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2.
Curr Opin Hematol ; 28(5): 339-344, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956624

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Protein S (PS) is an essential natural anticoagulant. PS deficiency is a major contributor to acquired hypercoagulability. Acquired hypercoagulability causes myocardial infarction, stroke, and deep vein thrombosis in millions of individuals. Yet, despite its importance in hemostasis, PS is the least understood anticoagulant. Even after 40 years since PS was first described, we are still uncovering information about how PS functions. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent findings that advance our understanding of the functions of PS and explain hypercoagulability caused by severe PS deficiency. RECENT FINDINGS: PS has long been described as a cofactor for Activated Protein C (APC) and Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor (TFPI). However, a recent report describes direct inhibition of Factor IXa (FIXa) by PS, an activity of PS that had been completely overlooked. Thrombophilia is becoming a more frequently reported disorder. Hereditary PS deficiency is an anticoagulant deficiency that results eventually in thrombophilia. In addition, PS deficiency is a predisposing factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE), but an effect of PS deficiency in arterial thrombosis, such as arterial ischemic stroke, is uncertain. Plasma PS concentration decreases in pregnant women. Inherited thrombophilias are important etiologies for recurrent pregnancy loss, and anticoagulation therapy is of benefit to women with recurrent pregnancy loss who had documented only PS deficiency.Hypoxia is a risk factor for VTE, and hypoxia downregulates plasma PS level. Importantly, COVID-19 can lead to hypoxemia because of lung damage from IL6-driven inflammatory responses to the viral infection. Because hypoxia decreases the abundance of the key anticoagulant PS, we surmise that the IL6-induced cytokine explosion combined with hypoxemia causes a drop in PS level that exacerbates the thrombotic risk in COVID-19 patients. SUMMARY: This review is intended to advance understanding of the anticoagulant function of an important plasma protein, PS. Despite 40+ years of research, we have not had a complete description of PS biology as it pertains to control of blood coagulation. However, the picture of PS function has become sharper with the recent discovery of FIXa inhibition by PS. Hemostasis mediated by PS now includes regulation of FIXa activity alongside the cofactor activities of PS in the TFPI/APC pathways. In addition, the direct inhibition of FIXa by PS suggests that PS, particularly a small derivative of PS, could be used to treat individuals with PS deficiencies or abnormalities that cause thrombotic complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hemostasis , Protein S/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombophilia/pathology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/metabolism
4.
Exp Physiol ; 107(7): 749-758, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1916373

ABSTRACT

NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? Overview of the coagulation abnormalities, including elevated D-dimers widely reported with COVID-19, often labelled as COVID coagulopathy. What advances does it highlight? The review highlights the changes in bronchoalveolar haemostasis due to apoptosis of alveolar cells, which contributes to acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome; the pathophysiological mechanisms, including endothelial dysfunction and damage responsible for thrombosis of pulmonary microcirculation and potential contribution to the hypoxaemia of COVID-19 acute lung injury; and changes in coagulation proteins responsible for the hypercoagulability and increased risk of thrombosis in other venous and arterial beds. The rationale for anticoagulation and fibrinolytic therapies is detailed, and potential confounders that might have led to less than expected improvement in the various randomised controlled trials are considered. ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) causes acute lung injury with diffuse alveolar damage, alveolar-capillary barrier disruption, thrombin generation and alveolar fibrin deposition. Clinically, hypoxaemia is associated with preserved lung compliance early in the disease, suggesting the lack of excessive fluid accumulation typical of other lung injuries. Notably, autopsy studies demonstrate infection of the endothelium with extensive capillary thrombosis distinct from the embolic thrombi in pulmonary arteries. The inflammatory thrombosis in pulmonary vasculature secondary to endothelial infection and dysfunction appears to contribute to hypoxaemia. This is associated with elevated D-dimers and acquired hypercoagulability with an increased risk of deep vein thrombosis. Hypercoagulability is secondary to elevated plasma tissue factor levels, von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, reduced ADAMTS-13 with platelet activation and inhibition of fibrinolysis. Multi-platform randomised controlled studies of systemic therapeutic anticoagulation with unfractionated and low molecular mass heparins demonstrated a survival benefit over standard care with full-dose anticoagulation in patients with non-severe disease who require supplemental oxygen, but not in severe disease requiring ventilatory support. Late intervention and the heterogeneous nature of enrolled patients can potentially explain the apparent lack of benefit in severe disease. Improvement in oxygenation has been demonstrated with intravenous fibrinolytics in small studies. Inhaled anticoagulants, thrombolytic agents and non-specific proteolytic drugs in clinical trials for decreasing alveolar fibrin deposition might benefit early disease. Essentially, COVID-19 is a multi-system disorder with pulmonary vascular inflammatory thrombosis that requires an interdisciplinary approach to combination therapies addressing both inflammation and intravascular thrombosis or alveolar fibrin deposits to improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Fibrin/metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombosis/drug therapy
5.
Am J Hematol ; 97(7): 915-923, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1888602

