 weeks after the first and second vaccinations. Linear mixed-effects modeling was applied to analyze platelet counts over time. We included 218 patients with ITP (50.9% female; mean age, 55 years; and median platelet count, 106 × 109/L) and 200 healthy controls (60.0% female; mean age, 58 years; median platelet count, 256 × 109/L). Platelet counts decreased by 6.3% after vaccination. We did not observe any difference in decrease between the groups. Thirty patients with ITP (13.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.5-19.1) had an exacerbation and 5 (2.2%; 95% CI, 0.7-5.3) suffered from a bleeding event. Risk factors for ITP exacerbation were platelet count < 50 × 109/L (odds ratio [OR], 5.3; 95% CI, 2.1-13.7), ITP treatment at time of vaccination (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.5-8.0), and age (OR, 0.96 per year; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99). Our study highlights the safety of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with ITP and the importance of the close monitoring of platelet counts in a subgroup of patients with ITP. Patients with ITP with exacerbation responded well on therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/complications , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
PLoS Med ; 19(2): e1003926, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thromboses in unusual locations after the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine ChAdOx1-S have been reported, although their frequency with vaccines of different types is uncertain at a population level. The aim of this study was to estimate the population-level risks of hospitalised thrombocytopenia and major arterial and venous thromboses after COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this whole-population cohort study, we analysed linked electronic health records from adults living in England, from 8 December 2020 to 18 March 2021. We estimated incidence rates and hazard ratios (HRs) for major arterial, venous, and thrombocytopenic outcomes 1 to 28 and >28 days after first vaccination dose for ChAdOx1-S and BNT162b2 vaccines. Analyses were performed separately for ages <70 and ≥70 years and adjusted for age, age2, sex, ethnicity, and deprivation. We also prespecified adjustment for anticoagulant medication, combined oral contraceptive medication, hormone replacement therapy medication, history of pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis, and history of coronavirus infection in analyses of venous thrombosis; and diabetes, hypertension, smoking, antiplatelet medication, blood pressure lowering medication, lipid lowering medication, anticoagulant medication, history of stroke, and history of myocardial infarction in analyses of arterial thromboses. We selected further covariates with backward selection. Of 46 million adults, 23 million (51%) were women; 39 million (84%) were <70; and 3.7 million (8.1%) Asian or Asian British, 1.6 million (3.5%) Black or Black British, 36 million (79%) White, 0.7 million (1.5%) mixed ethnicity, and 1.5 million (3.2%) were of another ethnicity. Approximately 21 million (46%) adults had their first vaccination between 8 December 2020 and 18 March 2021. The crude incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years) of all venous events were as follows: prevaccination, 140 [95% confidence interval (CI): 138 to 142]; ≤28 days post-ChAdOx1-S, 294 (281 to 307); >28 days post-ChAdOx1-S, 359 (338 to 382), ≤28 days post-BNT162b2-S, 241 (229 to 253); >28 days post-BNT162b2-S 277 (263 to 291). The crude incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years) of all arterial events were as follows: prevaccination, 546 (95% CI: 541 to 555); ≤28 days post-ChAdOx1-S, 1,211 (1,185 to 1,237); >28 days post-ChAdOx1-S, 1678 (1,630 to 1,726), ≤28 days post-BNT162b2-S, 1,242 (1,214 to 1,269); >28 days post-BNT162b2-S, 1,539 (1,507 to 1,572). Adjusted HRs (aHRs) 1 to 28 days after ChAdOx1-S, compared with unvaccinated rates, at ages <70 and ≥70 years, respectively, were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.90 to 1.05) and 0.58 (0.53 to 0.63) for venous thromboses, and 0.90 (0.86 to 0.95) and 0.76 (0.73 to 0.79) for arterial thromboses. Corresponding aHRs for BNT162b2 were 0.81 (0.74 to 0.88) and 0.57 (0.53 to 0.62) for venous thromboses, and 0.94 (0.90 to 0.99) and 0.72 (0.70 to 0.75) for arterial thromboses. aHRs for thrombotic events were higher at younger ages for venous thromboses after ChAdOx1-S, and for arterial thromboses after both vaccines. Rates of intracranial venous thrombosis (ICVT) and of thrombocytopenia in adults aged <70 years were higher 1 to 28 days after ChAdOx1-S (aHRs 2.27, 95% CI: 1.33 to 3.88 and 1.71, 1.35 to 2.16, respectively), but not after BNT162b2 (0.59, 0.24 to 1.45 and 1.00, 0.75 to 1.34) compared with unvaccinated. The corresponding absolute excess risks of ICVT 1 to 28 days after ChAdOx1-S were 0.9 to 3 per million, varying by age and sex. The main limitations of the study are as follows: (i) it relies on the accuracy of coded healthcare data to identify exposures, covariates, and outcomes; (ii) the use of primary reason for hospital admission to measure outcome, which improves the positive predictive value but may lead to an underestimation of incidence; and (iii) potential unmeasured confounding. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed increases in rates of ICVT and thrombocytopenia after ChAdOx1-S vaccination in adults aged <70 years that were small compared with its effect in reducing COVID-19 morbidity and mortality, although more precise estimates for adults aged <40 years are needed. For people aged ≥70 years, rates of arterial or venous thrombotic events were generally lower after either vaccine compared with unvaccinated, suggesting that either vaccine is suitable in this age group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Vaccination , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
6.
Pathol Res Pract ; 231: 153796, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665390

