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1.
Rev Neurol ; 73(3): 89-95, 2021 08 01.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320651

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) impacted emergency services worldwide. AIM: We aimed to evaluate COVID-19 effect on the number of stroke code activations and timings during the first two months of the pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We reviewed the stroke code database of a single comprehensive stroke centre in Portugal for the number of activations through 2019-2020. We compared the pathway timings between March and April 2020 (COVID-19 period) and the homologous months of the previous four years (pre-COVID-19 period), whilst using February as a control. RESULTS: Monthly stroke code activation rates decreased up to 34.2% during COVID-19 pandemic. Compared to the pre-COVID-19 period, we observed an increase in the time from symptom onset to emergency call, with a significant number of patients waiting more than four hours (March 20.8% vs. 6.8%, p = 0.034; April 23.8% vs. 6%, p = 0.01); as well as an increase in the time from symptom onset to hospital arrival (March: median 136 minutes [IQR 106-410] vs. 100 [IQR 64-175], p = 0.001; April: median 188 [IQR 96-394] vs. 98 [IQR 66-168], p = 0.007). No difference between both periods was found concerning in-hospital times, patient characteristics, stroke/mimic diagnosis, stroke severity, and mortality. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 related factors probably reduced healthcare services utilization, and delayed emergency calls and hospital arrival after stroke onset. These highlight the importance of health education to improve the effectiveness of medical assistance. The preservation of in-hospital times validates the feasibility of the protected stroke code protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergencies/epidemiology , Emergency Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Endovascular Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Incidence , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Portugal/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data
2.
Neurosciences (Riyadh) ; 26(2): 158-162, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170592

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess and quantify the impact COVID-19 has had thus far on ischemic stroke admission rate and severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score) at a single tertiary center in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis performed on admitted cases with definitive final diagnoses of transient ischemic attack (TIA) and ischemic stroke at King Abdullah Medical City in Makkah between January 1, 2020 and July 2020. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients were included in our study, 41 of whom presented at our facility before the pandemic and 29 during the pandemic. No statistical significance was observed between rate of admission, stroke severity, and rate of thrombolysis before the COVID-19 pandemic and after the outbreak. We observed a reduction of mean arrival time after the pandemic began, as well as a reduction of hospital stay days. CONCLUSION: A 29% reduction of admission secondary to acute ischemic stroke was noted during the pandemic. However, COVID-19 did not affect acute stroke care at our institute. The study is limited because of its small sample size, as we assessed just one medical center.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Distribution , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Tertiary Care Centers , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
3.
Neurol Sci ; 42(4): 1237-1245, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064523

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 outbreak highly impacted the acute ischemic stroke care management. The primary end point of the study was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak and the following lockdown measures on our hub-and-spoke network; the secondary end point was to evaluate if the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak was different in hub-and-spoke centers. METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter observational study conducted at the Stroke Units of Policlinico Gemelli, Ospedale San Filippo Neri, Ospedale di Belcolle, and Ospedale San Camillo de Lellis. We collected clinical reports of all consecutive patients admitted with diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) during the phase 1 of the lockdown period (11 March 2020-4 May 2020). As controls, we used all consecutive patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke or TIA in the same period of the previous year. RESULTS: A total of 156 and 142 clinical reports were collected in 2019 and 2020, respectively. During the COVID-19 outbreak, we observed a reduction of number of thrombolysis, a reduction of the length of hospitalization, and an increase of pneumonia. Regarding performance indicators, we observed an increase in onset-to-door time and in door-to-groin time. We did not observe any statistically significant interaction between year (2019 vs 2020) and facility of admission (hub vs spoke) on all variables analyzed. DISCUSSION: Our observational study, involving hub-and-spoke stroke network of a wide regional area, indicates that the COVID-19 outbreak impacted on the acute stroke management. This impact was equally observed in hub as well as in spoke centers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Quarantine , Stroke/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data
4.
Neurol Sci ; 42(1): 15-20, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064519

