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1.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 28: 10760296221131801, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162205

ABSTRACT

Acute ischemic stroke (AIS), characterized by high morbidity and mortality, has imposed a considerable burden on society. Despite rapid development in the treatment of AIS, there is still a high risk of recurrence. Furthermore, there is a time delay in waiting for the results of conventional coagulation tests in candidate patients for intravenous thrombolysis therapy. Heterogeneous responses to antiplatelet, intravascular thrombolysis, and endovascular therapies also worsen the situation. Thromboelastography (TEG), as a global and portable detection method for hemostasis, facilitates clinicians in disease monitoring, treatment evaluation, and prognosis prediction in AIS. In this narrative review, we provided a comprehensive summary of the clinical application of TEG in ischemic stroke and gave insights to further studies.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Thrombelastography , Blood Coagulation Tests , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Treatment Outcome
2.
Neurol Neurochir Pol ; 56(2): 171-177, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994400

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Accurately predicting outcomes after acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) is a major clinical goal. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the prognostic validity and accuracy of the Acute Stroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne (ASTRAL) score in predicting symptomatic haemorrhagic transformation (sHT) in patients with AIS who have undergone revascularisation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Consecutive patients hospitalised for AIS who underwent treatment with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and/or mechanical thrombectomy (MT) were identified, and their ASTRAL scores at hospital admission were estimated. The study endpoint was sHT within 24 hours of stroke onset. The predictive performance of the ASTRAL score was investigated through logistic regression analysis and discrimination and calibration tests. RESULTS: Sixty-eight AIS patients, with a median age of 69 (58-79) years, were included. sHT occurred in 20 (29.4%) of the 68 patients. The ASTRAL score was significantly higher in patients who developed sHT compared to non-sHT patients [36 (34-38) versus 24 (17-32); p<0.001]. The ASTRAL score was an independent predictor of sHT, and showed good discriminative power (area under the curve 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.789-0.965). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: ASTRAL score is an independent predictor of sHT and shows high predictive accuracy in patients with AIS. Future studies are warranted to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Aged , Brain Ischemia/surgery , Hospitals , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/surgery , Pilot Projects , Stroke/surgery , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Treatment Outcome
3.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957455

ABSTRACT

Background. Fixed-dose ultrasound-assisted catheter-directed thrombolysis (USAT) rapidly improves hemodynamic parameters and reverses right ventricular dysfunction caused by acute pulmonary embolism (PE). The effectiveness of USAT for acute PE associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unknown. Methods and results. The study population of this cohort study consisted of 36 patients with an intermediate-high- or high-risk acute PE treated with a fixed low-dose USAT protocol (r-tPA 10-20 mg/15 h). Of these, 9 patients tested positive for COVID-19 and were age-sex-matched to 27 patients without COVID-19. The USAT protocol included, beyond the infusion of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, anti-Xa-activity-adjusted unfractionated heparin therapy (target 0.3-0.7 U/mL). The study outcomes were the invasively measured mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) before and at completion of USAT, and the National Early Warning Score (NEWS), according to which more points indicate more severe hemodynamic impairment. Twenty-four (66.7%) patients were men; the mean age was 67 ± 14 years. Mean &nbsp;± &nbsp;standard deviation mPAP decreased from 32.3 ± 8.3 to 22.4 ± 7.0 mmHg among COVID-19 patients and from 35.4 ± 9.7 to 24.6 ± 7.0 mmHg among unexposed, with no difference in the relative improvement between groups (p = 0.84). Within 12 h of USAT start, the median NEWS decreased from six (Q1-Q3: 4-8) to three (Q1-Q3: 2-4) points among COVID-19 patients and from four (Q1-Q3: 2-6) to two (Q1-Q3: 2-3) points among unexposed (p = 0.29). One COVID-19 patient died due to COVID-19-related complications 14 days after acute PE. No major bleeding events occurred. Conclusions. Among patients with COVID-19-associated acute PE, mPAP rapidly decreased during USAT with a concomitant progressive improvement of the NEWS. The magnitude of mPAP reduction was similar in patients with and without COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Acute Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catheters , Cohort Studies , Female , Heparin , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
4.
Am J Emerg Med ; 60: 9-14, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935953

