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2.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 28: 10760296221131801, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162205

ABSTRACT

Acute ischemic stroke (AIS), characterized by high morbidity and mortality, has imposed a considerable burden on society. Despite rapid development in the treatment of AIS, there is still a high risk of recurrence. Furthermore, there is a time delay in waiting for the results of conventional coagulation tests in candidate patients for intravenous thrombolysis therapy. Heterogeneous responses to antiplatelet, intravascular thrombolysis, and endovascular therapies also worsen the situation. Thromboelastography (TEG), as a global and portable detection method for hemostasis, facilitates clinicians in disease monitoring, treatment evaluation, and prognosis prediction in AIS. In this narrative review, we provided a comprehensive summary of the clinical application of TEG in ischemic stroke and gave insights to further studies.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Thrombelastography , Blood Coagulation Tests , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Treatment Outcome
3.
Neurol India ; 70(5): 1942-1946, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117614

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The unprecedented challenges during the COVID pandemic and the subsequent lockdown had resulted in a delay in treatment metrics for acute stroke. There is a rising concern that COVID-19 co-infection can adversely affect stroke outcome. We aim to investigate the impact of COVID-19 in the management of stroke patients. We also compared the differences in stroke manifestations, etiological pattern, treatment course, and outcome of acute stroke patients in COVID-19 confirmed cases. Methodology: A single-center retrospective study was done at the Stroke Unit, Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram. Consecutive patients of acute stroke confirmed by imaging, presenting within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms in May to July 2020 and May to July 2019, were included. The primary data variables included baseline demographics, risk factors, admission NIHSS, stroke timings, thrombolysis rate, TOAST etiology, mRS at discharge, and in-hospital mortality. Results: Strokes with higher NIHSS, arrival blood sugar and blood pressure, and delays in door-to-CT and door-to-needle time were more during the pandemic. Intravenous thrombolysis was less and mortality was higher in COVID-19 strokes during the pandemic. COVID-19-positive stroke patients had more hemorrhagic strokes, more severe strokes with low CT ASPECTS, more hemorrhagic transformation, high in-hospital mortality, and poor functional outcome at discharge and 3 months. Conclusion: Our study was a hypothesis-generating study with a limited number of patients. This study has reconfirmed the higher severity of the stroke, with a higher mRS score and mortality during the pandemic, especially among COVID-19-positive stroke patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Humans , Tertiary Care Centers , Retrospective Studies , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome , Communicable Disease Control , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects
4.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 473, 2022 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108742

