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2.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252351, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 may predispose to both venous and arterial thromboembolism event (TEE). Reports on the prevalence and prognosis of thrombotic complications are still emerging. OBJECTIVE: To describe the rate of TEE complications and its influence in the prognosis of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 after a cross-sectional study. METHODS: We evaluated the prevalence of TEE and its relationship with in-hospital death among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who were admitted between 1st March to 20th April 2020 in a multicentric network of sixteen Hospitals in Spain. TEE was defined by the occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE), acute ischemic stroke (AIS), systemic arterial embolism or myocardial infarction (MI). RESULTS: We studied 1737 patients with proven COVID-19 infection of whom 276 died (15.9%). TEE were presented in 64 (3.7%) patients: 49 (76.6%) patients had a VTE, 8 (12.5%) patients had MI, 6 (9.4%%) patients had AIS, and one (1.5%) patient a thrombosis of portal vein. TEE patients exhibited a diffuse profile: older, high levels of D-dimer protein and a tendency of lower levels of prothrombin. The multivariate regression models, confirmed the association between in-hospital death and age (odds ratio [OR] 1.12 [95% CI 1.10-1.14], p<0.001), diabetes (OR 1.49 [95% CI 1.04-2.13], p = 0.029), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR 1.61 [95% CI 1.03-2.53], p = 0.039), ICU care (OR 9.39 [95% CI 5.69-15.51], p<0.001), and TTE (OR 2.24 [95% CI 1.17-4.29], p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Special attention is needed among hospitalized COVID-19 patients with TTE and other comorbidities as they have an increased risk of in-hospital death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Thromboembolism/mortality , Thromboembolism/virology , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spain/epidemiology , Survival Rate , Thromboembolism/epidemiology
3.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(3): 772-778, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1176387

ABSTRACT

It is still debated whether prophylactic doses of low-molecular- weight heparin (LMWH) are always effective in preventing Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) and mortality in COVID-19. Furthermore, there is paucity of data for those patients not requiring ventilation. We explored mortality and the safety/efficacy profile of LMWH in a cohort of Italian patients with COVID-19 who did not undergo ventilation. From the initial cohort of 422 patients, 264 were enrolled. Most (n = 156, 87.7%) received standard LMWH prophylaxis during hospitalization, with no significant difference between medical wards and Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Major or not major but clinically relevant hemorrhages were recorded in 13 (4.9%) patients: twelve in those taking prophylactic LMWH and one in a patient taking oral anticoagulants (p: n.s.). Thirty-nine patients (14.8%) with median age 75 years. were transfused. Hemoglobin (Hb) at admission was significantly lower in transfused patients and Hb at admission inversely correlated with the number of red blood cells units transfused (p < 0.001). In-hospital mortality occurred in 76 (28.8%) patients, 46 (24.3%) of whom admitted to medical wards. Furthermore, Hb levels at admittance were significantly lower in fatalities (g/dl 12.3; IQR 2.4 vs. 13.3; IQR 2.8; Mann-Whitney U-test; p = 0.001). After the exclusion of patients treated by LMWH intermediate or therapeutic doses (n = 32), the logistic regression showed that prophylaxis significantly and independently reduced mortality (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.13-0.85). Present data show that COVID-19 patients who do not require ventilation benefit from prophylactic doses of LMWH.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Transfusion , COVID-19/therapy , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Blood Transfusion/mortality , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Clinical Decision-Making , Female , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/adverse effects , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
4.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 74: 80-87, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes thromboembolic complications during or post-infection period despite a lack of conventional risk factors. The study aims to learn fundamental changes in COVID-19 patients who underwent embolectomy in terms of clinical characteristics and clot composition. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study design, we evaluated 21 patients who underwent embolectomy in our clinic between March 12, 2020, and December 31, 2020. Demographics, characteristics, and laboratory values were abstracted and analyzed. Histopathological assessment was held in the pathology department. RESULTS: Of these 21 patients, 11 (52.3%) were SARS-CoV-2 positive and 10 (47.6%) were SARS-CoV-2 negative. There is no statistical difference in terms of anatomic distribution, diagnostic method, length of hospital stay, amputation or mortality levels. Thromboembolic material of COVID-19 patients include significantly less red blood cell (RBC) (21.2-32.6%; P= 0.01), more lymphocyte (14.1-2.6%; P< 0.001), and more leukocyte (27.1-22.1%; P= 0.05). There was no statistical difference between the fibrin ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory cells are prominent in arterial thromboembolic material of COVID-19 patients. A combination of hyperinflammation and prothrombotic status may be responsible for this phenomenon.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Inflammation/pathology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/pathology , Thromboembolism/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amputation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Embolectomy , Female , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/mortality , Inflammation/surgery , Length of Stay , Limb Salvage , Male , Middle Aged , Peripheral Arterial Disease/etiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/mortality , Peripheral Arterial Disease/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/mortality , Thromboembolism/surgery , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(3): 914-924, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137164

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated whether the CHA2DS2-VASc score could be used to estimate the need for hospitalization in the intensive care unit (ICU), the length of stay in the ICU, and mortality in patients with COVID-19. Patients admitted to Merkezefendi State Hospital because of COVID-19 diagnosis confirmed by RNA detection of virus by using polymerase chain reaction between March 24, 2020 and July 6, 2020, were screened retrospectively. The CHA2DS2-VASc and modified CHA2DS2-VASc score of all patients was calculated. Also, we received all patients' complete biochemical markers including D-dimer, Troponin I, and c-reactive protein on admission. We enrolled 1000 patients; 791 were admitted to the general medical service and 209 to the ICU; 82 of these 209 patients died. The ROC curves of the CHA2DS2-VASc and M-CHA2DS2-VASc scores were analyzed. The cut-off values of these scores for predicting mortality were ≥ 3 (2 or under and 3). The CHA2DS2-VASc and M-CHA2DS2-VASc scores had an area under the curve value of 0.89 on the ROC. The sensitivity and specificity of the CHA2DS2-VASc scores were 81.7% and 83.8%, respectively; the sensitivity and specificity of the M-CHA2DS2-VASc scores were 85.3% and 84.1%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that CHA2DS2-VASc, Troponin I, D-Dimer, and CRP were independent predictors of mortality in COVID-19 patients. Using a simple and easily available scoring system, CHA2DS2-VASc and M-CHA2DS2-VASc scores can be assessed in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. These scores can predict mortality and the need for ICU hospitalization in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Decision Support Techniques , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Receptors, Immunologic/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/mortality , Thromboembolism/therapy , Time Factors , Troponin I/blood , Turkey , Young Adult
6.
Pharmacol Res ; 167: 105534, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117457

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic medications are frequently prescribed to people with dementia to manage behavioural and psychological symptoms. Using a global federated research network, the objectives were to determine: 1) if COVID-19 is associated with 30-day thromboembolic events and mortality for people with dementia receiving antipsychotic medications; and 2) if the proportion of people with dementia receiving antipsychotics is higher during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to 2019. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using TriNetX, a global federated health research network. The network was searched for people aged ≥ 65 years with dementia, COVID-19 and use of antipsychotics in the 30-days prior to COVID-19 recorded in electronic medical records between 20/01/2020 and 05/12/2020. These individuals were compared to historical controls from 2019 with dementia and use of antipsychotics in the 30-days before a visit to a participating healthcare organisation. Propensity score matching for age, sex, race, co-morbidities and use of antidepressants and anticonvulsants was used to balance cohorts with and without COVID-19. RESULTS: Within the TriNetX network, 8414 individuals with COVID-19, dementia and use of antipsychotics and 31,963 historical controls were identified. After propensity score matching there were 8396 individuals with COVID-19 and 8396 historical controls. The cohorts were well balanced for age, sex, race, co-morbidities and use of antidepressants and anticonvulsants. The odds of 30-day thromboembolic events and all-cause mortality were significantly higher in adults with COVID-19 (Odds Ratios: 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21-1.52) and 1.93 (1.71-2.17), respectively). The number of people with dementia with a visit to a participating healthcare organisation was lower between 20/01/2020 and 05/12/2020 (n = 165,447) compared to the same period in 2019 (n = 217,391), but the proportion receiving antipsychotics increased from 14.7% (95%CI: 14.6-14.9%) to 16.4% (95%CI: 16.2-16.5%), P < .0001. CONCLUSIONS: These findings add to the evidence base that during the COVID-19 pandemic there was an increase in the proportion of people with dementia receiving antipsychotics. The negative effects of antipsychotics in patients with dementia may be compounded by concomitant COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dementia/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/mortality , Dementia/psychology , Electronic Health Records , Female , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/mortality , Time Factors