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Some guidelines had recommended "thrombolysis first" in ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. The impact of COVID-19 solely on STEMI thrombolysis is lacking as most studies reported outcomes related to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) setting. Thus, this study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on STEMI thrombolysis outcomes and the Emergency Department's performance in a non-PCI capable centre. METHODS: This single-centre retrospective study analysed data on consecutive STEMI patients who received thrombolytic therapy from May 2019 to December 2020 (20 months) in a non-PCI capable tertiary hospital. Total population sampling was used in this study. We compared all patients' characteristics and outcomes ten months before and during the pandemic. Regression models were used to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on door-to-needle time (DNT), mortality, bleeding events, and the number of overnight stays. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We analysed 323 patients with a mean age of 52.9 ± 12.9 years and were predominantly male (n = 280, 88.9%). There was a 12.5% reduction in thrombolysis performed during the pandemic. No significant difference in timing from symptoms onset to thrombolysis and DNT was observed. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher during the pandemic (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.02-4.00, p = 0.044). Bleeding events post thrombolysis remained stable and there was no significant difference in the number of overnight stays during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: STEMI thrombolysis cases were reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic, with an inverse increase in mortality despite the preserved Emergency Department performance in timely thrombolysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Adult , Aged , Dinitrobenzenes , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Treatment Outcome
5.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 14(7): 642-649, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779409

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 presents a risk for delays to stroke treatment. We examined how COVID-19 affected stroke response times. METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify articles covering stroke during COVID-19 that included time metrics data pre- and post-pandemic. For each outcome, pooled relative change from baseline and 95% CI were calculated using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was explored through subgroup analyses comparing comprehensive stroke centers (CSCs) to non-CSCs. RESULTS: 38 included studies reported on 6109 patients during COVID-19 and 14 637 patients during the pre-COVID period. Pooled increases of 20.9% (95% CI 5.8% to 36.1%) in last-known-well (LKW) to arrival times, 1.2% (-2.9% to 5.3%) in door-to-imaging (DTI), 0.8% (-2.9% to 4.5%) in door-to-needle (DTN), 2.8% (-5.0% to 10.6%) in door-to-groin (DTG), and 19.7% (11.1% to 28.2%) in door-to-reperfusion (DTR) times were observed during COVID-19. At CSCs, LKW increased by 24.0% (-0.3% to 48.2%), DTI increased by 1.6% (-3.0% to 6.1%), DTN increased by 3.6% (1.2% to 6.0%), DTG increased by 4.6% (-5.9% to 15.1%), and DTR increased by 21.2% (12.3% to 30.1%). At non-CSCs, LKW increased by 12.4% (-1.0% to 25.7%), DTI increased by 0.2% (-2.0% to 2.4%), DTN decreased by -4.6% (-11.9% to 2.7%), DTG decreased by -0.6% (-8.3% to 7.1%), and DTR increased by 0.5% (-31.0% to 32.0%). The increases during COVID-19 in LKW (p=0.01) and DTR (p=0.00) were statistically significant, as was the difference in DTN delays between CSCs and non-CSCs (p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Factors during COVID-19 resulted in significantly delayed LKW and DTR, and mild delays in DTI, DTN, and DTG. CSCs experience more pronounced delays than non-CSCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , Reaction Time , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e057372, 2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627547