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has changed routine clinical practice worldwide with major impacts on the provision of care and treatment for stroke patients. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included all patients admitted to the Royal Stoke University Hospital in Stoke-on-Trent, UK, with a stroke or transient ischaemic attack between March 15th and April 14th, 2020 (COVID). Patient demographics, characteristics of the stroke, treatment details and logistics were compared with patients admitted in the corresponding weeks in the year before (2019). RESULTS: There was a 39.5% (n = 101 vs n = 167) reduction in admissions in the COVID cohort compared with 2019 with more severe strokes (median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) 7 vs 4, p = 0.02), and fewer strokes with no visible acute pathology (21.8 vs 37.1%, p = 0.01) on computed tomography. There was no statistically significant difference in the rates of thrombolysis (10.9 vs 13.2%, p = 0.72) and/or thrombectomy (5.9 vs 4.8%, p = 0.90) and no statistically significant difference in time from stroke onset to arrival at hospital (734 vs 576 min, p = 0.34), door-to-needle time for thrombolysis (54 vs 64 min, p = 0.43) and door-to-thrombectomy time (181 vs 445 min, p = 0.72). Thirty-day mortality was not significantly higher in the COVID year (10.9 vs 8.9%, p = 0.77). None of the 7 stroke patients infected with COVID-19 died. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of stroke admissions fell, and stroke severity increased. There was no statistically significant change in the delivery of thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy and no increase in mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Mechanical Thrombolysis/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Stroke/therapy , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/drug therapy , Male , Mechanical Thrombolysis/trends , Middle Aged , Patient Admission/trends , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/drug therapy , Tertiary Care Centers/trends , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , United Kingdom
5.
Stroke ; 52(1): 40-47, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to an unprecedented paradigm shift in medical care. We sought to evaluate whether the COVID-19 pandemic may have contributed to delays in acute stroke management at comprehensive stroke centers. METHODS: Pooled clinical data of consecutive adult stroke patients from 14 US comprehensive stroke centers (January 1, 2019, to July 31, 2020) were queried. The rate of thrombolysis for nontransferred patients within the Target: Stroke goal of 60 minutes was compared between patients admitted from March 1, 2019, and July 31, 2019 (pre-COVID-19), and March 1, 2020, to July 31, 2020 (COVID-19). The time from arrival to imaging and treatment with thrombolysis or thrombectomy, as continuous variables, were also assessed. RESULTS: Of the 2955 patients who met inclusion criteria, 1491 were admitted during the pre-COVID-19 period and 1464 were admitted during COVID-19, 15% of whom underwent intravenous thrombolysis. Patients treated during COVID-19 were at lower odds of receiving thrombolysis within 60 minutes of arrival (odds ratio, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.38-0.98]; P=0.04), with a median delay in door-to-needle time of 4 minutes (P=0.03). The lower odds of achieving treatment in the Target: Stroke goal persisted after adjustment for all variables associated with earlier treatment (adjusted odds ratio, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.35-0.85]; P<0.01). The delay in thrombolysis appeared driven by the longer delay from imaging to bolus (median, 29 [interquartile range, 18-41] versus 22 [interquartile range, 13-37] minutes; P=0.02). There was no significant delay in door-to-groin puncture for patients who underwent thrombectomy (median, 83 [interquartile range, 63-133] versus 90 [interquartile range, 73-129] minutes; P=0.30). Delays in thrombolysis were observed in the months of June and July. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation for acute ischemic stroke during the COVID-19 period was associated with a small but significant delay in intravenous thrombolysis but no significant delay in thrombectomy time metrics. Taking steps to reduce delays from imaging to bolus time has the potential to attenuate this collateral effect of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data
6.
Stroke ; 51(12): 3746-3750, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the rate of hospital admissions for cerebrovascular events and of revascularization treatments for acute ischemic stroke in Italy during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. METHODS: The Italian Stroke Organization performed a multicenter study involving 93 Italian Stroke Units. We collected information on hospital admissions for cerebrovascular events from March 1 to March 31, 2020 (study period), and from March 1 to March 31, 2019 (control period). RESULTS: Ischemic strokes decreased from 2399 in 2019 to 1810 in 2020, with a corresponding hospitalization rate ratio (RR) of 0.75 ([95% CI, 0.71-0.80] P<0.001); intracerebral hemorrhages decreased from 400 to 322 (hospitalization RR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.69-0.93]; P=0.004), and transient ischemic attacks decreased from 322 to 196 (hospitalization RR, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.51-0.73]; P<0.001). Hospitalizations decreased in Northern, Central, and Southern Italy. Intravenous thrombolyses decreased from 531 (22.1%) in 2019 to 345 in 2020 (19.1%; RR, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.75-0.99]; P=0.032), while primary endovascular procedures increased in Northern Italy (RR, 1.61 [95% CI, 1.13-2.32]; P=0.008). We found no correlation (P=0.517) between the hospitalization RRs for all strokes or transient ischemic attack and COVID-19 incidence in the different areas. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalizations for stroke or transient ischemic attacks across Italy were reduced during the worst period of the COVID-19 outbreak. Intravenous thrombolytic treatments also decreased, while endovascular treatments remained unchanged and even increased in the area of maximum expression of the outbreak. Limited hospitalization of the less severe patients and delays in hospital admission, due to overcharge of the emergency system by COVID-19 patients, may explain these data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Endovascular Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged
7.
Eur Neurol ; 83(6): 630-635, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992126