7.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(3): 782-790, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111318

ABSTRACT

A pro-thrombotic milieu and a higher risk of thrombotic events were observed in patients with CoronaVirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Accordingly, recent data suggested a beneficial role of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), but the optimal dosage of this treatment is unknown. We evaluated the association between prophylactic vs. intermediate-to-fully anticoagulant doses of enoxaparin and in-hospital adverse events in patients with COVID-19. We retrospectively included 436 consecutive patients admitted in three Italian hospitals. Outcome according to the use of prophylactic (4000 IU) vs. higher (> 4000 IU) daily dosage of enoxaparin was evaluated. The primary end-point was in-hospital death. Secondary outcome measures were in-hospital cardiovascular death, venous thromboembolism, new-onset acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and mechanical ventilation. A total of 287 patients (65.8%) were treated with the prophylactic enoxaparin regimen and 149 (34.2%) with a higher dosing regimen. The use of prophylactic enoxaparin dose was associated with a similar incidence of all-cause mortality (25.4% vs. 26.9% with the higher dose; OR at multivariable analysis, including the propensity score: 0.847, 95% CI 0.400-0.1.792; p = 0.664). In the prophylactic dose group, a significantly lower incidence of cardiovascular death (OR 0.165), venous thromboembolism (OR 0.067), new-onset ARDS (OR 0.454) and mechanical intubation (OR 0.150) was observed. In patients hospitalized for COVID-19, the use of a prophylactic dosage of enoxaparin appears to be associated with similar in-hospital overall mortality compared to higher doses. These findings require confirmation in a randomized, controlled study.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/therapy , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Hospitalization , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(3): 1670-1679, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102754

ABSTRACT

The emergence of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) as a pandemic has claimed hundreds of thousands of lives worldwide since its initial breakout. With increasing reports from clinical observations and autopsy findings, it became clear that the disease causes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), as well as a broad spectrum of systemic and multiorgan pathologies, including angiopathy, endothelialitis, and thrombosis. Coagulopathy is associated with the activity of megakaryocytes, which play crucial roles in modulating the platelet homeostasis. Only a few autopsy reports include findings on thrombosis formation and the presence of megakaryocytes. Here we review and summarize the possible involvement and the pathophysiology of the thromboembolic events in COVID-19 patients based on post-mortem reports. We reviewed post-mortem reports from March 2020 to September 2020. Eleven autopsy reports that demonstrated thromboembolic involvement findings, either macroscopically or microscopically, were included in this review. All studies reported similar pulmonary gross findings. Not all studies described thrombi formation and megakaryocyte findings. Pulmonary embolism, coagulopathy, severe endothelial injury, and widespread thrombosis are frequent in COVID-19 patients, following many patients with high-level D-Dimer, increased fibrinogen, abnormal prothrombic coagulation, and thrombocytopenia. Reports showed that thrombus was also found in the lower extremities' deep veins and the prostatic venous plexus. In conclusion, a complex interaction of SARS-CoV-2 virus invasion with platelets, leukocytes, endothelial cells, inflammation, immune response, and the possible involvement of megakaryocytes may increase the cumulative risk of thrombosis by a yet unclear cellular and humoral interaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/mortality , Autopsy , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Lung/blood supply , Lung/pathology , Megakaryocytes/pathology , Pandemics , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/pathology
10.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(11): 2764-2775, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015732