ABSTRACT

Sustained hypercoagulability and endotheliopathy are present in convalescent COVID-19 patients for up to 4 months from recovery. The hemostatic, endothelial, and inflammatory profiles of 39 recovered COVID-19 patients were evaluated up to 16 months after recovery from COVID-19. These values were compared with a control group of healthy volunteers (n = 124). 39 patients (71.8% males, median age 43 years) were reviewed at a mean of 12.7 ± 3.6 months following recovery. One patient without cardiovascular risk factors had post COVID-19 acute ischaemic limb. Elevated D-dimer and Factor VIII levels above normal ranges were noted in 17.9% (7/39) and 48.7% (19/39) of patients respectively, with a higher median D-dimer 0.34 FEU µg/mL (IQR 0.28, 0.46) (p < .001) and Factor VIII 150% (IQR 171, 203) (p = .004), versus controls. Thrombin generation (Thromboscreen) showed a higher median endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) of 1352 nM*min (IQR 1152, 1490) (p = .002) and a higher median peak height of 221.4 nM (IQR 170.2, 280.4) (p = 0.01) and delayed lag time 2.4 min (1.42-2.97) (p = 0.0002) versus controls. Raised vWF:Ag and ICAM-1 levels were observed in 17.9% (7/39) and 7.7% (3/39) of patients respectively, with a higher median VWF:Ag 117% (IQR 86, 154) (p = 0.02) and ICAM-1 54.1 ng/mL (IQR 43.8, 64.1) (p = .004) than controls. IL-6 was noted to be raised in 35.9% (14/39) of patients, with a higher median IL-6 of 1.5 pg/mL (IQR 0.6, 3.0) (p = 0.004) versus controls. Subgroup analysis stratifying patients by COVID-19 severity and COVID-19 vaccination preceding SARS-CoV-2 infection did not show statistically significant differences. Hypercoagulability, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation are still detectable in some patients approximately 1 year after recovery from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombophilia , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines , Factor VIII , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombin , Thrombophilia/etiology , von Willebrand Factor
6.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 44(5): 823-830, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 associated coagulopathy (CAC) can either be localized or systemic hypercoagulable state with increased risk of thromboembolism. This study looked into the usefulness of Thromboelastography (TEG) and the velocity curve (V-curve) derivative from TEG in diagnosing and differentiating different stages of CAC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective single cohort study of RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients was carried out for 2 weeks. Severe COVID-19 patients in the adult critical care units with a TEG report were recruited for the study. Citrated kaolin TEG was performed on the day of admission before anticoagulation. TEG parameters included were R and K time, alpha angle, maximum amplitude, clotting index, lysis at 30 min. The first-degree velocity curve of TEG is plotted as V-curve which extrapolates thrombus generation potential. Parameters analyzed were the maximum rate of thrombus generation as well as thrombus generated (TG). RESULTS: The study included 43 patients with an average age of 58.34 (±15.35). TEG as well as V-curve of all the patients were hypercoagulable compared with age-matched reference range. We had 79.06% of patients in hypercoagulable stage. The mortality rate was 32.56% and 30.23% developed thrombotic incidents. Patients who succumbed to death had prolonged PT, aPTT, MA, Ly30, with a reduced TG (p < .05). The presence of fibrinolysis was associated with thromboembolism (OR = 6.76, CI = 1.48-25.82). Repeat TEG was done randomly in 11 patients and revealed a persistent hypercoagulable stage with increasing fibrinolysis activity. CONCLUSION: TEG is a useful tool in diagnosing and categorizing Coagulopathy associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Thromboembolism , Thrombophilia , Adult , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Thrombelastography , Thrombophilia/complications , Thrombophilia/etiology
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(9): 3399-3405, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1856627