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic disease globally. The First Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu Medical College has adopted telestroke to make stroke care accessible in remote areas. During the period January 2020 to March 2020, there was no COVID-19 case reported in our stroke center. A significant reduction of stroke admission was observed between the ischemic stroke group (235 vs. 588 cases) and the intracerebral hemorrhage group (136 vs. 150 cases) when compared with the same period last year (p < 0.001). The mean door-to-needle time (DNT) and door-to-puncture time (DPT) was 62 and 124 min, respectively. Compared to the same period last year, a significant change was observed in DNT (62 ± 12 vs. 47 ± 8 min, p = 0.019) but not in DPT (124 ± 58 vs. 135 ± 23 min, p = 0.682). A total of 46 telestroke consultations were received from network hospitals. Telestroke management in the central hospital was performed on 17 patients. Of them, 3 (17.6%) patients had brain hernia and died in hospital and 8 (47.1%) patients were able to ambulation at discharge and had a modified Rankin Scale of 0-2 at 3 months. The COVID-19 pandemic impacted stroke care significantly in our hospital, including prehospital and in-hospital settings, resulting in a significant drop in acute ischemic stroke admissions and a delay in DNT. The construction of a telestroke network enabled us to extend health-care resources and make stroke care accessible in remote areas. Stroke education and public awareness should be reinforced during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemorrhagic Stroke/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Telemedicine/methods , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Functional Status , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multi-Institutional Systems/organization & administration , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Treatment Outcome
8.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 60(12): 822-839, 2020 Dec 26.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940637

ABSTRACT

Due to the pandemic of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the stroke medical care system is unavoidably undergoing major changes such as a decrease in the number of stroke patients receiving consultation, delay in consultation, and a decrease in the number of intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy procedures. Stroke incidence in COVID-19 patients is approximately 1.1%. The features of stroke with COVID-19 have been elucidated: higher incidence in ischemic stroke than hemorrhagic stroke, increasing number of young patients, high D-dimer levels, and higher risk in elderly patients with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes. In patients with COVID-19, venous thromboembolism is more common than arterial thromboembolism, and stroke is more common than acute coronary syndrome. Protected code stroke (PCS) has been proposed which provides safe, effective and prompt treatment under complete infection control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Stroke/complications , Stroke/therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Hypertension , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Venous Thromboembolism/complications
9.
Neurol Sci ; 42(2): 399-406, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938581

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, a decrease of stroke's hospital admissions and reperfusion therapy has been reported worldwide. This retrospective observational study assessed the volume of stroke cases managed in the Emergency Department (ED) and reperfusion therapies in an Italian stroke network with a high incidence of COVID-19, particularly to evaluate if the in-hospital rerouting and the switch from a drip-and-ship to a mothership model could assure an adequate volume of acute treatments. METHODS: We compared data from March 2020 with those from previous years and formulated five PICO questions regarding (1) incidence of stroke cases in the ED; (2) relation between stroke cases and COVID-19; (3) differences in the number of reperfusion therapies, (4) in the call-to-needle and door-to-needle times for intravenous thrombolysis, and (5) in the call-to-groin and door-to-groin times for thrombectomy. RESULTS: We found (1) a 28% decreased of confirmed stroke cases managed in the ED, (2) a negative correlation between stroke cases in ED and COVID-19 progression (rs = - .390, p = .030), and (3) a similar number of treatments in March 2020 and March 2019. The adoption of the mothership model (4) did not delay alteplase infusion (median call-to-needle p = .126, median door-to-needle p = .142) but led to (5) a significant reduction in median call-to-groin (p = .018) and door-to-groin times (p = .010). CONCLUSION: The "hospital avoidance" of stroke patients during the "stay-at-home" appeals needs to be considered for future public health campaigns. A prompt reorganization of the stroke network can guarantee optimal performances at times of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Reperfusion/statistics & numerical data , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Italy , Models, Organizational , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
10.
Ann Neurol ; 89(2): 380-388, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938391

