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1.
Radiology ; 301(3): E436-E437, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705005
2.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 141(11)2021 08 17.
Article in English, Norwegian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We present the case of a man in his fifties who presented with bilateral lower extremity ischaemia three weeks after COVID-19 infection. The patient had known. CASE PRESENTATION: On arrival at the emergency department his left lower extremity had reduced sensation but preserved motor function. His right lower extremity had spontaneously improved on arrival. A CT angiogram showed thromboembolism in both popliteal arteries with extension down the tibiofibular trunk. An acute bilateral mechanical thromboembolectomy of the popliteal artery and tibiofibular trunk was performed. Postoperatively he was hypoxic and a CT thorax angiogram showed bilateral pulmonary embolism, a floating aortic thrombus and ground glass opacification changes typical after COVID-19 viral pneumonia. The patient was systemically anticoagulated. Echocardiography revealed an apical thrombus. There were no signs of cardiac arrhythmia. Haematological diagnostic tests were all negative. INTERPRETATION: It is presumed that a previous COVID-19 infection contributed to the systemic thrombotic events. The patient was discharged after 9 days in good health and able to walk a normal distance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Thromboembolism , Thrombosis , Humans , Male , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/etiology
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 2013371, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358934

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was aimed at revealing neuroimaging findings in COVID-19 patients and at discussing their relationship with epidemiological data and some laboratory parameters. Materials and Method. This study included 436 cases of COVID-19 and 40 cases of non-COVID-19 acute/subacute thromboembolism who underwent at least one neuroimaging procedure due to neurological symptoms between April 2020 and December 2020. The group of COVID-19-positive acute/subacute thromboembolism cases was compared with both the group of normal brain imaging cases and the non-COVID-19 acute/subacute thromboembolism group in terms of demographic data and laboratory parameters. RESULTS: When the acute/subacute thromboembolism group and neuroimaging findings were compared in terms of negative group, presence of comorbid disease, D-dimer level, and lymphocyte count in COVID-19 patients, a statistically significant difference was found (p = 0.047, 0.014, and <0.001, respectively). COVID-19-positive and COVID-19-negative acute/subacute thromboembolism cases that were compared in terms of gender, neuroimaging reason, C-reactive protein, D-dimer level and lymphocyte count, a statistically significant difference was found (p = 0.003, <0.001, 0.005, 0.02, and <0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: Acute thromboembolic events are common in patients with COVID-19 due to a potentially increased procoagulant process. Neurological evaluation and, if necessary, detailed neuroimaging should be performed, especially in cases with high D-dimer levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/blood , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occipital Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Young Adult
5.
Radiology ; 301(3): E436-E437, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307984
6.
Emerg Radiol ; 28(3): 469-476, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1018361

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of thromboembolic events, specifically pulmonary embolism (PE), deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), in patients who tested positive for COVID-19 through RT-PCR in a regional healthcare system in Connecticut. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All CT angiogram (CTA) and venous duplex extremity ultrasound (US) examinations performed on 192 consecutively documented cases of COVID-19 were retrospectively reviewed at a multi-centered healthcare system. Clinical characteristics and patient outcomes were evaluated and compared between two groups based on the presence or absence of acute thromboembolic events. RESULTS: Of the 16,264 patients tested for COVID-19, 3727 (23%) were positive. Out of those, 192 patients underwent 245 vascular imaging studies including chest CTA (86), venous duplex ultrasound (134), and CTA head and neck (25). Among those who underwent imaging, 49 (26%) demonstrated acute thromboembolic events which included 13/86 (15%) with PE, 34/134 (25%) with DVT, and 6/25 (24%) with CVA. One patient had positive results on all 3 examinations, and 2 patients had positive results on both chest CTA and venous duplex US. Males were more likely to have a thromboembolic event than females (33/103 (34%) vs. 14/89 (16%), p = 0.009). No significant difference was observed with respect to age, cardiopulmonary comorbidities, malignancy history, diabetes, or dialysis. CONCLUSION: Approximately 26% of COVID-19 patients with positive testing who underwent vascular imaging with CTA or venous duplex ultrasound had thromboembolic events including PE, DVT, and CVA. This indicates that COVID-19 patients are at increased risk for thromboembolic complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/virology , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex/methods , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Connecticut/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/epidemiology
7.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 216(1): 104-105, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993111

