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1.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211051712, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) pandemic, there have been many reports of increased incidence of venous thromboembolism and arterial events as a complication. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of symptomatic thrombotic events (TEs) in patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV2 disease (coronavirus 19 [Covid-19]). METHODS: A retrospective single-center cohort study with adult patients with a positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) for SARS-CoV2, included from the date of diagnosis of Covid-19 and followed for 90 days or until death. RESULTS: A total of 1621 patients were included in this study. The median age was 73 years (interquartile range25th-75th [IQR] 53-87 years) and 57% (913) were female. Overall mortality was 21.6% (348). The overall incidence of symptomatic TEs within 90 days of diagnosis was 1.8% (30 of 1621) occurring in 28 patients, including an incidence of pulmonary embolism of 0.9% (15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60%-1.6%), deep venous thrombosis of 0.61% (10, 95% CI 0.2%-1%), ischemic stroke of 0.25% (4, 95% CI 0.09%-0.65%), and ischemic arterial events of 0.06% (1, 95% CI 0.008%-0.43%). No acute coronary syndrome events were recorded. The incidence of symptomatic TEs was significantly lower in the general ward than in intensive care units (1.2% vs 5.7%; p < .001). The median time since positive rt-PCR for SARS-CoV2 to symptomatic TE was 22.5 days (IQR 19-43 days). There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients receiving (53.6%) and not receiving thromboprophylaxis (66.5%) and the development of TEs. CONCLUSION: The overall incidence of symptomatic TEs among these patients was lower than the incidence previously reported.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Argentina/epidemiology , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/blood , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnosis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Incidence , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Time Factors , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis
2.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 172, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thromboembolism has been reported as a consequence of severe COVID-19. Although warfarin is a commonly used anticoagulant, it acts by antagonising vitamin K, which is low in patients with severe COVID-19. To date, the clinical evidence on the impact of regular use of warfarin on COVID-19-related thromboembolism is lacking. METHODS: On behalf of NHS England, we conducted a population-based cohort study investigating the association between warfarin and COVID-19 outcomes compared with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). We used the OpenSAFELY platform to analyse primary care data and pseudonymously linked SARS-CoV-2 antigen testing data, hospital admissions and death records from England. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for COVID-19-related outcomes comparing warfarin with DOACs in people with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. We also conducted negative control outcome analyses (being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and non-COVID-19 death) to assess the potential impact of confounding. RESULTS: A total of 92,339 warfarin users and 280,407 DOAC users were included. We observed a lower risk of all outcomes associated with warfarin versus DOACs [testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, HR 0.73 (95% CI 0.68-0.79); COVID-19-related hospital admission, HR 0.75 (95% CI 0.68-0.83); COVID-19-related deaths, HR 0.74 (95% CI 0.66-0.83)]. A lower risk of negative control outcomes associated with warfarin versus DOACs was also observed [being tested for SARS-CoV-2, HR 0.80 (95% CI 0.79-0.81); non-COVID-19 deaths, HR 0.79 (95% CI 0.76-0.83)]. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study shows no evidence of harmful effects of warfarin on severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/virology , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , England/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
3.
Europace ; 23(6): 937-947, 2021 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411958

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Age, sex, and cardiovascular disease have been linked to thromboembolic complications and poorer outcomes in COVID-19. We hypothesize that CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores may predict thromboembolic events and mortality in COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: COVID-19 hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from 1 March to 20 April 2020 who completed at least 1-month follow-up or died were studied. CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were calculated. Given the worse prognosis of male patients in COVID-19, a modified CHA2DS2-VASc score (CHA2DS2-VASc-M) in which 1 point was given to male instead of female was also calculated. The associations of these scores with laboratory results, thromboembolic events, and death were analysed. A total of 3042 patients (mean age 62.3 ± 20.3 years, 54.9% male) were studied and 115 (3.8%) and 626 (20.6%) presented a definite thromboembolic event or died, respectively, during the study period [median follow 59 (50-66) days]. Higher score values were associated with more marked abnormalities of inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers. Mortality was significantly higher with increasing scores for CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and CHA2DS2-VASc-M (P < 0.001 for trend). The CHA2DS2-VASc-M showed the best predictive value for mortality [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) 0.820, P < 0.001 for comparisons]. All scores had poor predictive value for thromboembolic events (AUC 0.497, 0.490, and 0.541, respectively). CONCLUSION: The CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and CHA2DS2-VASc-M scores are significantly associated with all-cause mortality but not with thromboembolism in COVID-19 patients. They are simple scoring systems in everyday use that may facilitate initial 'quick' prognostic stratification in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Stroke , Thromboembolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/epidemiology
4.
BMJ ; 374: n1931, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376469