ABSTRACT

This case report describes a fatal case of a young woman with superior sagittal, transverse and sigmoid sinus thrombosis after administration of the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination. Eleven days post-vaccination she was found unconscious and transferred to the Emergency Department. Blood parameters showed low platelets, and a CT scan showed an extensive left intracranial hemorrhage and the presence of an occlusive thrombus of the superior sagittal sinus. She under-went a craniectomy, but after the intervention, she remained in a comatose state. After a few days, her clinical conditions worsened, and she died. A complete autopsy was performed which showed a thrombosis of the cerebral venous district, of the upper and lower limbs. A blood sample was also performed to carry out a gene study about the predisposition to thrombosis. The organ samples were studied through light microscope both in hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical examination, and showed a strong inflammatory response in all samples and at the site of thrombosis. Our study aims to provide a proper autopsy technique to study the entire cerebral venous system through a multidisciplinary approach (anatomical dissection and neurosurgery) in post-vaccine venous thrombosis.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans
8.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE)-including deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST)-may occur early after vaccination against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We sought to describe the site, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of VTE after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: In a prospective study using the Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) platform, patients with VTE 4-30 days after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 (1 February 2021 through 30 April 2021) were included. VTE patients recruited from the same centers into RIETE in the same months in 2018-2019 were selected as the reference group. All-cause mortality and major bleeding were the main study outcomes. RESULTS: As of 30 April 2020, 102 patients with post-vaccination VTEs had been identified (28 after adenovirus-based vaccination [ChAdOx1 nCov-19; AstraZeneca] and 74 after mRNA-based vaccination [mRNA-1273; Moderna, and BNT162b2; Pfizer]). Compared with 911 historical controls, patients with VTE after adenovirus-based vaccination more frequently had CVST (10.7% vs. 0.4%, p < 0.001) or thrombosis at multiple sites (17.9% vs. 1.3%, p < 0.001), more frequently had thrombocytopenia (40.7% vs. 14.7%, p < 0.001), and had higher 14-day mortality (14.3% vs. 0.7%; odds ratio [OR]: 25.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.7-94.9) and major bleeding rates (10.3% vs. 1.0%, OR: 12.03, 95% CI: 3.07-47.13). The site of thrombosis, accompanying thrombocytopenia, and 14-day mortality rates were not significantly different for patients with VTE after mRNA-based vaccination, compared with historical controls. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with historical controls, VTE after adenovirus-based vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is accompanied by thrombocytopenia, occurs in unusual sites, and is associated with worse clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Registries , Vaccination/adverse effects , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , /administration & dosage , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Time Factors , Vaccination/mortality
9.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 15(2): 157-166, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immune thrombocytopenia, also known as immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), has emerged as a significant COVID-19-associated complication. This study analyzes the published literature of case reports and case series regarding COVID-19 infection associated with ITP. METHODOLOGY: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, a systematic search was conducted through PubMed, Web of Science, and Medline through Clarivate and EBSCO to include the eligible studies. The authors utilized Review Manager 5.4 to conduct quantitative data synthesis for the condition of interest analysis. RESULTS: A total of 13 eligible case reports and case series with 42 patients were included in this study; 54.8% of them were male. The pooled mean age of all participants was (59.5 ± 19) years with a median age of 63 years. The estimated mean time from diagnosis with COVID-19 to ITP development was 18.1 ± 21 days and the mean time to recovery from ITP was 5.8 ± 4.8 days. The pooled random effect of mean platelet count in the included six studies was 14.52, CI [8.79, 20.25]. CONCLUSION: Our analysis shows that ITP secondary to COVID-19 infection is slightly more prevalent among males (54.8%). Elderly patients were more vulnerable to the disease.    Most cases developed ITP within 2-3 weeks after COVID-19 infection and recovered in less than one week from ITP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Thrombocytopenia/etiology
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 154-156, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587620