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) has emerged as an increasingly diagnosed cause of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), which is easily missed or delayed. The effective use of coronary angiography (CAG) and advanced intracoronary imaging examinations in STEMI patients has led to increased detection of SCAD. CASE PRESENTATION: A 59-year-old woman with acute angina pectoris was diagnosed with STEMI detected by electrocardiography combined with measurement of myocardial enzymes. Due to the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, she was first given thrombolytic therapy after excluding contraindications according to the requirements of the current consensus statement; however, subsequently, both the symptoms of ongoing chest pain and the electrocardiographic results indicated the failure of thrombolytic therapy, so the intervention team administered rescue percutaneous coronary intervention treatment under third-grade protection. CAG confirmed total occlusion in the distal left anterior descending (LAD) artery, with thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 0 flow, whereas the left circumflex and right coronary arteries appeared normal, with TIMI 3 flow. Intravenous ultrasound (IVUS) was further performed to investigate the causes of occlusion, which verified the absence of atherosclerosis but detected SCAD with intramural haematoma. During the operation, the guidewire reached the distal end of the LAD artery smoothly, the balloon was dilated slightly, and the reflow of TIMI blood could be seen by repeated CAG. During the follow-up period of one and a half years, the patient complained of occasional, slight chest tightness. The repeated CAG showed that the spontaneous dissection in the LAD artery had healed well, with TIMI 3 flow. The repeated IVUS confirmed that the SCAD and intramural haematoma had been mostly resorbed and repaired. CONCLUSION: This was a case of failed STEMI thrombolysis in our hospital during the outbreak of COVID-19. This case indicates that doctors need to consider the cause of the disease when treating STEMI patients, especially patients without traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, CAG and intracoronary imaging examinations should be actively performed to identify the aetiology and improve the treatment success rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Coronary Angiography/adverse effects , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects , Hematoma/complications
5.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275831, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Only very few studies have investigated the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the pre-hospital stroke code protocol. During the first wave, Spain was one of the most affected countries by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus disease pandemic. This health catastrophe overshadowed other pathologies, such as acute stroke, the leading cause of death among women and the leading cause of disability among adults. Any interference in the stroke code protocol can delay the administration of reperfusion treatment for acute ischemic strokes, leading to a worse patient prognosis. We aimed to compare the performance of the stroke code during the first wave of the pandemic with the same period of the previous year. METHODS: This was a multicentre interrupted time-series observational study of the cohort of stroke codes of SUMMA 112 and of the ten hospitals with a stroke unit in the Community of Madrid. We established two groups according to the date on which they were attended: the first during the dates with the highest daily cumulative incidence of the first wave of the COVID-19 (from February 27 to June 15, 2020), and the second, the same period of the previous year (from February 27 to June 15, 2019). To assess the performance of the stroke code, we compared each of the pre-hospital emergency service time periods, the diagnostic accuracy (proportion of stroke codes with a final diagnosis of acute stroke out of the total), the proportion of patients treated with reperfusion therapies, and the in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: SUMMA 112 activated the stroke code in 966 patients (514 in the pre-pandemic group and 452 pandemic). The call management time increased by 9% (95% CI: -0.11; 0.91; p value = 0.02), and the time on scene increased by 12% (95% CI: 2.49; 5.93; p value = <0.01). Diagnostic accuracy, and the proportion of patients treated with reperfusion therapies remained stable. In-hospital mortality decreased by 4% (p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: During the first wave, a prolongation of the time "on the scene" of the management of the 112 calls, and of the hospital admission was observed. Prehospital diagnostic accuracy and the proportion of patients treated at the hospital level with intravenous thrombolysis or mechanical thrombectomy were not altered with respect to the previous year, showing the resilience of the stroke network and the emergency medical service.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Stroke , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e063855, 2022 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053218

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The use of fibrinolytic therapy has been proposed in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). During the COVID-19 pandemic, anticoagulation has received special attention due to the frequent findings of microthrombi and fibrin deposits in the lungs and other organs. Therefore, the use of fibrinolysis has been regarded as a potential rescue therapy in these patients. In this prospective meta-analysis, we plan to synthesise evidence from ongoing clinical trials and thus assess whether fibrinolytic therapy can improve the ventilation/perfusion ratio in patients with severe COVID-19-caused ARDS as compared with standard of care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This protocol was registered in PROSPERO. All randomised controlled trials and prospective observational trials that compare fibrinolytic therapy with standard of care in adult patients with COVID-19 and define their primary or secondary outcome as improvement in oxygenation and/or gas exchange, or mortality will be considered eligible. Safety outcomes will include bleeding event rate and requirement for transfusion. Our search on 25 January 2022 identified five eligible ongoing clinical trials. A formal search of MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, CENTRAL will be performed every month to identify published results and to search for further trials that meet our eligibility criteria. DISSEMINATION: This could be the first qualitative and quantitative synthesis summarising evidence of the efficacy and safety of fibrinolytic therapy in critically ill patients with COVID-19. We plan to publish our results in peer-reviewed journals. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021285281.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Critical Illness/therapy , Fibrin , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome
8.
Neurol Neurochir Pol ; 56(2): 171-177, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994400

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Accurately predicting outcomes after acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) is a major clinical goal. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the prognostic validity and accuracy of the Acute Stroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne (ASTRAL) score in predicting symptomatic haemorrhagic transformation (sHT) in patients with AIS who have undergone revascularisation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Consecutive patients hospitalised for AIS who underwent treatment with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and/or mechanical thrombectomy (MT) were identified, and their ASTRAL scores at hospital admission were estimated. The study endpoint was sHT within 24 hours of stroke onset. The predictive performance of the ASTRAL score was investigated through logistic regression analysis and discrimination and calibration tests. RESULTS: Sixty-eight AIS patients, with a median age of 69 (58-79) years, were included. sHT occurred in 20 (29.4%) of the 68 patients. The ASTRAL score was significantly higher in patients who developed sHT compared to non-sHT patients [36 (34-38) versus 24 (17-32); p<0.001]. The ASTRAL score was an independent predictor of sHT, and showed good discriminative power (area under the curve 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.789-0.965). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: ASTRAL score is an independent predictor of sHT and shows high predictive accuracy in patients with AIS. Future studies are warranted to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Aged , Brain Ischemia/surgery , Hospitals , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/surgery , Pilot Projects , Stroke/surgery , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Treatment Outcome
9.
Neurol Neurochir Pol ; 56(1): 81-88, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994399