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between covid-19 vaccines and risk of thrombocytopenia and thromboembolic events in England among adults. DESIGN: Self-controlled case series study using national data on covid-19 vaccination and hospital admissions. SETTING: Patient level data were obtained for approximately 30 million people vaccinated in England between 1 December 2020 and 24 April 2021. Electronic health records were linked with death data from the Office for National Statistics, SARS-CoV-2 positive test data, and hospital admission data from the United Kingdom's health service (NHS). PARTICIPANTS: 29 121 633 people were vaccinated with first doses (19 608 008 with Oxford-AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) and 9 513 625 with Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2 mRNA)) and 1 758 095 people had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. People aged ≥16 years who had first doses of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or BNT162b2 mRNA vaccines and any outcome of interest were included in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes were hospital admission or death associated with thrombocytopenia, venous thromboembolism, and arterial thromboembolism within 28 days of three exposures: first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine; first dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine; and a SARS-CoV-2 positive test. Secondary outcomes were subsets of the primary outcomes: cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST), ischaemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and other rare arterial thrombotic events. RESULTS: The study found increased risk of thrombocytopenia after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination (incidence rate ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 1.47 at 8-14 days) and after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (5.27, 4.34 to 6.40 at 8-14 days); increased risk of venous thromboembolism after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination (1.10, 1.02 to 1.18 at 8-14 days) and after SARS-CoV-2 infection (13.86, 12.76 to 15.05 at 8-14 days); and increased risk of arterial thromboembolism after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination (1.06, 1.01 to 1.10 at 15-21 days) and after SARS-CoV-2 infection (2.02, 1.82 to 2.24 at 15-21 days). Secondary analyses found increased risk of CVST after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination (4.01, 2.08 to 7.71 at 8-14 days), after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination (3.58, 1.39 to 9.27 at 15-21 days), and after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test; increased risk of ischaemic stroke after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination (1.12, 1.04 to 1.20 at 15-21 days) and after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test; and increased risk of other rare arterial thrombotic events after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination (1.21, 1.02 to 1.43 at 8-14 days) and after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. CONCLUSION: Increased risks of haematological and vascular events that led to hospital admission or death were observed for short time intervals after first doses of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and BNT162b2 mRNA vaccines. The risks of most of these events were substantially higher and more prolonged after SARS-CoV-2 infection than after vaccination in the same population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
Metabolism ; 123: 154845, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340768

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Individuals with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia carry an increased risk for adverse clinical outcome in case of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether this risk is, at least in part, modulated by an increase of thromboembolic complications. METHODS: We prospectively followed 180 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the Internal Medicine Units of San Raffaele Hospital. Data from 11 out of 180 patients were considered incomplete and excluded from the analysis. We analysed inflammation, tissue damage biomarkers, hemostatic parameters, thrombotic events (TEs) and clinical outcome according to the presence of diabetes/stress hyperglycemia. RESULTS: Among 169 patients, 51 (30.2%) had diabetes/stress hyperglycemia. Diabetes/stress hyperglycemia and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were associated with increased inflammation and tissue damage circulating markers, higher D-dimer levels, increased prothrombin time and lower antithrombin III activity. Forty-eight venous and 10 arterial TEs were identified in 49 (29%) patients. Diabetes/stress hyperglycemia (HR 2.71, p = 0.001), fasting blood glucose (HR 4.32, p < 0.001) and glucose variability (HR 1.6, p < 0.009) were all associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic complication. TEs significantly increased the risk for an adverse clinical outcome only in the presence of diabetes/stress hyperglycemia (HR 3.05, p = 0.010) or fasting blood glucose ≥7 mmol/L (HR 3.07, p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Thromboembolism risk is higher among patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia and COVID-19 pneumonia and is associated to poor clinical outcome. In case of SARS-Cov-2 infection patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia could be considered for a more intensive prophylactic anticoagulation regimen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
6.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 20(11): 1451-1453, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310857