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to describe arterial and venous thromboembolism in the abdomen, pelvis, and lower extremities in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Eighty-two patients with COVID-19 who underwent abdominal ultrasound or CT were retrospectively compared with 82 patients without COVID-19 for thromboembolism and solid-organ infarction. Nine (11%) patients with COVID-19 had thromboembolic findings, with medium to large arterial thrombi in five. One patient without COVID-19 had known portal vein thrombus on CT. Thromboembolic findings occurred more frequently in patients with than without COVID-19 (p = 0.02).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thrombophilia , Abdomen/blood supply , Aged , Female , Humans , Lower Extremity/blood supply , Male , Middle Aged , New York , Pelvis/blood supply , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography
8.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 702, 2020 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992527

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused great devastation in the past year. Multi-organ point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) including lung ultrasound (LUS) and focused cardiac ultrasound (FoCUS) as a clinical adjunct has played a significant role in triaging, diagnosis and medical management of COVID-19 patients. The expert panel from 27 countries and 6 continents with considerable experience of direct application of PoCUS on COVID-19 patients presents evidence-based consensus using GRADE methodology for the quality of evidence and an expedited, modified-Delphi process for the strength of expert consensus. The use of ultrasound is suggested in many clinical situations related to respiratory, cardiovascular and thromboembolic aspects of COVID-19, comparing well with other imaging modalities. The limitations due to insufficient data are highlighted as opportunities for future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Consensus , Echocardiography/standards , Expert Testimony/standards , Internationality , Point-of-Care Systems/standards , COVID-19/therapy , Echocardiography/methods , Expert Testimony/methods , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/therapy , Triage/methods , Triage/standards , Ultrasonography/standards
9.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 676, 2020 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962957

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence for enhanced blood coagulation in coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients, with thromboembolic complications contributing to morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying this prothrombotic state remain enigmatic. Further data to guide anticoagulation strategies are urgently required. METHODS: We used viscoelastic rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) in a single-center cohort of 40 critically ill COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Clear signs of a hypercoagulable state due to severe hypofibrinolysis were found. Maximum lysis, especially following stimulation of the extrinsic coagulation system, was inversely associated with an enhanced risk of thromboembolic complications. Combining values for maximum lysis with D-dimer concentrations revealed high sensitivity and specificity of thromboembolic risk prediction. CONCLUSIONS: The study identifies a reduction in fibrinolysis as an important mechanism in COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. The combination of ROTEM and D-dimer concentrations may prove valuable in identifying patients requiring higher intensity anticoagulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Thrombelastography/methods , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Blood Coagulation Tests/methods , Blood Coagulation Tests/standards , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Systems/standards , Point-of-Care Systems/statistics & numerical data , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Viscoelastic Substances/analysis , Viscoelastic Substances/therapeutic use
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(1): 105434, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-941358

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) infection, has recently been associated with a myriad of hematologic derangements; in particular, an unusually high incidence of venous thromboembolism has been reported in patients with COVID-19 infection. It is postulated that either the cytokine storm induced by the viral infection or endothelial damage caused by viral binding to the ACE-2 receptor may activate a cascade leading to a hypercoaguable state. Although pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis have been well described in patients with COVID-19 infection, there is a paucity of literature on cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (cVST) associated with COVID-19 infection. cVST is an uncommon etiology of stroke and has a higher occurrence in women and young people. We report a series of three patients at our institution with confirmed COVID-19 infection and venous sinus thrombosis, two of whom were male and one female. These cases fall outside the typical demographic of patients with cVST, potentially attributable to COVID-19 induced hypercoaguability. This illustrates the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for cVST in patients with COVID-19 infection, particularly those with unexplained cerebral hemorrhage, or infarcts with an atypical pattern for arterial occlusive disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Male , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/therapy , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/therapy , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/therapy
11.
Emerg Radiol ; 28(2): 423-429, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-911908