ABSTRACT

AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the influence of age on long-term functional outcome in patients with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed retrospective analysis of 362 AIS patients treated with IVT or IVT and subsequent mechanical thrombectomy in the University Hospital in Krakow, Poland. Patients were categorised into four subgroups by age: (I) below the age of 60, (II) 60 to 69, (III) 70 to 79, and (IV) 80 or more. The outcomes were assessed with modified Rankin scale (mRS) 90 days after stroke onset, and defined as favourable (mRS 0-2), poor (mRS 3-5), or death (mRS = 6). RESULTS: Patients aged 80 or more compared to those below 60 were more often women (72.64% vs. 26.76%, < 0.001), more often suffered from hypertension (94.34% vs. 60.56%, p < 0.001), ischaemic heart disease (27.36% vs. 8.45%, p = 0.002), atrial fibrillation (49.06% vs. 5.63%, p < 0.001), and premorbid disability (pre-stroke mRS ≥ 1: 17.92% vs. 1.41%, p < 0.001), less often were active smokers (0% vs. 27.14%, p < 0.001), more often had cardioembolic aetiology (50.00% vs. 16.90%, p < 0.001), and less often other stroke aetiology (1.89% vs. 15.49%, < 0.008), had shorter time from stroke onset to IVT (125 [93-180] vs. 140 [110-186] min, p < 0.008), less often underwent mechanical thrombectomy (18.87% vs. 46.48%, p < 0.001), had higher CRP levels (10.3 [3.2-39.8] vs. 4.3 [2.1-9.6] mg/L, p = 0.003), higher maximal systolic blood pressure within 24 hours after IVT (153 [140-170] vs. 138 [120-145] mmHg, p < 0.001), and higher creatinine concentration (88 [68-108] vs. 77 [67-87] µmol/l, p = 0.004), less often had a favourable outcome (48.04% vs. 85.51%, odds ratio [OR] 0.16, 95%CI: 0.07-0.34, p < 0.001), and had a greater risk of death (26.47% vs. 5.80%, OR 5.85, 95%CI: 1.95-17.59, p < 0.001) within three months of stroke onset. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the independent predictors of worse outcome in patients aged 80 or more were NIHSS score after IVT (OR 0.64, 95%CI: 0.53-0.78, p < 0.001), pre-stroke mRS score ≥ 1 (OR 0.10, 95%CI: 0.02-0.61, p = 0.012), and CRP levels (OR 0.96, 95%CI: 0.93-0.99, p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: AIS patients treated with reperfusion therapy and aged 80 or more have around a six times higher risk of an unfavourable outcome or death within three months of stroke onset compared to those aged below 60. Higher NIHSS score after IVT, any signs of disability before stroke as measured with mRS, and higher CRP levels are independent risk factors for worse prognosis in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/etiology , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
10.
Eur Neurol ; 85(5): 349-366, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Despite progress made over the last 30 years, stroke is still a leading cause of disability and mortality; likewise, its burden is expected to increase over the next decades, due to population growth and aging. The development of drugs with better safety-efficacy profiles as well as strategies able to improve ischemic stroke management from the pre-hospital setting is needed. SUMMARY: The pathophysiology of ischemic stroke involves multiple pathways resulting in cerebral artery obstruction and brain tissue ischemia. To date, the only approved drug for acute ischemic stroke is intravenous thrombolytic alteplase. Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) can be administered alone or in combination with endovascular treatment (EVT) with mechanical thrombectomy, in case of large vessel occlusion and generally within 6 h from symptoms onset. The risk of potential bleeding complications, especially symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, is one of the reasons for the reluctance to administer IVT. Tenecteplase is a promising alternative fibrinolytic agent, having a better safety profile than alteplase. Moreover, recent evidences have allowed an extension of the IVT ± EVT time window for patients with unknown onset time and for those with a known onset time thanks to the new "tissue-window" approach guided by advanced neuroimaging techniques, which also helps in collateral circulation estimation. Regarding primary-secondary prevention, researchers are focused on improving the efficacy of antithrombotic drugs with a "hemostasis-sparing" approach. Neuroprotective agents are also under development, particularly stem cells. The COVID-19 pandemic has critically stressed global healthcare systems, with collateral damage resulting in access delivery of only emergency care, such as ischemic stroke. Regarding telemedicine, it has had a minor role in acute stroke management, and with the onset of COVID-19, this role will most likely be adopted to increase access and delivery in stroke assessment, but also in the follow-up.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures , Ischemic Stroke , Neuroprotective Agents , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/drug therapy , Tenecteplase/therapeutic use , Thrombectomy/methods , Thrombolytic Therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
11.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957455