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Emerging data indicate an increased risk of cerebrovascular events with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and highlight the potential impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on the management and outcomes of acute stroke. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the aforementioned considerations. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of observational cohort studies reporting on the occurrence and/or outcomes of patients with cerebrovascular events in association with their SARS-CoV-2 infection status. We used a random-effects model. Summary estimates were reported as odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: We identified 18 cohort studies including 67,845 patients. Among patients with SARS-CoV-2, 1.3% (95% CI = 0.9-1.6%, I2 = 87%) were hospitalized for cerebrovascular events, 1.1% (95% CI = 0.8-1.3%, I2 = 85%) for ischemic stroke, and 0.2% (95% CI = 0.1-0.3%, I2 = 64%) for hemorrhagic stroke. Compared to noninfected contemporary or historical controls, patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection had increased odds of ischemic stroke (OR = 3.58, 95% CI = 1.43-8.92, I2 = 43%) and cryptogenic stroke (OR = 3.98, 95% CI = 1.62-9.77, I2 = 0%). Diabetes mellitus was found to be more prevalent among SARS-CoV-2 stroke patients compared to noninfected historical controls (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.00-1.94, I2 = 0%). SARS-CoV-2 infection status was not associated with the likelihood of receiving intravenous thrombolysis (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.65-3.10, I2 = 0%) or endovascular thrombectomy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.35-1.74, I2 = 0%) among hospitalized ischemic stroke patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Odds of in-hospital mortality were higher among SARS-CoV-2 stroke patients compared to noninfected contemporary or historical stroke patients (OR = 5.60, 95% CI = 3.19-9.80, I2 = 45%). INTERPRETATION: SARS-CoV-2 appears to be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, and potentially cryptogenic stroke in particular. It may also be related to an increased mortality risk. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:380-388.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Humans , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data
11.
Cerebrovasc Dis Extra ; 10(3): 159-165, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917828

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to evaluate the impact of a stay-at-home order on stroke metrics during the 2019-novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Data on baseline characteristics, stroke subtype, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, the time between last known well (LKW) to emergency department (ED) arrival, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration, the involvement of large vessel occlusion (LVO), and whether mechanical thrombectomy (MT) was pursued in patients with acute stroke were extracted from 24 March to 23 April 2020 (the time period of a stay-at-home order was placed due to the COVID-19 pandemic as the study group) at a tertiary care hospital in West Michigan, USA, compared with data from 24 March to 23 April 2019 (control group). RESULTS: Our study demonstrated a reduction in cases of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), although this did not reach statistical significance. However, there was an increase in hemorrhagic stroke (7.5% controls vs. 19.2% study group). The age of stroke patients was significantly younger during the period of the stay-at-home order compared to the control group. We identified a significant overall delay of ED arrivals from LKW in the study group. Additionally, an increased number of AIS patients with LVO in the study group (34.8%) was found compared to the control group (17.5%). A significantly increased number of patients received MT in the study group. Additionally, 11 patients were COVID-19 PCR-positive in the study group, 10 with AIS and only 1 with hemorrhagic stroke. Patients with COVID-19 had a high incidence of atrial fibrillation and hyperlipidemia. One AIS patient with COVID-19 rapidly developed cytotoxic edema with corresponding elevated inflammatory biomarkers. No statistical significance was noted when stroke subtype, LVO, and MT groups were compared. CONCLUSIONS: There was a trend of decreasing AIS admissions during the COVID-19 pandemic. There was also a significantly increased number of AIS patients with LVO who received MT, especially those with COVID-19. We conclude that cytokine storm resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infection might play a role in AIS patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Communicable Disease Control , Patient Admission/trends , Stroke , Thrombectomy , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cerebrovascular Disorders/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Stroke/classification , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/methods , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
12.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 5(4): 323-330, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-852719