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Timely thrombolysis of ischaemic stroke improves functional recovery, yet its delivery nationally is challenging due to shortages in the stroke specialist workforce and large geographical areas. One solution is remote stroke specialist input to regional centres via telemedicine. This study evaluates the usage and key metrics of performance of the East of England Stroke Telemedicine Partnership-the largest telestroke service in the UK-in providing hyperacute stroke care. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: The East of England Stroke Telemedicine Partnership provides a horizontal 'hubless' model of out-of-hours hyperacute stroke care to a population of 6.2 million across a 7500 square mile semirural region. PARTICIPANTS: All (2709) telestroke consultations between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2019. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Thrombolysis decision, pre-thrombolysis and post-thrombolysis stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, NIHSS), haemorrhagic complications, and hyperacute pathway timings. RESULTS: Over the period, 1149 (42.4%) individuals were thrombolysed. Thrombolysis rates increased from 147/379 (38.8%) in 2014 to 225/490 (45.9%) in 2019. Median (IQR) pre-thrombolysis NIHSS was 10 (6-17), reducing to 6 (2-14) 24-hour post-thrombolysis (p<0.001). Post-thrombolysis haemorrhage occurred in 27 cases (2.3%). Over the period, median (IQR) door-to-needle time reduced from 85 (65-108) min to 68 (55-97.5) min (p<0.01), driven by improved imaging-to-needle times from 52.5 (38-72.25) min to 42 (30.5-62.5) min (p<0.01). However, the same period saw an increase in median onset-to-hospital arrival time from 77.5 (60-109.25) min to 95 (70-135) min (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results from this large hyperacute telestroke cohort indicate two important points for clinical practice. First, telemedicine via a hubless horizontal model provides a clinically effective and safe method for delivering hyperacute stroke thrombolysis. Second, improved door-to-needle times were offset by a concerning rise in prehospital timings. These findings indicate that although telemedicine may benefit in-hospital hyperacute stroke care, improvements across the whole stroke pathway are essential.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Stroke , Telemedicine , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Telemedicine/methods , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Treatment Outcome
7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(1): 106179, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525870

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate shortening door-to-needle time of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator of acute ischemic stroke patients by multidisciplinary collaboration and workflow optimization based on our hospital resources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included patients undergoing thrombolysis with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator from January 1, 2018, to September 30, 2020. Patients were divided into pre- (January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2019) and post-intervention groups (January 1, 2020, to September 31, 2020). We conducted multi-department collaboration and process optimization by implementing 16 different measures in prehospital, in-hospital, and post-acute feedback stages for acute ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis. A comparison of outcomes between both groups was analyzed. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-three patients received intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in our hospital during the study period, with 128 and 135 patients receiving treatment in the pre-intervention and post-intervention groups, respectively. The median (interquartile range) door-to-needle time decreased significantly from 57.0 (45.3-77.8) min to 37.0 (29.0-49.0) min. Door-to-needle time was shortened to 32 min in the post-intervention period in the 3rd quarter of 2020. The door-to-needle times at the metrics of ≤ 30 min, ≤ 45 min, ≤ 60 min improved considerably, and the DNT> 60 min metric exhibited a significant reduction. CONCLUSIONS: A multidisciplinary collaboration and continuous process optimization can result in overall shortened door-to-needle despite the challenges incurred by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Cooperative Behavior , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Patient Care Team , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/administration & dosage , Administration, Intravenous , Early Medical Intervention , Emergency Medical Services , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Management , Time-to-Treatment , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Workflow
8.
Gac Med Mex ; 156(6): 559-569, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503050