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) has emerged as a rare side effect of adenoviral vector-based vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and is most frequently reported after use of the Vaxzevria (AstraZeneca) vaccine. This report describes a case of severe thrombocytopenia associated with massive pulmonary embolism and portal vein thrombosis occurring 13 days after the administration of the single-dose adenoviral vector-based vaccine Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen Vaccines). Based on early clinical suspicion, the patient quickly received treatment with corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin, followed by a rapid increase in platelet count that allowed timely administration of full-dose anticoagulation. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, however, could mask the ability of anti-platelet factor 4-heparin antibodies to bind and activate platelets in the presence of heparin, leading to false-negative results on the immunoassay functional test. Therefore, if VITT is suspected, blood samples for diagnostic confirmation should be collected prior to any treatment to improve diagnostic performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombocytopenia , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 114-121, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare, serious complication after adenoviral COVID-19 vaccine administration that can involve various organ systems. We aimed to investigate the clinical significance of hepatosplenic thrombosis in patients with VITT. METHODS: We searched PubMed ePubs, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science databases for studies published until April 28, 2021, involving patients with VITT after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination. Demographic and clinical characteristics, including laboratory measurements, were collected and compared. RESULTS: Four case series and three case reports involving 48 cases of VITT were included. Hepatosplenic thrombosis was present in 8 cases (17%). Patients with hepatosplenic thrombosis had lower platelet counts (13,000 vs. 29,500/µL, p=0.016) and higher D-dimer levels (140.0 vs. 57.3 times upper limit of normal range, p=0.028). Multiple-site thrombosis was also associated with hepatosplenic thrombosis (88% vs. 15%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study comparing clinical profiles of patients with VITT according to the presence of hepatosplenic thrombosis. Patients with hepatosplenic thrombosis had more severe presentations with lower platelet counts, higher D-dimer levels, and a higher rate of multiple-site thrombosis. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to establish definitive evidence regarding the significance of hepatosplenic thrombosis in VITT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
13.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 606, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this report, we describe a very challenging case of a patient with secondary Evans syndrome caused by severe coronavirus disease 2019 infection in a pregnant full-term woman. CASE PRESENTATION: A 29-year-old full-term pregnant Indonesian woman presented with gross hematuria, dry cough, fever, dyspnea, nausea, anosmia, and fatigue 5 days after confirmation of coronavirus disease 2019 infection. Laboratory examinations showed very severe thrombocytopenia, increased indirect bilirubin, and a positive direct Coombs' test. From peripheral blood, there was an increased number of spherocytes, which indicated an autoimmune hemolytic process. Antinuclear antibody and anti-double-stranded DNA test results were negative, and her virology serological markers are also negative for human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus, and hepatitis B and C. Despite aggressive treatment with platelet transfusion, high-dose steroid, and thrombopoietin receptor agonists, the platelet count did not recover, and a speculative cesarean delivery had to be done with a very low platelet count.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Adult , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/etiology
14.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program ; 2021(1): 614-620, 2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566499

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is frequently associated with abnormalities on coagulation testing and a coagulopathy driven by inflammation, intravascular coagulation activation, and microvascular thrombosis. Elevated D-dimer is the most common finding and is a predictor of adverse outcomes including thrombosis, critical illness, and death. Although COVID-19-associated coagulopathy has some similarities to disseminated intravascular coagulation, the platelet count is usually preserved, coagulation times are usually normal or minimally prolonged, and thrombosis is more common than bleeding, at least in noncritically ill patients. Bleeding is uncommon but may be a significant problem in critically ill patients, including those who may develop a consumptive coagulopathy with frank disseminated intravascular coagulation and those on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Blood product support to correct coagulopathy is reserved for bleeding patients or those requiring invasive procedures. Current recommendations suggest that all hospitalized patients should receive at least a prophylactic dose of anticoagulation. Results from a multiplatform randomized clinical trial suggest that therapeutically dosed anticoagulation may improve outcomes, including the need for organ support and mortality in moderately ill patients but not in those requiring critical care. The results of ongoing trials evaluating the impact of different antithrombotic strategies (therapeutic agents and intensity) on COVID-19 outcomes are eagerly awaited and are expected to have important implications for patient management. We also discuss COVID-19 vaccine-associated cytopenias and bleeding as well as vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia, in which thrombosis is associated with thrombocytopenia, elevated D-dimer, and, frequently, hypofibrinogenemia.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Middle Aged , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/therapy , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/therapy , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/therapy
16.
Haematologica ; 106(12): 3034-3045, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547214