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and physical distancing guidelines have compelled stroke practices worldwide to reshape their delivery of care significantly. We aimed to illustrate how the stroke services were interrupted during the pandemic in China. METHODS: A 61-item questionnaire designed on Wenjuanxing Form was completed by doctors or nurses who were involved in treating patients with stroke from 1 February to 31 March 2020. RESULTS: A total of 415 respondents completed the online survey after informed consent was obtained. Of the respondents, 37.8%, 35.2% and 27.0% were from mild, moderate and severe epidemic areas, respectively. Overall, the proportion of severe impact (reduction >50%) on the admission of transient ischaemic stroke, acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) and intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) was 45.0%, 32.0% and 27.5%, respectively. Those numbers were 36.9%, 27.9% and 22.3%; 36.5%, 22.1% and 22.6%; and 66.4%, 47.5% and 41.1% in mild, moderate and severe epidemic areas, respectively (all p<0.0001). For AIS, thrombolysis was moderate (20%-50% reduction) or severely impacted (>50%), as reported by 54.4% of the respondents, while thrombectomy was 39.3%. These were 44.4%, 26.3%; 44.2%, 39.4%; and 78.2%, 56.5%, in mild, moderate and severe epidemic areas, respectively (all p<0.0001). For patients with acute ICH, 39.8% reported the impact was severe or moderate for those eligible for surgery who had surgery. Those numbers were 27.4%, 39.0% and 58.1% in mild, moderate and severe epidemic areas, respectively. For staff resources, about 20% (overall) to 55% (severe epidemic) of the respondents reported moderate or severe impact on the on-duty doctors and nurses. CONCLUSION: We found a significant reduction of admission for all types of patients with stroke during the pandemic. Patients were less likely to receive appropriate care, for example, thrombolysis/thrombectomy, after being admitted to the hospital. Stroke service in severe COVID-19 epidemic areas, for example, Wuhan, was much more severely impacted compared with other regions in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Neurosurgery/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Patient Care Management , Stroke/surgery , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data
13.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 51(4): 947-952, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-754367

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic complications due to systemic coagulation activation. Little is known about the role of direct anticoagulants (DOACs) in COVID-19 related thrombosis. In this audit we sought to distinguish COVID-19 hospitalised patients with a diagnosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and record their outcomes over a period of 3 months (01/02/2020-30/04/2020). A total of 1583 patients were diagnosed with laboratory proven COVID-19 disease. Amongst them, 38 patients (0.82%) suffered VTE (median age 68 years, male/female: 20/18). VTE was the presenting symptom on admission in 71%. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in 92% of patients; 5 patients required intensive care and 3 underwent thrombolysis. 27 patients received initial treatment with unfractionated heparin/low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) while 10 were treated with direct anticoagulants (DOACs). After a median follow up of 25 days, 29 (76%) patients were alive while 5 were still hospitalised. Most patients (83%) were discharged on DOACs, no VTE recurrence or bleeding was recorded post-discharge. Our results suggest that direct anticoagulants could be a safe and effective treatment option in selected COVID-19 positive patients who have suffered venous thromboembolism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Heparin/administration & dosage , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Aftercare/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Audit , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Humans , Male , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
14.
Eur J Neurol ; 27(12): 2491-2498, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-748698