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Concerns about the increased risk of blood clots associated with the VAXZEVRIA (previously named Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine) and Johnson & Johnson (Janssen) COVID-19 vaccines raises the question of the thrombotic safety of other COVID-19 vaccines such as Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna, especially in younger women, who at the early stage of the pandemic was a priority group for vaccination. Methods: Using the US-based Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) and the FDA Event Reporting System (FAERS), we retrieved cases of thrombosis following vaccinations or hormonal contraceptive use in women aged ≤ 50 years. We used the reporting odds ratio (ROR) as a disproportionality measure. Results: On 19 March 2021, out of 13.6 million women aged ≤ 50 exposed to at least one dose of Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines in the US, only 61 cases were reported with a total of 68 thromboembolic events (1 case per 222,951 vaccinated). None of the thromboembolic events included in our analysis were disproportionally reported for the two COVID-19 vaccines. Conclusion: Our results do support that, when compared to hormonal contraceptive use, the mRNA vaccines do not show disproportional reporting of thromboembolic events in younger women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Thromboembolism/blood , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Age Factors , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal/adverse effects , Female , Hormonal Contraception/adverse effects , Humans , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
8.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(27): e197, 2021 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308264

ABSTRACT

We used the nationwide claims database to calculate the incidence of thrombotic events and predict their overall 2-week incidence. From 2006 to 2020, the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) tended to increase. Unlike intracranial venous thrombosis (ICVT) and intracranial thrombophlebitis (ICTP), which showed no age difference, other venous embolism, and thrombosis (OVET), DIC, DVT, and PE were significantly more common in over 65 years. The overall 2-week incidence of ICVT was 0.21/1,000,000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.32). ICTP, OVET, DIC, DVT and PE were expected to occur in 0.08 (95% CI, 0.02-0.14), 7.66 (95% CI, 6.08-9.23), 5.95 (95% CI, 4.88-7.03), 13.28 (95% CI, 11.92-14.64), 14.09 (95% CI, 12.80-15.37) per 1,000,000, respectively. To date, of 8,548,231 patients vaccinated with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in Korea, two had confirmed thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome within 2 weeks. The observed incidence of ICVT after vaccination was 0.23/1,000,000.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/chemically induced , Pulmonary Embolism/chemically induced , Thromboembolism/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects , Venous Thrombosis/chemically induced , Aged , Causality , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
9.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(5): 1231-1237, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) may experience venous thrombosis while data regarding arterial thrombosis are sparse. METHODS: Prospective multicenter study in 5 hospitals including 373 patients with Covid-19-related pneumonia. Demographic data, laboratory findings including coagulation tests and comorbidities were reported. During the follow-up any arterial or venous thrombotic events and death were registered. RESULTS: Among 373 patients, 75 (20%) had a thrombotic event and 75 (20%) died. Thrombotic events included 41 venous thromboembolism and 34 arterial thrombosis. Age, cardiovascular disease, intensive care unit treatment, white blood cells, D-dimer, albumin and troponin blood levels were associated with thrombotic events. In a multivariable regression logistic model, intensive care unit treatment (Odds Ratio [OR]: 6.0; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.8-12.6; p < 0.001); coronary artery disease (OR: 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-5.0; p = 0.022); and albumin levels (OR: 0.49; 95% CI 0.28-0.87; p = 0.014) were associated with ischemic events. Age, sex, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, heart failure, coronary heart disease, intensive care unit treatment, in-hospital thrombotic events, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, troponin, and albumin levels were associated with mortality. A multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that in-hospital thrombotic events (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.72; 95% CI 1.59-4.65; p < 0.001), age (HR: 1.035; 95% CI 1.014-1.057; p = 0.001), and albumin (HR: 0.447; 95% CI 0.277-0.723; p = 0.001) predicted morality. CONCLUSIONS: Covid-19 patients experience an equipollent rate of venous and arterial thrombotic events, that are associated with poor survival. Early identification and appropriate treatment of Covid-19 patients at risk of thrombosis may improve prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Mortality/trends , Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Thromboembolism/epidemiology
10.
Nat Med ; 27(7): 1290-1297, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263501