ABSTRACT

Background. Fixed-dose ultrasound-assisted catheter-directed thrombolysis (USAT) rapidly improves hemodynamic parameters and reverses right ventricular dysfunction caused by acute pulmonary embolism (PE). The effectiveness of USAT for acute PE associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unknown. Methods and results. The study population of this cohort study consisted of 36 patients with an intermediate-high- or high-risk acute PE treated with a fixed low-dose USAT protocol (r-tPA 10-20 mg/15 h). Of these, 9 patients tested positive for COVID-19 and were age-sex-matched to 27 patients without COVID-19. The USAT protocol included, beyond the infusion of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, anti-Xa-activity-adjusted unfractionated heparin therapy (target 0.3-0.7 U/mL). The study outcomes were the invasively measured mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) before and at completion of USAT, and the National Early Warning Score (NEWS), according to which more points indicate more severe hemodynamic impairment. Twenty-four (66.7%) patients were men; the mean age was 67 ± 14 years. Mean &nbsp;± &nbsp;standard deviation mPAP decreased from 32.3 ± 8.3 to 22.4 ± 7.0 mmHg among COVID-19 patients and from 35.4 ± 9.7 to 24.6 ± 7.0 mmHg among unexposed, with no difference in the relative improvement between groups (p = 0.84). Within 12 h of USAT start, the median NEWS decreased from six (Q1-Q3: 4-8) to three (Q1-Q3: 2-4) points among COVID-19 patients and from four (Q1-Q3: 2-6) to two (Q1-Q3: 2-3) points among unexposed (p = 0.29). One COVID-19 patient died due to COVID-19-related complications 14 days after acute PE. No major bleeding events occurred. Conclusions. Among patients with COVID-19-associated acute PE, mPAP rapidly decreased during USAT with a concomitant progressive improvement of the NEWS. The magnitude of mPAP reduction was similar in patients with and without COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Acute Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catheters , Cohort Studies , Female , Heparin , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
12.
Am J Emerg Med ; 60: 9-14, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935953

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Some guidelines had recommended "thrombolysis first" in ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. The impact of COVID-19 solely on STEMI thrombolysis is lacking as most studies reported outcomes related to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) setting. Thus, this study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on STEMI thrombolysis outcomes and the Emergency Department's performance in a non-PCI capable centre. METHODS: This single-centre retrospective study analysed data on consecutive STEMI patients who received thrombolytic therapy from May 2019 to December 2020 (20 months) in a non-PCI capable tertiary hospital. Total population sampling was used in this study. We compared all patients' characteristics and outcomes ten months before and during the pandemic. Regression models were used to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on door-to-needle time (DNT), mortality, bleeding events, and the number of overnight stays. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We analysed 323 patients with a mean age of 52.9 ± 12.9 years and were predominantly male (n = 280, 88.9%). There was a 12.5% reduction in thrombolysis performed during the pandemic. No significant difference in timing from symptoms onset to thrombolysis and DNT was observed. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher during the pandemic (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.02-4.00, p = 0.044). Bleeding events post thrombolysis remained stable and there was no significant difference in the number of overnight stays during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: STEMI thrombolysis cases were reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic, with an inverse increase in mortality despite the preserved Emergency Department performance in timely thrombolysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Adult , Aged , Dinitrobenzenes , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Treatment Outcome
13.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 294: 48-52, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865413