ABSTRACT

The symptomology of patients afflicted with novel 2019 coronavirus disease (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) has varied greatly, ranging from the asymptomatic state to debilitating hypoxemic respiratory failure caused by severe atypical viral pneumonia. Patients may also develop a hyper-inflammatory state that can lead to multi-organ failure. It has become increasingly apparent that, as part of the hyper-inflammatory state, COVID-19 infection increases susceptibility to systemic thromboembolic complications that can contribute to rapid clinical deterioration or demise. This article aims to review imaging features of various systemic thrombotic complications in six patients with moderate to severe disease. This case series includes examples of pulmonary embolism, stroke, right ventricular thrombosis, renal vein thrombosis, and aortic thrombosis with leg ischemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Infarction/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/etiology , Adult , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240078, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-814641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate chest-computed-tomography (CT) scans in coronavirus-disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients for signs of organizing pneumonia (OP) and microinfarction as surrogate for microscopic thromboembolic events. METHODS: Real-time polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 patients undergoing chest-CT (non-enhanced, enhanced, pulmonary-angiography [CT-PA]) from March-April 2020 were retrospectively included (COVID-19-cohort). As control-groups served 175 patients from 2020 (cohort-2020) and 157 patients from 2019 (cohort-2019) undergoing CT-PA for pulmonary embolism (PE) during the respective time frame at our institution. Two independent readers assessed for presence and location of PE in all three cohorts. In COVID-19 patients additionally parenchymal changes typical of COVID-19 pneumonia, infarct pneumonia and OP were assessed. Inter-reader agreement and prevalence of PE in different cohorts were calculated. RESULTS: From 68 COVID-19 patients (42 female [61.8%], median age 59 years [range 32-89]) undergoing chest-CT 38 obtained CT-PA. Inter-reader-agreement was good (k = 0.781). On CT-PA, 13.2% of COVID-19 patients presented with PE whereas in the control-groups prevalence of PE was 9.1% and 8.9%, respectively (p = 0.452). Up to 50% of COVID-19 patients showed changes typical for OP. 21.1% of COVID-19 patients suspected with PE showed subpleural wedge-shaped consolidation resembling infarct pneumonia, while only 13.2% showed visible filling defects of the pulmonary artery branches on CT-PA. CONCLUSION: Despite the reported hypercoagulability in critically ill patients with COVID-19, we did not encounter higher prevalence of PE in our patient cohort compared to the control cohorts. However, patients with suspected PE showed a higher prevalence of lung changes, resembling patterns of infarct pneumonia or OP and CT-signs of pulmonary-artery hypertension.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Pulmonary Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Lung/blood supply , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Radiographics ; 40(6): 1574-1599, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810605