ABSTRACT

Reports of ChAdOx1 vaccine-associated thrombocytopenia and vascular adverse events have led to some countries restricting its use. Using a national prospective cohort, we estimated associations between exposure to first-dose ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 vaccination and hematological and vascular adverse events using a nested incident-matched case-control study and a confirmatory self-controlled case series (SCCS) analysis. An association was found between ChAdOx1 vaccination and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) (0-27 d after vaccination; adjusted rate ratio (aRR) = 5.77, 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.41-13.83), with an estimated incidence of 1.13 (0.62-1.63) cases per 100,000 doses. An SCCS analysis confirmed that this was unlikely due to bias (RR = 1.98 (1.29-3.02)). There was also an increased risk for arterial thromboembolic events (aRR = 1.22, 1.12-1.34) 0-27 d after vaccination, with an SCCS RR of 0.97 (0.93-1.02). For hemorrhagic events 0-27 d after vaccination, the aRR was 1.48 (1.12-1.96), with an SCCS RR of 0.95 (0.82-1.11). A first dose of ChAdOx1 was found to be associated with small increased risks of ITP, with suggestive evidence of an increased risk of arterial thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events. The attenuation of effect found in the SCCS analysis means that there is the potential for overestimation of the reported results, which might indicate the presence of some residual confounding or confounding by indication. Public health authorities should inform their jurisdictions of these relatively small increased risks associated with ChAdOx1. No positive associations were seen between BNT162b2 and thrombocytopenic, thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252351, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 may predispose to both venous and arterial thromboembolism event (TEE). Reports on the prevalence and prognosis of thrombotic complications are still emerging. OBJECTIVE: To describe the rate of TEE complications and its influence in the prognosis of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 after a cross-sectional study. METHODS: We evaluated the prevalence of TEE and its relationship with in-hospital death among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who were admitted between 1st March to 20th April 2020 in a multicentric network of sixteen Hospitals in Spain. TEE was defined by the occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE), acute ischemic stroke (AIS), systemic arterial embolism or myocardial infarction (MI). RESULTS: We studied 1737 patients with proven COVID-19 infection of whom 276 died (15.9%). TEE were presented in 64 (3.7%) patients: 49 (76.6%) patients had a VTE, 8 (12.5%) patients had MI, 6 (9.4%%) patients had AIS, and one (1.5%) patient a thrombosis of portal vein. TEE patients exhibited a diffuse profile: older, high levels of D-dimer protein and a tendency of lower levels of prothrombin. The multivariate regression models, confirmed the association between in-hospital death and age (odds ratio [OR] 1.12 [95% CI 1.10-1.14], p<0.001), diabetes (OR 1.49 [95% CI 1.04-2.13], p = 0.029), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR 1.61 [95% CI 1.03-2.53], p = 0.039), ICU care (OR 9.39 [95% CI 5.69-15.51], p<0.001), and TTE (OR 2.24 [95% CI 1.17-4.29], p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Special attention is needed among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with TTE and other comorbidities as they have an increased risk of in-hospital death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Thromboembolism/mortality , Thromboembolism/virology , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spain/epidemiology , Survival Rate , Thromboembolism/epidemiology
16.
Blood ; 137(20): 2838-2847, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236540

ABSTRACT

Thromboembolic events, including venous thromboembolism (VTE) and arterial thromboembolism (ATE), and mortality from subclinical thrombotic events occur frequently in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) inpatients. Whether the risk extends postdischarge has been controversial. Our prospective registry included consecutive patients with COVID-19 hospitalized within our multihospital system from 1 March to 31 May 2020. We captured demographics, comorbidities, laboratory parameters, medications, postdischarge thromboprophylaxis, and 90-day outcomes. Data from electronic health records, health informatics exchange, radiology database, and telephonic follow-up were merged. Primary outcome was a composite of adjudicated VTE, ATE, and all-cause mortality (ACM). Principal safety outcome was major bleeding (MB). Among 4906 patients (53.7% male), mean age was 61.7 years. Comorbidities included hypertension (38.6%), diabetes (25.1%), obesity (18.9%), and cancer history (13.1%). Postdischarge thromboprophylaxis was prescribed in 13.2%. VTE rate was 1.55%; ATE, 1.71%; ΑCM, 4.83%; and MB, 1.73%. Composite primary outcome rate was 7.13% and significantly associated with advanced age (odds ratio [OR], 3.66; 95% CI, 2.84-4.71), prior VTE (OR, 2.99; 95% CI, 2.00-4.47), intensive care unit (ICU) stay (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.78-2.93), chronic kidney disease (CKD; OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.47-3.0), peripheral arterial disease (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.10-3.80), carotid occlusive disease (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.30-3.14), IMPROVE-DD VTE score ≥4 (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.06-2.14), and coronary artery disease (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.04-2.17). Postdischarge anticoagulation was significantly associated with reduction in primary outcome (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.47-0.81). Postdischarge VTE, ATE, and ACM occurred frequently after COVID-19 hospitalization. Advanced age, cardiovascular risk factors, CKD, IMPROVE-DD VTE score ≥4, and ICU stay increased risk. Postdischarge anticoagulation reduced risk by 46%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/prevention & control
17.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 42(7): 1196-1200, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200067