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Spain has been one of the countries more heavily stricken by SARS-CoV-2, which has had huge implications for stroke care. The aim was to analyse the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic outbreak on reperfusion therapies for acute ischaemic stroke in the northwest of Spain. METHODS: This was a Spanish multicentre retrospective observational study based on data from tertiary hospitals of the NORDICTUS network. All patients receiving reperfusion therapy for ischaemic stroke between 30 December 2019 and 3 May 2020 were recorded, and their baseline, clinical and radiological characteristics, extra- and intra-hospital times of action, Code Stroke activation pathway, COVID-19 status, reperfusion rate, and short-term outcome before and after the setting of the emergency state were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 796 patients received reperfusion therapies for ischaemic stroke. There was a decrease in the number of patients treated per week (46.5 patients per week vs. 39.0 patients per week, P = 0.043) and a delay in out-of-hospital (95.0 vs. 110.0 min, P = 0.001) and door-to-needle times (51.0 vs. 55.0, P = 0.038). Patients receiving endovascular therapy obtained less successful reperfusion rates (92.9% vs. 86.6%, P = 0.016). COVID-19 patients had more in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: A decrease in the number of patients benefiting from reperfusion therapies was found, with a delay in out-of-hospital and door-to-needle times and worse reperfusion rates in northwest Spain. COVID-19 patients had more in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Pandemics , Reperfusion , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Endovascular Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(11): 1318-1324, 2020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a fatal cardiovascular emergency requiring rapid reperfusion treatment. During the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, medical professionals need to strike a balance between providing timely treatment for STEMI patients and implementing infection control procedures to prevent nosocomial spread of COVID-19 among health care workers and other vulnerable cardiovascular patients. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak and China Chest Pain Center's modified STEMI protocol on the treatment and prognosis of STEMI patients in China. METHODS: Based on the data of 28,189 STEMI patients admitted to 1,372 Chest Pain Centers in China between December 27, 2019 and February 20, 2020, the study analyzed how the COVID-19 outbreak and China Chest Pain Center's modified STEMI protocol influenced the number of admitted STEMI cases, reperfusion strategy, key treatment time points, and in-hospital mortality and heart failure for STEMI patients. RESULTS: The COVID-19 outbreak reduced the number of STEMI cases reported to China Chest Pain Centers. Consistent with China Chest Pain Center's modified STEMI protocol, the percentage of patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention declined while the percentage of patients undergoing thrombolysis increased. With an average delay of approximately 20 min for reperfusion therapy, the rate of in-hospital mortality and in-hospital heart failure increased during the outbreak, but the rate of in-hospital hemorrhage remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: There were reductions in STEMI patients' access to care, delays in treatment timelines, changes in reperfusion strategies, and an increase of in-hospital mortality and heart failure during the COVID-19 pandemic in China.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infection Control , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Pneumonia, Viral , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Thrombolytic Therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Angiography/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/etiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Male , Middle Aged , Organizational Innovation , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care/methods , Patient Care/trends , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data
16.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 48(1): 59-65, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the impact of regionally imposed social and healthcare restrictions due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to the time metrics in the management of acute ischemic stroke patients admitted at the regional stroke referral site for Central South Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We compared relevant time metrics between patients with acute ischemic stroke receiving intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and/or endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) before and after the declared restrictions and state of emergency imposed in our region (March 17, 2020). RESULTS: We identified a significant increase in the median door-to-CT times for patients receiving intravenous tPA (19 min, interquartile range (IQR): 14-27 min vs. 13 min, IQR: 9-17 min, p = 0.008) and/or EVT (20 min, IQR: 15-33 min vs. 11 min, IQR: 5-20 min, p = 0.035) after the start of social and healthcare restrictions in our region compared to the previous 12 months. For patients receiving intravenous tPA treatment, we also found a significant increase (p = 0.005) in the median door-to-needle time (61 min, IQR: 46-72 min vs. 37 min, IQR: 30-50 min). No delays in the time from symptom onset to hospital presentation were uncovered for patients receiving tPA and/or endovascular reperfusion treatments in the first 1.5 months after the establishment of regional and institutional restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: We detected an increase in our institutional time to treatment metrics for acute ischemic stroke patients receiving tPA and/or endovascular reperfusion therapies, related to delays from hospital presentation to the acquisition of cranial CT imaging for both tPA- and EVT-treated patients, and an added delay to treatment with tPA.


Subject(s)
Endovascular Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data
17.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 20(5): e170-e172, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688782

ABSTRACT

During the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic the restructure of healthcare services to meet the huge increase in demand for hospital resource and capacity has led to the proposal that where necessary ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) could be managed by intravenous thrombolysis in the first instance as a means of reducing the workforce requirements of a primary angioplasty service run at a heart attack centre. Our modelling, based on data from the UK, shows that contrary to reducing demand, the effect on both mortality and bed occupancy would be negative with 158 additional deaths per year for each 10% reduction in primary angioplasty and at a cost of ~8,000 additional bed days per year for the same reduction. Our analysis demonstrates that specialist services such as heart attack pathways should be protected during the COVID crisis to maximise the appropriate use of resource and prevent unnecessary mortality.