ABSTRACT

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) results in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was declared an official pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. The infection has been reported in most countries around the world. As of August 2020, there have been over 21 million cases of COVID-19 reported worldwide, with over 800 000 COVID-19-associated deaths. It has become apparent that although COVID-19 predominantly affects the respiratory system, many other organ systems can also be involved. Imaging plays an essential role in the diagnosis of all manifestations of the disease, as well as its related complications, and proper utilization and interpretation of imaging examinations is crucial. With the growing global COVID-19 outbreak, a comprehensive understanding of the diagnostic imaging hallmarks, imaging features, multisystemic involvement, and evolution of imaging findings is essential for effective patient management and treatment. To date, only a few articles have been published that comprehensively describe the multisystemic imaging manifestations of COVID-19. The authors provide an inclusive system-by-system image-based review of this life-threatening and rapidly spreading infection. In part 1 of this article, the authors discuss general aspects of the disease, with an emphasis on virology, the pathophysiology of the virus, and clinical presentation of the disease. The key imaging features of the varied pathologic manifestations of this infection that involve the pulmonary and peripheral and central vascular systems are also described. Part 2 will focus on key imaging features of COVID-19 that involve the cardiac, neurologic, abdominal, dermatologic and ocular, and musculoskeletal systems, as well as pediatric and pregnancy-related manifestations of the virus. Vascular complications pertinent to each system will be also be discussed in part 2. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2020.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Angiography/methods , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Inflammation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/diagnostic imaging , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Ultrasonography/methods
15.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 70: 290-294, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) predisposes to arterial and venous thromboembolic complications. We describe the clinical presentation, management, and outcomes of acute arterial ischemia and concomitant infection at the epicenter of cases in the United States. METHODS: Patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection between March 1, 2020 and May 15, 2020 with an acute arterial thromboembolic event were reviewed. Data collected included demographics, anatomical location of the thromboembolism, treatments, and outcomes. RESULTS: Over the 11-week period, the Northwell Health System cared for 12,630 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. A total of 49 patients with arterial thromboembolism and confirmed COVID-19 were identified. The median age was 67 years (58-75) and 37 (76%) were men. The most common preexisting conditions were hypertension (53%) and diabetes (35%). The median D-dimer level was 2,673 ng/mL (723-7,139). The distribution of thromboembolic events included upper 7 (14%) and lower 35 (71%) extremity ischemia, bowel ischemia 2 (4%), and cerebral ischemia 5 (10%). Six patients (12%) had thrombus in multiple locations. Concomitant deep vein thrombosis was found in 8 patients (16%). Twenty-two (45%) patients presented with signs of acute arterial ischemia and were subsequently diagnosed with COVID-19. The remaining 27 (55%) developed ischemia during hospitalization. Revascularization was performed in 13 (27%) patients, primary amputation in 5 (10%), administration of systemic tissue- plasminogen activator in 3 (6%), and 28 (57%) were treated with systemic anticoagulation only. The rate of limb loss was 18%. Twenty-one patients (46%) died in the hospital. Twenty-five (51%) were successfully discharged, and 3 patients are still in the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: While the mechanism of thromboembolic events in patients with COVID-19 remains unclear, the occurrence of such complication is associated with acute arterial ischemia which results in a high limb loss and mortality.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Aged , Amputation , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/mortality , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Databases, Factual , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/mortality , Thromboembolism/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Surgical Procedures
17.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105231, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694494

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for an unprecedented worldwide pandemic that has severely impacted the United States. As the pandemic continues, a growing body of evidence suggests that infected patients may develop significant coagulopathy with resultant thromboembolic complications including deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke. However, this data is limited and comes from recent small case series and observational studies on stroke types, mechanisms, and outcomes.1-14 Furthermore, evidence on the role of therapeutic anticoagulation in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients with elevated inflammatory markers, such as D-dimer, is also limited. We report the case of a middle-aged patient who presented with a large vessel ischemic stroke likely resulting from an underlying inflammatory response in the setting of known novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19). Histopathologic analysis of the patient's ischemic brain tissue revealed hypoxic neurons, significant edema from the underlying ischemic insult, fibrin thrombi in small vessels, and fibroid necrosis of the vascular wall without any signs of vasculature inflammation. Brain biopsy was negative for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA (RT-PCR assay). Along with a growing body of literature, our case suggests that cerebrovascular thromboembolic events in COVID-19 infection may be related to acquired hypercoagulability and coagulation cascade activation due to the release of inflammatory markers and cytokines, rather than virus-induced vasculitis. Further studies to investigate the mechanism of cerebrovascular thromboembolic events and their prevention is warranted.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Stroke/etiology , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/therapy , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/therapy , Treatment Outcome
18.
Clin Radiol ; 75(11): 804-810, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693338

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging human infectious disease that has quickly become a worldwide threat to health, mainly causing severe acute respiratory syndrome. In addition to the widely described respiratory syndrome, COVID-19 may cause life-treating complications directly or indirectly related to this infection. Among these, thrombotic complications have emerged as an important issue in patients with COVID-19 infection, particularly in patients in intensive care units. Thrombotic complications due to COVID-19 are likely to occur due to a pro-coagulant pattern encountered in some of these patients or to a progressive endothelial thrombo-inflammatory syndrome causing microvascular disease. In the present authors' experience, from five different hospitals in Italy and the UK, imaging has proved its utility in identifying these COVID-19-related thrombotic complications, with translational clinical relevance. The aim of this review is to illustrate thromboembolic complications directly or indirectly related to COVID-19 disease. Specifically, this review will show complications related to thromboembolism due to a pro-coagulant pattern from those likely related to an endothelial thrombo-inflammatory syndrome.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/etiology , Adult , Aged , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/mortality , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Survival Analysis , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/mortality , Thromboplastin/metabolism , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
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