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can infect patients in any age group including those with no comorbid conditions. Understanding the demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of these patients is important toward developing successful treatment strategies. Approach and Results: In a retrospective study design, consecutive patients without baseline comorbidities hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 were included. Patients were subdivided into ≤55 and >55 years of age. Predictors of in-hospital mortality or mechanical ventilation were analyzed in this patient population, as well as subgroups. Stable parameters in overall and subgroup models were used to construct a cluster model for phenotyping of patients. Of 1207 COVID-19-positive patients, 157 met the study criteria (80≤55 and 77>55 years of age). Most reliable predictors of outcomes overall and in subgroups were age, initial and follow-up d-dimer, and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) levels. Their predictive cutoff values were used to construct a cluster model that produced 3 main clusters. Cluster 1 was a low-risk cluster and was characterized by younger patients who had low thrombotic and inflammatory features. Cluster 2 was intermediate risk that also consisted of younger population that had moderate level of thrombosis, higher inflammatory cells, and inflammatory markers. Cluster 3 was a high-risk cluster that had the most aggressive thrombotic and inflammatory feature. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy patient population, COVID-19 remains significantly associated with morbidity and mortality. While age remains the most important predictor of in-hospital outcomes, thromboinflammatory interactions are also associated with worse clinical outcomes regardless of age in healthy patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Clinical Decision Rules , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Patient Admission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Thromboembolism/virology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Health Status , Hospital Mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Phenotype , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/mortality , Thromboembolism/therapy
11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(16): 1815-1826, 2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-849705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thromboembolic disease is common in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). There is limited evidence on the association of in-hospital anticoagulation (AC) with outcomes and postmortem findings. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine association of AC with in-hospital outcomes and describe thromboembolic findings on autopsies. METHODS: This retrospective analysis examined the association of AC with mortality, intubation, and major bleeding. Subanalyses were also conducted on the association of therapeutic versus prophylactic AC initiated ≤48 h from admission. Thromboembolic disease was contextualized by premortem AC among consecutive autopsies. RESULTS: Among 4,389 patients, median age was 65 years with 44% women. Compared with no AC (n = 1,530; 34.9%), therapeutic AC (n = 900; 20.5%) and prophylactic AC (n = 1,959; 44.6%) were associated with lower in-hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45 to 0.62 and aHR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.57, respectively), and intubation (aHR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.94 and aHR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.58 to 0.89, respectively). When initiated ≤48 h from admission, there was no statistically significant difference between therapeutic (n = 766) versus prophylactic AC (n = 1,860) (aHR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.73 to 1.02; p = 0.08). Overall, 89 patients (2%) had major bleeding adjudicated by clinician review, with 27 of 900 (3.0%) on therapeutic, 33 of 1,959 (1.7%) on prophylactic, and 29 of 1,530 (1.9%) on no AC. Of 26 autopsies, 11 (42%) had thromboembolic disease not clinically suspected and 3 of 11 (27%) were on therapeutic AC. CONCLUSIONS: AC was associated with lower mortality and intubation among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Compared with prophylactic AC, therapeutic AC was associated with lower mortality, although not statistically significant. Autopsies revealed frequent thromboembolic disease. These data may inform trials to determine optimal AC regimens.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Autopsy/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis , Thromboembolism , Aged , Anticoagulants/classification , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , New York City/epidemiology , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Risk Adjustment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/mortality , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Thromboembolism/virology