ABSTRACT

Medical assistance to stroke patients must start as early as possible; however, several changes have impacted healthcare services during the Covid-19 pandemic. This research aimed to identify the stroke onset-to-door time during the Covid-19 pandemic considering the different paths a patient can take until receiving specialized care. It is a retrospective study based on process mining (PM) techniques applied to 221 electronic healthcare records of stroke patients during the pandemic. The results are two process models representing the patient's path and performance, from the onset of the first symptoms to admission to specialized care. PM techniques have discovered the patient journey in providing fast stroke assistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time-to-Treatment
15.
J Investig Med ; 70(4): 892-898, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784873

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic significance of ST-segment re-elevation episodes registered with telemetric ECG monitoring in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with thrombolytic therapy (TLT). The study included 117 patients with STEMI following effective TLT. The elective coronary angiography followed by percutaneous coronary interventions was performed in the interval from 3 to 24 hours after a successful systemic TLT. Before and after cardiac catheterization, the telemetric ECG monitoring was performed using AstroCard Telemetry system (Meditec, Russia). During the study, two groups of patients were formed. Group 1 included 85 patients (72.6%) without new ST-segment deviations on telemetry. 77 patients (90.6%) had no recurrent coronary artery thrombosis at angiography. Eight patients (9.4%) from group 1 were diagnosed with thrombosis of the infarct-related coronary artery. Group 2 included 32 patients (27.4%) who underwent TLT and then had ST-segment re-elevation episodes of 1 mV or more in the infarct-related leads, lasting for at least 1 minute. In group 2, in 27 of 32 patients (84.4%), thrombosis of the infarct-related coronary artery was confirmed (p<0.01 compared with group 1). In 71.9% cases, the recurrent ischemic episodes were asymptomatic ('painless myocardial ischemia') (p<0.01). Thus, in patients with STEMI and successful TLT, re-elevation of ST-segment during remote ECG monitoring is strongly related to angiographically documented coronary artery thrombotic reocclusion. The absence of chest pain during recurrent myocardial ischemia requires continuous ECG telemetry to select patients for the rescue percutaneous coronary interventions at an earlier stage.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Ischemia , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Electrocardiography , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Myocardial Ischemia/drug therapy , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects
16.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 51(5): 690-694, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Telemedicine for stroke patients' care (telestroke [TS]) has grown notably in recent decades and may offer advantages during health crisis. Hospital admissions related to stroke have decreased globally during the COVID-19 pandemic, but scarce information is available regarding the effect of COVID-19 in TS. Using a population-based TS registry, we investigated the impact of the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic throughout our TS network in Santiago, Chile. METHODS: Stroke codes evaluated after the onset of COVID-19 restrictions in Chile (defined as March 15, 2020) were compared with those evaluated in 2019. We analyzed differences between number of stroke codes, thrombolysis rate, stroke severity, and time from the stroke onset to hospital admission. RESULTS: We observed that the number of stroke codes and the number of patients undergoing reperfusion therapy did not change significantly (p = 0.669 and 0.415, respectively). No differences were found with respect to the median time from the stroke onset to admission (p = 0.581) or in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores (p = 0.055). The decision-making-to-needle time was significantly shorter in the COVID-19 period (median 5 min [IQR 3-8], p < 0.016), but no significant changes were found at the other times. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the potential of adapting TS to extreme situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the importance of establishing networks that facilitate patient access to quality treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Telemedicine , Chile/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy
17.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 14(7): 642-649, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779409