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a heavy impact on global health and economy and vaccination remains the primary way of controlling the infection. During the ongoing vaccination campaign some unexpected thrombotic events have emerged in subjects who had recently received the AstraZeneca (Vaxzevria) vaccine or the Johnson and Johnson (Janssen) vaccine, two adenovirus vector-based vaccines. Epidemiological studies confirm that the observed/expected ratio of these unusual thromboses is abnormally increased, especially in women in fertile age. The characteristics of this complication, with venous thromboses at unusual sites, most frequently in the cerebral vein sinuses but also in splanchnic vessels, often with multiple associated thromboses, thrombocytopenia, and sometimes disseminated intravascular coagulation, are unique and the time course and tumultuous evolution are suggestive of an acute immunological reaction. Indeed, plateletactivating anti-PF4 antibodies have been detected in a large proportion of the affected patients. Several data suggest that adenoviruses may interact with platelets, the endothelium and the blood coagulation system. Here we review interactions between adenoviral vectors and the hemostatic system that are of possible relevance in vaccine-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenia syndrome. We systematically analyze the clinical data on the reported thrombotic complications of adenovirus-based therapeutics and discuss all the current hypotheses on the mechanisms triggering this novel syndrome. Although, considering current evidence, the benefit of vaccination clearly outweighs the potential risks, it is of paramount importance to fully unravel the mechanisms leading to vaccineassociated thrombotic thrombocytopenia syndrome and to identify prognostic factors through further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Adenoviridae , Blood Coagulation , Blood Platelets , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology
19.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 53(2): 359-362, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504316

ABSTRACT

Cases of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) associated with vaccine induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) were reported following administration of the adenoviral vector COVID-19 vaccines, resulting in a pause in Ad.26.COV2.S vaccine administration in the United States, beginning on April 14, 2021. We aimed to quantify and characterize an anticipated increase in brain venograms performed in response to this pause. Brain venogram cases were retrospectively identified during the three-week period following the vaccine pause and during the same calendar period in 2019. For venograms performed in 2021, we compared COVID vaccinated to unvaccinated patients. There was a 262% increase in venograms performed between 2019 (n = 26) and 2021 (n = 94), compared to only a 19% increase in all radiologic studies. Fifty-seven percent of patients in 2021 had a history of COVID-19 vaccination, with the majority being Ad.26.COV2.S. All patients diagnosed with CVT were unvaccinated. COVID vaccinated patients lacked platelet or D-dimer measurements consistent with VITT. Significantly more vaccinated versus unvaccinated patients had a headache (94% vs 70%, p = 0.0014), but otherwise lacked compelling CVT presentations, such as decreased/altered consciousness (7% vs 23%, p = 0.036), neurologic deficit (28% vs 48%, p = 0.049), and current/recent pregnancy (2% vs 28%, p = 0.0003). We found a dramatic increase in brain venograms performed following publicity of rare COVID-19 vaccine associated CVT cases, with no CVTs identified in vaccinated patients. Clinicians should carefully consider if brain venogram performance is indicated in COVID-19 vaccinated patients lacking thrombocytopenia and D-dimer elevation, especially without other compelling CVT risk factors or symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Intracranial Thrombosis , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Brain , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Phlebography/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , United States , Vaccination/adverse effects
20.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211048815, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A new clinical syndrome has been recognized following the COVID-19 vaccine, termed thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS). The following systematic review focuses on extrapolating thrombotic risk factors, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of patients diagnosed with TTS following the COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: We utilized the World Health Organization's criteria for a confirmed and probable case of TTS following COVID-19 vaccination and conducted a systematic review and posthoc analysis using the PRISMA 2020 statement. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS V25 for factors associated with mortality, including age, gender, anti-PF4/heparin antibodies, platelet nadir, D-dimer peak, time to event diagnosis, arterial or venous thrombi. RESULTS: Of the 175 studies identified, a total of 25 studies with 69 patients were included in this systematic review and post hoc analysis. Platelet nadir (P < .001), arterial or venous thrombi (χ2 = 41.911, P = .05), and chronic medical conditions (χ2 = 25.507, P = .041) were statistically associated with death. The ROC curve analysis yielded D-dimer (AUC = .646) and platelet nadir (AUC = .604) as excellent models for death prediction. CONCLUSION: Adenoviral COVID-19 vaccines have been shown to trigger TTS, however, reports of patients having received mRNA COVID-19 vaccines are also present. Healthcare providers are recommended to maintain a high degree of suspicion among individuals who have received the COVID-19 vaccine within the last 4 weeks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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