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Mexico has the highest 30-day mortality due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), which constitutes one of the main causes of mortality in the country: 28 % versus 7.5 % on average for the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development member countries. OBJECTIVE: To establish critical pathways and essential interinstitutional pharmacological strategies for the care of patients with AMI in Mexico, regardless of their socioeconomic status. METHOD: A group of experts in AMI diagnosis and treatment, representatives of the main public health institutions in Mexico, as well as the Mexican cardiology societies, the Mexican Red Cross and representatives of the Spanish Society of Cardiology, were brought together in order to optimize strategies based on the best existing evidence. RESULTS: An interinstitutional clinical practice guideline was designed for early diagnosis and timely treatment of AMI with ST-segment elevation, following the clinical horizon of the disease, with the proposal of algorithms that improve the prognosis of patients who attend the emergency services due to an AMI. CONCLUSION: With these clinical practice guidelines, the group of experts proposes to universalize AMI diagnosis and treatment, regardless of patient socioeconomic status. INTRODUCCIÓN: México tiene la mortalidad más alta a 30 días por infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM), el cual constituye una de las principales causas de mortalidad en el país: 28 % versus 7.5 % del promedio de los países de la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos. OBJETIVO: Establecer las rutas críticas y las estrategias farmacológicas esenciales interinstitucionales para la atención de los pacientes con IAM en México, independientemente de su condición socioeconómica. MÉTODO: Se reunió a un grupo de expertos en diagnóstico y tratamiento de IAM, representantes de las principales instituciones públicas de salud de México, así como las sociedades cardiológicas mexicanas, Cruz Roja Mexicana y representantes de la Sociedad Española de Cardiología con la finalidad de optimizar las estrategias con base en la mejor evidencia existente. RESULTADOS: Se diseñó una guía de práctica clínica interinstitucional para el diagnóstico temprano y tratamiento oportuno del IAM con elevación del segmento ST, siguiendo el horizonte clínico de la enfermedad, con la propuesta de algoritmos que mejoren el pronóstico de los pacientes que acuden por IAM a los servicios de urgencias. CONCLUSIÓN: Con la presente guía práctica, el grupo de expertos propone universalizar el diagnóstico y tratamiento en el IAM, independientemente de la condición socioeconómica del paciente.


Subject(s)
Consensus , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Cause of Death , Electrocardiography , Humans , Mexico , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/blood , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/rehabilitation , Societies, Medical , Spain , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods
9.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 43(12): 2071-2076, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371354

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: An antegrade approach is frequently used in catheter-directed thrombolysis to remove deep-vein thrombosis. However, the antegrade approach is difficult when accessing veins with small diameters; therefore, understanding the variation of deep calf vein is important. METHODS: This study measured the diameters and surface areas of the proximal and distal posterior tibial vein, peroneal vein, and anterior tibial vein to determine which are preferable for venous access. This study dissected 132 legs from Korean and Thai cadavers. The proximal and distal posterior tibial vein, peroneal vein, and anterior tibial vein were scanned and measured. RESULTS: The mean diameter and surface area were largest for the proximal tibial vein, at 6.34 mm and 0.312 cm2, respectively, followed by the anterior tibial vein (5.22 mm and 0.213 cm2), distal posterior tibial vein (3.29 mm and 0.091 cm2), and peroneal vein (3.43 mm and 0.081 cm2). The proximal posterior tibial vein and anterior tibial vein have large diameters and surface areas, which make them ideal for applying an antegrade approach in catheter-directed thrombolysis. CONCLUSIONS: The distal posterior tibial vein and peroneal vein are not recommended due to their smaller surface areas and also the anatomical variations therein.


Subject(s)
Leg/anatomy & histology , Leg/blood supply , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cadaver , Catheters , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Thrombolytic Therapy/instrumentation , Veins/anatomy & histology
11.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(5): 551-559, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238619

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in significant healthcare reorganizations, potentially striking standard medical care. We investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on acute stroke care quality and clinical outcomes to detect healthcare system's bottlenecks from a territorial point of view. METHODS: Crossed-data analysis between a prospective nation-based mandatory registry of acute stroke, Emergency Medical System (EMS) records, and daily incidence of COVID-19 in Catalonia (Spain). We included all stroke code activations during the pandemic (March 15-May 2, 2020) and an immediate prepandemic period (January 26-March 14, 2020). Primary outcomes were stroke code activations and reperfusion therapies in both periods. Secondary outcomes included clinical characteristics, workflow metrics, differences across types of stroke centers, correlation analysis between weekly EMS alerts, COVID-19 cases, and workflow metrics, and impact on mortality and clinical outcome at 90 days. RESULTS: Stroke code activations decreased by 22% and reperfusion therapies dropped by 29% during the pandemic period, with no differences in age, stroke severity, or large vessel occlusion. Calls to EMS were handled 42 min later, and time from onset to hospital arrival increased by 53 min, with significant correlations between weekly COVID-19 cases and more EMS calls (rho = 0.81), less stroke code activations (rho = -0.37), and longer prehospital delays (rho = 0.25). Telestroke centers were afflicted with higher reductions in stroke code activations, reperfusion treatments, referrals to endovascular centers, and increased delays to thrombolytics. The independent odds of death increased (OR 1.6 [1.05-2.4], p 0.03) and good functional outcome decreased (mRS ≤2 at 90 days: OR 0.6 [0.4-0.9], p 0.015) during the pandemic period. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, Catalonia's stroke system's weakest points were the delay to EMS alert and a decline of stroke code activations, reperfusion treatments, and interhospital transfers, mostly at local centers. Patients suffering an acute stroke during the pandemic period had higher odds of poor functional outcome and death. The complete stroke care system's analysis is crucial to allocate resources appropriately.