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD013739, 2020 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-843901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The primary manifestation is respiratory insufficiency that can also be related to diffuse pulmonary microthrombosis in people with COVID-19. This disease also causes thromboembolic events, such as pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, arterial thrombosis, catheter thrombosis, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. Recent studies have indicated a worse prognosis for people with COVID-19 who developed thromboembolism. Anticoagulants are medications used in the prevention and treatment of venous or arterial thromboembolic events. Several drugs are used in the prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic events, such as heparinoids (heparins or pentasaccharides), vitamin K antagonists and direct anticoagulants. Besides their anticoagulant properties, heparinoids have an additional anti-inflammatory potential, that may affect the clinical evolution of people with COVID-19. Some practical guidelines address the use of anticoagulants for thromboprophylaxis in people with COVID-19, however, the benefit of anticoagulants for people with COVID-19 is still under debate. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of prophylactic anticoagulants versus active comparator, placebo or no intervention, on mortality and the need for respiratory support in people hospitalised with COVID-19. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS and IBECS databases, the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register and medRxiv preprint database from their inception to 20 June 2020. We also checked reference lists of any relevant systematic reviews identified and contacted specialists in the field for additional references to trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, cluster-RCTs and cohort studies that compared prophylactic anticoagulants (heparin, vitamin K antagonists, direct anticoagulants, and pentasaccharides) versus active comparator, placebo or no intervention for the management of people hospitalised with COVID-19. We excluded studies without a comparator group. Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality and need for additional respiratory support. Secondary outcomes were mortality related to COVID-19, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism, major bleeding, adverse events, length of hospital stay and quality of life. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. We used ROBINS-I to assess risk of bias for non-randomised studies (NRS) and GRADE to assess the certainty of evidence. We reported results narratively. MAIN RESULTS: We identified no RCTs or quasi-RCTs that met the inclusion criteria. We included seven retrospective NRS (5929 participants), three of which were available as preprints. Studies were conducted in China, Italy, Spain and the USA. All of the studies included people hospitalised with COVID-19, in either intensive care units, hospital wards or emergency departments. The mean age of participants (reported in 6 studies) ranged from 59 to 72 years. Only three included studies reported the follow-up period, which varied from 8 to 35 days. The studies did not report on most of our outcomes of interest: need for additional respiratory support, mortality related to COVID-19, DVT, pulmonary embolism, adverse events, and quality of life. Anticoagulants (all types) versus no treatment (6 retrospective NRS, 5685 participants) One study reported a reduction in all-cause mortality (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26 to 0.66; 2075 participants). One study reported a reduction in mortality only in a subgroup of 395 people who required mechanical ventilation (hazard ratio (HR) 0.86, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.89). Three studies reported no differences in mortality (adjusted OR 1.64, 95% CI 0.92 to 2.92; 449 participants; unadjusted OR 1.66, 95% CI 0.76 to 3.64; 154 participants and adjusted risk ratio (RR) 1.15, 95% CI 0.29 to 2.57; 192 participants). One study reported zero events in both intervention groups (42 participants). The overall risk of bias for all-cause mortality was critical and the certainty of the evidence was very low. One NRS reported bleeding events in 3% of the intervention group and 1.9% of the control group (OR 1.62, 95% CI 0.96 to 2.71; 2773 participants; low-certainty evidence). Therapeutic-dose anticoagulants versus prophylactic-dose anticoagulants (1 retrospective NRS, 244 participants) The study reported a reduction in all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 0.21, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.46) and a lower absolute rate of death in the therapeutic group (34.2% versus 53%). The overall risk of bias for all-cause mortality was serious and the certainty of the evidence was low. The study also reported bleeding events in 31.7% of the intervention group and 20.5% of the control group (OR 1.8, 95% CI 0.96 to 3.37; low-certainty evidence). Ongoing studies We found 22 ongoing studies in hospital settings (20 RCTs, 14,730 participants; 2 NRS, 997 participants) in 10 different countries (Australia (1), Brazil (1), Canada (2), China (3), France (2), Germany (1), Italy (4), Switzerland (1), UK (1) and USA (6)). Twelve ongoing studies plan to report mortality and six plan to report additional respiratory support. Thirteen studies are expected to be completed in December 2020 (6959 participants), eight in July 2021 (8512 participants), and one in December 2021 (256 participants). Four of the studies plan to include 1000 participants or more. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is currently insufficient evidence to determine the risks and benefits of prophylactic anticoagulants for people hospitalised with COVID-19. Since there are 22 ongoing studies that plan to evaluate more than 15,000 participants in this setting, we will add more robust evidence to this review in future updates.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Bias , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/mortality