Subject(s)
Bed Occupancy/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics/prevention & control , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Risk Assessment , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , United Kingdom
18.
Stroke ; 51(8): 2544-2547, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the acute stroke presentations during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: The data were obtained from a health system with 19 emergency departments in northeast Ohio in the United States. Baseline period from January 1 to March 8, 2020, was compared with the COVID period from March 9, to April 2, 2020. The variables included were total daily stroke alerts across the hospital emergency departments, thrombolysis, time to presentation, stroke severity, time from door-to-imaging, time from door-to-needle in thrombolysis, and time from door-to-puncture in thrombectomy. The 2 time periods were compared using nonparametric statistics and Poisson regression. RESULTS: Nine hundred two stroke alerts during the period across the emergency departments were analyzed. Total daily stroke alerts decreased from median, 10 (interquartile range, 8-13) during baseline period to median, 8 (interquartile range, 4-10, P=0.001) during COVID period. Time to presentation, stroke severity, and time to treatment were unchanged. COVID period was associated with decrease in stroke alerts with rate ratio of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.60-0.28). Thrombolysis also decreased with rate ratio, 0.52 (95% CI, 0.28-0.97) but thrombectomy remained unchanged rate ratio, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.52-1.62) Conclusions: We observed a significant decrease in acute stroke presentations by ≈30% across emergency departments at the time of surge of COVID-19 cases. This observation could be attributed to true decline in stroke incidence or patients not seeking medical attention for emergencies during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Ohio/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment
19.
J Neurol ; 268(2): 403-408, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are concerns that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak negatively affects the quality of care for acute cardiovascular conditions. We assessed the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on trends in hospital admissions and workflow parameters of acute stroke care in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. METHODS: We used data from the three hospitals that provide acute stroke care for the Amsterdam region. We compared two 7-week periods: one during the peak of the COVID-19 outbreak (March 16th-May 3th 2020) and one prior to the outbreak (October 21st-December 8th 2019). We included consecutive patients who presented to the emergency departments with a suspected stroke and assessed the change in number of patients as an incidence-rate ratio (IRR) using a Poisson regression analysis. Other outcomes were the IRR for stroke subtypes, change in use of reperfusion therapy, treatment times, and in-hospital complications. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 period, 309 patients presented with a suspected stroke compared to 407 patients in the pre-COVID-19 period (IRR 0.76 95%CI 0.65-0.88). The proportion of men was higher during the COVID-19 period (59% vs. 47%, p < 0.001). There was no change in the proportion of stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis (28% vs. 30%, p = 0.58) or endovascular thrombectomy (11% vs 12%, p = 0.82) or associated treatment times. Seven patients (all ischemic strokes) were diagnosed with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: We observed a 24% decrease in suspected stroke presentations during the COVID-19 outbreak, but no evidence for a decrease in quality of acute stroke care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Stroke/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Poisson Distribution , Quality of Health Care , Reperfusion , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/complications , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
20.
Stroke ; 51(9): e2111-e2114, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636734

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Anecdotal evidence suggests that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic mitigation efforts may inadvertently discourage patients from seeking treatment for stroke with resultant increased morbidity and mortality. Analysis of regional data, while hospital capacities for acute stroke care remained fully available, offers an opportunity to assess this. We report regional Stroke Team acute activations and reperfusion treatments during COVID-19 mitigation activities. METHODS: Using case log data prospectively collected by a Stroke Team exclusively serving ≈2 million inhabitants and 30 healthcare facilities, we retrospectively reviewed volumes of consultations and reperfusion treatments for acute ischemic stroke. We compared volumes before and after announcements of COVID-19 mitigation measures and the prior calendar year. RESULTS: Compared with the 10 weeks prior, stroke consultations declined by 39% (95% CI, 32%-46%) in the 5 weeks after announcement of statewide school and restaurant closures in Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana. Results compared with the prior year and time trend analyses were consistent. Reperfusion treatments also appeared to decline by 31% (95% CI, 3%-51%), and specifically thrombolysis by 33% (95% CI, 4%-55%), but this finding had less precision. CONCLUSIONS: Upon the announcement of measures to mitigate COVID-19, regional acute stroke consultations declined significantly. Reperfusion treatment rates, particularly thrombolysis, also appeared to decline qualitatively, and this finding requires further study. Urgent public education is necessary to mitigate a possible crisis of avoiding essential emergency care due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Stroke/complications , Stroke/therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Indiana/epidemiology , Kentucky/epidemiology , Ohio/epidemiology , Pandemics , Patient Care Team , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Reperfusion , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
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