Subject(s)
Emergency Medical Services , Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/virology , Humans , Prospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Time-to-Treatment
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e217498, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196364

ABSTRACT

Importance: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a known neurological complication in patients with respiratory symptoms of COVID-19 infection. However, AIS has not been described as a late sequelae in patients without respiratory symptoms of COVID-19. Objective: To assess AIS experienced by adults 50 years or younger in the convalescent phase of asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series prospectively identified consecutive male patients who received care for AIS from public health hospitals in Singapore between May 21, 2020, and October 14, 2020. All of these patients had laboratory-confirmed asymptomatic COVID-19 infection based on a positive SARS-CoV-2 serological (antibodies) test result. These patients were individuals from South Asian countries (India and Bangladesh) who were working in Singapore and living in dormitories. The total number of COVID-19 cases (54 485) in the worker dormitory population was the population at risk. Patients with ongoing respiratory symptoms or positive SARS-CoV-2 serological test results confirmed through reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction nasopharyngeal swabs were excluded. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical course, imaging, and laboratory findings were retrieved from the electronic medical records of each participating hospital. The incidence rate of AIS in the case series was compared with that of a historical age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched national cohort. Results: A total of 18 male patients, with a median (range) age of 41 (35-50) years and South Asian ethnicity, were included. The median (range) time from a positive serological test result to AIS was 54.5 (0-130) days. The median (range) National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 5 (1-25). Ten patients (56%) presented with a large vessel occlusion, of whom 6 patients underwent intravenous thrombolysis and/or endovascular therapy. Only 3 patients (17%) had a possible cardiac source of embolus. The estimated annual incidence rate of AIS was 82.6 cases per 100 000 people in this study compared with 38.2 cases per 100 000 people in the historical age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched cohort (rate ratio, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.36-3.48; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This case series suggests that the risk for AIS is higher in adults 50 years or younger during the convalescent period of a COVID-19 infection without respiratory symptoms. Acute ischemic stroke could be part of the next wave of complications of COVID-19, and stroke units should be on alert and use serological testing, especially in younger patients or in the absence of traditional risk factors.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombectomy/methods , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Convalescence , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Humans , Incidence , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/ethnology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Singapore/epidemiology , Transients and Migrants/statistics & numerical data
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(15): e25255, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180670