13.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 70: 290-294, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) predisposes to arterial and venous thromboembolic complications. We describe the clinical presentation, management, and outcomes of acute arterial ischemia and concomitant infection at the epicenter of cases in the United States. METHODS: Patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection between March 1, 2020 and May 15, 2020 with an acute arterial thromboembolic event were reviewed. Data collected included demographics, anatomical location of the thromboembolism, treatments, and outcomes. RESULTS: Over the 11-week period, the Northwell Health System cared for 12,630 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. A total of 49 patients with arterial thromboembolism and confirmed COVID-19 were identified. The median age was 67 years (58-75) and 37 (76%) were men. The most common preexisting conditions were hypertension (53%) and diabetes (35%). The median D-dimer level was 2,673 ng/mL (723-7,139). The distribution of thromboembolic events included upper 7 (14%) and lower 35 (71%) extremity ischemia, bowel ischemia 2 (4%), and cerebral ischemia 5 (10%). Six patients (12%) had thrombus in multiple locations. Concomitant deep vein thrombosis was found in 8 patients (16%). Twenty-two (45%) patients presented with signs of acute arterial ischemia and were subsequently diagnosed with COVID-19. The remaining 27 (55%) developed ischemia during hospitalization. Revascularization was performed in 13 (27%) patients, primary amputation in 5 (10%), administration of systemic tissue- plasminogen activator in 3 (6%), and 28 (57%) were treated with systemic anticoagulation only. The rate of limb loss was 18%. Twenty-one patients (46%) died in the hospital. Twenty-five (51%) were successfully discharged, and 3 patients are still in the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: While the mechanism of thromboembolic events in patients with COVID-19 remains unclear, the occurrence of such complication is associated with acute arterial ischemia which results in a high limb loss and mortality.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Aged , Amputation , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/mortality , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Databases, Factual , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/mortality , Thromboembolism/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Surgical Procedures
14.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105288, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) potentially increases the risk of thromboembolism and stroke. Numerous case reports and retrospective cohort studies have been published with mixed characteristics of COVID-19 patients with stroke regarding age, comorbidities, treatment, and outcome. We aimed to depict the frequency and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with stroke. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched on June 10, 2020, to investigate COVID-19 and stroke through retrospective cross-sectional studies, case series/reports according to PRISMA guidelines. Study-specific estimates were combined using one-group meta-analysis in a random-effects model. RESULTS: 10 retrospective cohort studies and 16 case series/reports were identified including 183 patients with COVID-19 and stroke. The frequency of detected stroke in hospitalized COVID-19 patients was 1.1% ([95% confidential interval (CI)]: [0.6-1.6], I2 = 62.9%). Mean age was 66.6 ([58.4-74.9], I2 = 95.1%), 65.6% was male (61/93 patients). Mean days from symptom onset of COVID-19 to stroke was 8.0 ([4.1-11.9], p< 0.001, I2 = 93.1%). D-dimer was 3.3 µg/mL ([1.7-4.9], I2 = 86.3%), and cryptogenic stroke was most common as etiology at 50.7% ([31.0-70.4] I2 = 64.1%, 39/71patients). Case fatality rate was 44.2% ([27.9-60.5], I2 = 66.7%, 40/100 patients). CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review assessed the frequency and clinical characteristics of stroke in COVID-19 patients. The frequency of detected stroke in hospitalized COVID-19 patients was 1.1% and associated with older age and stroke risk factors. Frequent cryptogenic stroke and elevated d-dimer level support increased risk of thromboembolism in COVID-19 associated with high mortality. Further study is needed to elucidate the pathophysiology and prognosis of stroke in COVID-19 to achieve most effective care for this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Stroke/etiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/mortality , Stroke/therapy , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/mortality , Thromboembolism/therapy
15.