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with hypercoagulability. We sought to evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics of cerebral venous thrombosis among patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at 6 tertiary care centers in the New York City metropolitan area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multicenter cohort study of 13,500 consecutive patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized between March 1 and May 30, 2020. RESULTS: Of 13,500 patients with COVID-19, twelve had imaging-proved cerebral venous thrombosis with an incidence of 8.8 per 10,000 during 3 months, which is considerably higher than the reported incidence of cerebral venous thrombosis in the general population of 5 per million annually. There was a male preponderance (8 men, 4 women) and an average age of 49 years (95% CI, 36-62 years; range, 17-95 years). Only 1 patient (8%) had a history of thromboembolic disease. Neurologic symptoms secondary to cerebral venous thrombosis occurred within 24 hours of the onset of the respiratory and constitutional symptoms in 58% of cases, and 75% had venous infarction, hemorrhage, or both on brain imaging. Management consisted of anticoagulation, endovascular thrombectomy, and surgical hematoma evacuation. The mortality rate was 25%. CONCLUSIONS: Early evidence suggests a higher-than-expected frequency of cerebral venous thrombosis among patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Cerebral venous thrombosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of neurologic syndromes associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Causality , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(8): e018624, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189969

ABSTRACT

Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory disease associated with thrombotic outcomes with coagulation and endothelial disorders. Based on that, several anticoagulation guidelines have been proposed. We aimed to determine whether anticoagulation therapy modifies the risk of developing severe COVID-19. Methods and Results Patients with COVID-19 initially admitted in medical wards of 24 French hospitals were included prospectively from February 26 to April 20, 2020. We used a Poisson regression model, Cox proportional hazard model, and matched propensity score to assess the effect of anticoagulation on outcomes (intensive care unit admission or in-hospital mortality). The study enrolled 2878 patients with COVID-19, among whom 382 (13.2%) were treated with oral anticoagulation therapy before hospitalization. After adjustment, anticoagulation therapy before hospitalization was associated with a better prognosis with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.55-0.88). Analyses performed using propensity score matching confirmed that anticoagulation therapy before hospitalization was associated with a better prognosis, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.43 (95% CI, 0.29-0.63) for intensive care unit admission and adjusted hazard ratio of 0.76 (95% CI, 0.61-0.98) for composite criteria intensive care unit admission or death. In contrast, therapeutic or prophylactic low- or high-dose anticoagulation started during hospitalization were not associated with any of the outcomes. Conclusions Anticoagulation therapy used before hospitalization in medical wards was associated with a better prognosis in contrast with anticoagulation initiated during hospitalization. Anticoagulation therapy introduced in early disease could better prevent COVID-19-associated coagulopathy and endotheliopathy, and lead to a better prognosis.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Early Medical Intervention/methods , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thromboembolism/epidemiology
19.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 69(6): 526-536, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189327

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a potential treatment option in critically ill COVID-19 patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) if mechanical ventilation (MV) is insufficient; however, thromboembolic and bleeding events (TEBE) during ECMO treatment still need to be investigated. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, single-center study including COVID-19 patients treated with ECMO. Additionally, we performed a univariate analysis of 85 pre-ECMO variables to identify factors influencing incidences of thromboembolic events (TEE) and bleeding events (BE), respectively. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were included; the median age was 57 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 51.5-62), 11 patients were males (65%), median ECMO duration was 16 days (IQR: 10.5-22), and the overall survival was 53%. Twelve patients (71%) developed TEBE. We observed 7 patients (41%) who developed TEE and 10 patients (59%) with BE. Upper respiratory tract (URT) bleeding was the most frequent BE with eight cases (47%). Regarding TEE, pulmonary artery embolism (PAE) had the highest incidence with five cases (29%). The comparison of diverse pre-ECMO variables between patients with and without TEBE detected one statistically significant value. The platelet count was significantly lower in the BE group (n = 10) than in the non-BE group (n = 7) with 209 (IQR: 145-238) versus 452 G/L (IQR: 240-560), with p = 0.007. CONCLUSION: This study describes the incidences of TEE and BE in critically ill COVID-19 patients treated with ECMO. The most common adverse event during ECMO support was bleeding, which occurred at a comparable rate to non-COVID-19 patients treated with ECMO.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome
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