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Fibrinolysis shutdown associated with severe thrombotic complications is a recently recognized syndrome that was previously seldom investigated in patients with severe severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. It presents a unique therapeutic dilemma, as anticoagulation with heparin alone is insufficient to address the imbalance in fibrinolysis. And while the use of fibrinolytic agents could limit the disease severity, it is often associated with bleeding complications. There is a need for biomarkers that will guide the timely stratification of patients into those who may benefit from both anticoagulant and fibrinolytic therapies. PATIENT CONCERNS: All 3 patients presented with shortness of breath along with comorbidities predisposing them to severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. One patient (Patient 3) also suffered from bilateral deep venous thrombosis. DIAGNOSES: All 3 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and were eventually diagnosed with respiratory failure necessitating intubation. INTERVENTIONS: All 3 patients required mechanical ventilation support, 2 of which also required renal replacement therapy. All 3 patients were also placed on anticoagulation therapy. OUTCOMES: In Patients 1 and 2, the initial D-dimer levels of 0.97 µg/ml fibrinogen equivalent units (FEU) and 0.83 µg/ml FEU were only slightly elevated (normal <0.50 µg/ml FEU). They developed rising D-dimer levels to a peak of 13.21 µg/ml FEU and >20.0 µg/ml FEU, respectively, which dropped to 1.34 µg/ml FEU 8 days later in Patient 1 and to 2.94 µg/ml on hospital day 13 in Patient 2. In Patient 3, the D-dimer level on admission was found to be elevated to >20.00 µg/ml FEU together with imaging evidence of thrombosis. And although he received therapeutic heparin infusion, he still developed pulmonary embolism (PE) and his D-dimer level declined to 5.91 µg/ml FEU. Despite "improvement" in their D-dimer levels, all 3 patients succumbed to multi-system organ failure. On postmortem examination, numerous arterial and venous thromboses of varying ages, many consisting primarily of fibrin, were identified in the lungs of all patients. LESSONS: High D-dimer levels, with subsequent downtrend correlating with clinical deterioration, seems to be an indicator of fibrinolysis suppression. These findings can help form a hypothesis, as larger cohorts are necessary to demonstrate their reproducibility.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Multiple Organ Failure , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Autopsy/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Deterioration , Female , Fibrinolysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/blood , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , Respiration, Artificial/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis
15.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 14(3): 268-273, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent Society of Neurointerventional Surgery (SNIS) recommendations affected hospital stroke metrics. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study compared stroke patients admitted to a comprehensive stroke center during the COVID-19 pandemic April 1 2020 to June 30 2020 (COVID-19) to patients admitted April 1 2019 to June 30 2019. We examined stroke admission volume and acute stroke treatment use. RESULTS: There were 637 stroke admissions, 52% in 2019 and 48% during COVID-19, with similar median admissions per day (4 vs 3, P=0.21). The proportion of admissions by stroke type was comparable (ischemic, P=0.69; hemorrhagic, P=0.39; transient ischemic stroke, P=0.10). Acute stroke treatment was similar in 2019 to COVID-19: tPA prior to arrival (18% vs, 18%, P=0.89), tPA treatment on arrival (6% vs 7%, P=0.85), and endovascular therapy (endovascular therapy (ET), 22% vs 25%, P=0.54). The door to needle time was also similar, P=0.12, however, the median time from arrival to groin puncture was significantly longer during COVID-19 (38 vs 43 min, P=0.002). A significantly higher proportion of patients receiving ET were intubated during COVID-19 due to SNIS guideline implementation (45% vs 96%, P<0.0001). There were no differences by study period in discharge mRS, P=0.84 or TICI score, P=0.26. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic did not significantly affect stroke admission volume or acute stroke treatment utilization. Outcomes were not affected by implementing SNIS guidelines. Although there was a statistical increase in time to groin puncture for ET, it was not clinically meaningful. These results suggest hospitals managing patients efficiently can implement practices in response to COVID-19 without impacting outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Benchmarking , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
16.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(3): 310-316, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138469