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 presents a risk for delays to stroke treatment. We examined how COVID-19 affected stroke response times. METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify articles covering stroke during COVID-19 that included time metrics data pre- and post-pandemic. For each outcome, pooled relative change from baseline and 95% CI were calculated using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was explored through subgroup analyses comparing comprehensive stroke centers (CSCs) to non-CSCs. RESULTS: 38 included studies reported on 6109 patients during COVID-19 and 14 637 patients during the pre-COVID period. Pooled increases of 20.9% (95% CI 5.8% to 36.1%) in last-known-well (LKW) to arrival times, 1.2% (-2.9% to 5.3%) in door-to-imaging (DTI), 0.8% (-2.9% to 4.5%) in door-to-needle (DTN), 2.8% (-5.0% to 10.6%) in door-to-groin (DTG), and 19.7% (11.1% to 28.2%) in door-to-reperfusion (DTR) times were observed during COVID-19. At CSCs, LKW increased by 24.0% (-0.3% to 48.2%), DTI increased by 1.6% (-3.0% to 6.1%), DTN increased by 3.6% (1.2% to 6.0%), DTG increased by 4.6% (-5.9% to 15.1%), and DTR increased by 21.2% (12.3% to 30.1%). At non-CSCs, LKW increased by 12.4% (-1.0% to 25.7%), DTI increased by 0.2% (-2.0% to 2.4%), DTN decreased by -4.6% (-11.9% to 2.7%), DTG decreased by -0.6% (-8.3% to 7.1%), and DTR increased by 0.5% (-31.0% to 32.0%). The increases during COVID-19 in LKW (p=0.01) and DTR (p=0.00) were statistically significant, as was the difference in DTN delays between CSCs and non-CSCs (p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Factors during COVID-19 resulted in significantly delayed LKW and DTR, and mild delays in DTI, DTN, and DTG. CSCs experience more pronounced delays than non-CSCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , Reaction Time , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(4)2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779332

ABSTRACT

A man in his 70s was admitted to hospital due to a fall, urinary tract infection and delirium. The patient had a 'do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation' order in place and a ward-based ceiling of care was agreed. He tested positive for COVID-19 while on a geriatric ward and subsequently developed bilateral pulmonary emboli with haemodynamic instability. The patient had a significant bleeding risk; however, the expected morbidity and mortality risk from the pulmonary emboli was high. A decision was made to give the patient low-dose thrombolysis on the geriatric ward, following which he made a full recovery. Acute thrombolysis is normally performed in emergency department, high dependency unit (HDU) or intensive care unit (ICU) settings; however, this was not possible in this case due to the burden the COVID-19 pandemic had placed on HDU/ICU services and bed capacity. Adaptation of treatment guidelines allowed for emergency life-saving treatment to be delivered to this patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Aged , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy
19.
Neurol Sci ; 43(7): 4061-4068, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been reported that acute stroke services were compromised during COVID-19 due to various pandemic-related issues. We aimed to investigate these changes by recruiting centers from different countries. METHODS: Eight countries participated in this cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study by providing data from their stroke data base. We compared 1 year before to 1 year during COVID-19 as regards onset to door (OTD), door to needle (DTN), door to groin (DTG), duration of hospital stay, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at baseline, 24 h, and at discharge as well as modified Rankin score (mRS) on discharge and at 3 months follow-up. RESULTS: During the pandemic year, there was a reduction in the number of patients, median age was significantly lower, admission NIHSS was higher, hemorrhagic stroke increased, and OTD and DTG showed no difference, while DTN time was longer, rtPA administration was decreased, thrombectomy was more frequent, and hospital stay was shorter. mRS was less favorable on discharge and at 3 months. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 showed variable effects on stroke services. Some were negatively impacted as the number of patients presenting to hospitals, DTN time, and stroke outcome, while others were marginally affected as the type of management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(5): 106315, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the first wave of the pandemic, stroke care suffered globally and there were reduced stroke admissions and delays in time metrics. Stroke care was reorganized during the second wave learning from the experience of previous wave. This study shares our experience in stroke time metrics during the second wave of pandemic compared to the first wave. METHODS: We did a single-center prospective study, where consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms and aged more than 18 years, who presented to Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram from June 1st to 31st August, 2020 and June 1st to 31st August in 2021 were included. In-hospital time metrics (door to CT time and door to Needle time) were compared during the two time periods. We also compared functional outcomes at discharge and in-hospital mortality during the two periods. Functional outcome at discharge was assessed by modified Rankin scale (mRS). RESULTS: From June to August 2021 (second wave of the COVID 19 pandemic), compared to the same months during the first wave (2020), our study demonstrated better in-hospital time metrics (door to CT time and door to needle time). We also found lower admission systolic blood pressure and higher baseline CT early ischemic changes during the second wave. There was no difference in functional outcome at discharge and in-hospital mortality. Intravenous thrombolysis rates also remained the same during the two periods. CONCLUSION: Our study has confirmed that time metrics in stroke care can be improved through system rearrangement even during the pandemic. Acute stroke treatments are time-dependent and hospital administrators must stick to the maxim "Time is Brain" while restructuring stroke workflows during future challenges.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Benchmarking , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Prospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Tertiary Care Centers , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
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