Clin Radiol ; 75(11): 804-810, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693338

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging human infectious disease that has quickly become a worldwide threat to health, mainly causing severe acute respiratory syndrome. In addition to the widely described respiratory syndrome, COVID-19 may cause life-treating complications directly or indirectly related to this infection. Among these, thrombotic complications have emerged as an important issue in patients with COVID-19 infection, particularly in patients in intensive care units. Thrombotic complications due to COVID-19 are likely to occur due to a pro-coagulant pattern encountered in some of these patients or to a progressive endothelial thrombo-inflammatory syndrome causing microvascular disease. In the present authors' experience, from five different hospitals in Italy and the UK, imaging has proved its utility in identifying these COVID-19-related thrombotic complications, with translational clinical relevance. The aim of this review is to illustrate thromboembolic complications directly or indirectly related to COVID-19 disease. Specifically, this review will show complications related to thromboembolism due to a pro-coagulant pattern from those likely related to an endothelial thrombo-inflammatory syndrome.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/etiology , Adult , Aged , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/mortality , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Survival Analysis , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Thromboembolism/mortality , Thromboplastin/metabolism , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
16.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(8): 1647-1652, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-633783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Nursing home (NH) residents are a vulnerable population, susceptible to respiratory disease outbreaks such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Poor outcome in COVID-19 is at least partly attributed to hypercoagulability, resulting in a high incidence of thromboembolic complications. It is unknown whether commonly used antithrombotic therapies may protect the vulnerable NH population with COVID-19 against mortality. This study aimed to investigate whether the use of oral antithrombotic therapy (OAT) was associated with a lower mortality in NH residents with COVID-19. DESIGN: A retrospective case series. SETTING: Fourteen NH facilities from the NH organization Envida, Maastricht, the Netherlands PARTICIPANTS: A total of 101 NH residents with COVID-19 were enrolled. MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. The association between age, sex, comorbidity, OAT, and mortality was assessed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Overall mortality was 47.5% in NH residents from 14 NH facilities. Age, comorbidity, and medication use were comparable among NH residents who survived and who died. OAT was associated with a lower mortality in NH residents with COVID-19 in the univariable analysis (odds ratio (OR) = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.41-1.95). However, additional adjustments for sex, age, and comorbidity attenuated this difference. Mortality in males was higher compared with female residents (OR = 3.96; 95% CI = 1.62-9.65). Male residents who died were younger compared with female residents (82.2 (standard deviation (SD) = 6.3) vs 89.1 (SD = 6.8) years; P < .001). CONCLUSION: NH residents in the 14 facilities we studied were severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, with a mortality of 47.5%. Male NH residents with COVID-19 had worse outcomes than females. We did not find evidence for any protection against mortality by OAT, necessitating further research into strategies to mitigate poor outcome of COVID-19 in vulnerable NH populations. J Am Geriatr Soc 68:1647-1652, 2020.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Thromboembolism/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Homes for the Aged , Humans , Incidence , Male , Netherlands/epidemiology , Nursing Homes , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/virology
17.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(2): 281-286, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232649

ABSTRACT

Critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia suffered both high thrombotic and bleeding risk. The effect of SARS-CoV-2 on coagulation and fibrinolysis is not well known. We conducted a retrospective study of critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) a cause of severe COVID-19 pneumonia and we evaluated coagulation function using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) on day of admission (T0) and 5 (T5) and 10 (T10) days after admission to ICU. Coagulation standard parameters were also evaluated. Forty patients were enrolled into the study. The ICU and the hospital mortality were 10% and 12.5%, respectively. On ICU admission, prothrombin time was slightly reduced and it increased significantly at T10 (T0 = 65.1 ± 9.8 vs T10 = 85.7 ± 1.5, p = 0.002), while activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen values were higher at T0 than T10 (32.2 ± 2.9 vs 27.2 ± 2.1, p = 0.017 and 895.1 ± 110 vs 332.5 ± 50, p = 0.002, respectively); moreover, whole blood thromboelastometry profiles were consistent with hypercoagulability characterized by an acceleration of the propagation phase of blood clot formation [i.e., CFT below the lower limit in INTEM 16/40 patients (40%) and EXTEM 20/40 patients (50%)] and significant higher clot strength [MCF above the upper limit in INTEM 20/40 patients (50%), in EXTEM 28/40 patients (70%) and in FIBTEM 29/40 patients (72.5%)]; however, this hypercoagulable state persists in the first five days, but it decreases ten day after, without returning to normal values. No sign of secondary hyperfibrinolysis or sepsis induced coagulopathy (SIC) were found during the study period. In six patients (15%) a deep vein thrombosis and in 2 patients (5%) a thromboembolic event, were found; 12 patients (30%) had a catheter-related thrombosis. ROTEM analysis confirms that patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia had a hypercoagulation state that persisted over time.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Thrombelastography , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Aged , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/mortality , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/mortality , Thromboembolism/virology , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/mortality , Thrombophilia/virology , Time Factors
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