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We analyzed whether the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis affected acute stroke care in our center during the first 2 months of lockdown in Spain. METHODS: This is a single-center, retrospective study. We collected demographic, clinical, and radiological data; time course; and treatment of patients meeting the stroke unit admission criteria from March 14 to May 14, 2020 (COVID-19 period group). Data were compared with the same period in 2019 (pre-COVID-19 period group). RESULTS: 195 patients were analyzed; 83 in the COVID-19 period group, resulting in a 26% decline of acute strokes and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) admitted to our center compared with the previous year (p = 0.038). Ten patients (12%) tested positive for PCR SARS-CoV-2. The proportion of patients aged 65 years and over was lower in the COVID-19 period group (53 vs. 68.8%, p = 0.025). During the pandemic period, analyzed patients were more frequently smokers (27.7 vs. 10.7%, p = 0.002) and had less frequently history of prior stroke (13.3 vs. 25%, p = 0.043) or atrial fibrillation (9.6 vs. 25%, p = 0.006). ASPECTS score was lower (9 [7-10] vs. 10 [8-10], p = 0.032), NIHSS score was slightly higher (5 [2-14] vs. 4 [2-8], p = 0.122), onset-to-door time was higher (304 [93-760] vs. 197 [91.25-645] min, p = 0.104), and a lower proportion arrived within 4.5 h from onset of symptoms (43.4 vs. 58%, p = 0.043) during the CO-VID-19 period. There were no differences between proportion of patients receiving recanalization treatment (intravenous thrombolysis and/or mechanical thrombectomy) and in-hospital delays. CONCLUSION: We observed a reduction in the number of acute strokes and TIAs admitted during the COVID-19 period. This drop affected especially elderly patients, and despite a delay in their arrival to the emergency department, the proportion of patients treated with recanalization therapies was preserved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/etiology , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Time-to-Treatment
19.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(3): 317-325, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic lockdown (CPL) lead to a significant decrease in emergency admissions worldwide. We performed a timely analysis of ischemic stroke (IS) and related consultations using the telestroke TEMPiS "working diagnosis" database prior (PL), within (WL), and after easing (EL) of CPL. METHODS: Twelve hospitals were selected and data analyzed regarding IS (including intravenous thrombolysis [intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen; IV rtPA] and endovascular thrombectomy [EVT]) and related events from February 1 to June 15 during 2017-2020. In addition, we aimed to correlate events to various mobile phone mobility data. RESULTS: Following the significant reduction of IS, IV rtPA, and EVT cases during WL compared to PL in 2020 longitudinally (p values <0.048), we observed increasing numbers of consultations, IS, recommendations for EVT, and IV rtPA with the network in EL over WL not reaching PL levels yet. Absolute numbers of all consultations paralleled best to mobility data of public transportation over walking and driving mobility. CONCLUSIONS: While the decrease in emergency admissions including stroke during CPL can only be in part attributed by patients not seeking medical attention, stroke awareness in the pandemic, and direct COVID-19 triggered stroke remains of high importance. The number of consultations in TEMPiS during the lockdown parallels best with mobility of public transportation. As a consequence, exposure to common viruses, well-known triggers for acute cerebrovascular events and other diseases, are reduced and may add to the decline in stroke consultations. Further studies comparing national responses toward the course of the COVID-19 pandemic and stroke incidences are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/virology , COVID-19/therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Time-to-Treatment , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use
20.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 51(4): 978-984, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002140

ABSTRACT

Disordered coagulation, endothelial dysfunction, dehydration and immobility contribute to a substantially elevated risk of deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism (PE) and systemic thrombosis in coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). We evaluated the prevalence of pulmonary thrombosis and reported RV (right ventricular) dilatation/dysfunction associated with Covid-19 in a tertiary referral Covid-19 centre. Of 370 patients, positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), 39 patients (mean age 62.3 ± 15 years, 56% male) underwent computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA), due to increasing oxygen requirements or refractory hypoxia, not improving on oxygen, very elevated D-dimer or tachycardia disproportionate to clinical condition. Thrombosis in the pulmonary vasculature was found in 18 (46.2%) patients. However, pulmonary thrombosis did not predict survival (46.2% survivors vs 41.7% non-survivors, p = 0.796), but RV dilatation was less frequent among survivors (11.5% survivors vs 58.3% non-survivors, p = 0.002). Over the following month, we observed four Covid-19 patients, who were admitted with high and intermediate-high risk PE, and we treated them with UACTD (ultrasound-assisted catheter-directed thrombolysis), and four further patients, who were admitted with PE up to 4 weeks after recovery from Covid-19. Finally, we observed a case of RV dysfunction and pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension, associated with Covid-19 extensive lung disease. We demonstrated that pulmonary thrombosis is common in association with Covid-19. Also, the thrombotic risk in the pulmonary vasculature is present before and during hospital admission, and continues at least up to four weeks after discharge, and we present UACTD for high and intermediate-high risk PE management in Covid-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Ventricles , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Size , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , United Kingdom , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnosis , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/physiopathology
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