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 patients have been shown to be hypercoagulable, increasing the risk for thromboembolic events. The kinetics of the blood coagulation process were monitored daily throughout hospitalization in COVID-19 positive patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thromboelastography (TEG) was used to assess blood coagulation in 48 adult patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in this prospective cohort study. Clinical risk was assessed via National Early Warning Scores (NEWS) for each day of hospitalization. RESULTS: During hospitalization, 98% of patients had one or more procoagulable TEG result. Thromboelastography results remained prothrombotic upon discharge in 80% of patients. NEWS significantly decreased by discharge compared to the peak scores. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, patients were discharged from the hospital with significant clinical improvement, but without abnormal TEG results returning to a normal range. All patients in our study survived and few had thromboembolic events, so if and for how long these patients remain at risk for future complications warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thromboembolism , Thrombophilia , Adult , Blood Coagulation , Humans , Prospective Studies , Thrombelastography/adverse effects , Thrombelastography/methods , Thrombophilia/etiology
8.
Acta Haematol ; 145(3): 282-296, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832782

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a pandemic at the end of 2019 and continues to exert an unfavorable worldwide health impact on a large proportion of the population. A remarkable feature of COVID-19 is the precipitation of a hypercoagulable state, mainly in severe cases, leading to micro- and macrothrombosis, respiratory failure, and death. Despite the implementation of various therapeutic regimes, including anticoagulants, a large number of patients suffer from such serious complications. This review aims to describe the current knowledge on the pathophysiology of the coagulation mechanism in COVID-19. We describe the interplay between three important mediators of the disease and how this may lead to a hyperinflammatory and prothrombotic state that affects outcome, namely, the endothelium, the immune system, and the coagulation system. In line with the hypercoagulability state during COVID-19, we further review on the rare but severe vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia. We also summarize and comment on available anticoagulant treatment options and include suggestions for some future treatment considerations for COVID-19 anticoagulation therapy.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Thrombophilia , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology
9.
Anesthesiology ; 137(1): 13-14, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831375
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 862522, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809404

ABSTRACT

Lung injury may persist during the recovery period of COVID-19 as shown through imaging, six-minute walk, and lung function tests. The pathophysiological mechanisms leading to long COVID have not been adequately explained. Our aim is to investigate the basis of pulmonary susceptibility during sequelae and the possibility that prothrombotic states may influence long-term pulmonary symptoms of COVID-19. The patient's lungs remain vulnerable during the recovery stage due to persistent shedding of the virus, the inflammatory environment, the prothrombotic state, and injury and subsequent repair of the blood-air barrier. The transformation of inflammation to proliferation and fibrosis, hypoxia-involved vascular remodeling, vascular endothelial cell damage, phosphatidylserine-involved hypercoagulability, and continuous changes in serological markers all contribute to post-discharge lung injury. Considering the important role of microthrombus and arteriovenous thrombus in the process of pulmonary functional lesions to organic lesions, we further study the possibility that prothrombotic states, including pulmonary vascular endothelial cell activation and hypercoagulability, may affect long-term pulmonary symptoms in long COVID. Early use of combined anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy is a promising approach to reduce the incidence of pulmonary sequelae. Essentially, early treatment can block the occurrence of thrombotic events. Because impeded pulmonary circulation causes large pressure imbalances over the alveolar membrane leading to the infiltration of plasma into the alveolar cavity, inhibition of thrombotic events can prevent pulmonary hypertension, formation of lung hyaline membranes, and lung consolidation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Injury , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , Aftercare , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lung Injury/etiology , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology
11.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(8): 1352-1360, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730359

ABSTRACT

A large number of daily requests to exclude possible prothrombotic risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines were received. Our aim was to longitudinally evaluate coagulation profiles in a series of healthy subjects who received COVID-19 vaccination and assess hypercoagulability thereafter. Volunteers awaiting a first or second dose of either the ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 vaccine were enrolled. Venous samples were obtained at baseline (before the vaccine) and longitudinally 3 ± 2 days (T1) and 10 ± 2 days after the vaccine (T2). Global coagulation monitoring was assessed via platelet count, whole blood thromboelastometry and impedance aggregometry, plasma thrombin generation, and anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin immunoglobulin G antibodies. One hundred and twenty-two subjects were enrolled (61 [50%] ChAdOx1 and 61 BNT162b2). The ChAdOx1 cohort showed a slight but transient increase in thrombin generation (mainly endogenous thrombin potential [ETP] with thrombomodulin and ETP ratio) at T1, which promptly decreased at T2. In addition, the second dose of either vaccine was associated with increased thrombin peak, ETP with thrombomodulin, and ETP ratio. At baseline, 3.2% of the ChAdOx1 cohort and 1.6% BNT162b2 cohort were positive for PF4/heparin antibodies with a stable titer through T1 and T2. No relevant differences were detected in platelet count and aggregation, or thromboelastometry parameters. No thrombotic or hemorrhagic events occurred. We can confirm that no clinically meaningful hypercoagulability occurred after either vaccine, albeit keeping in mind that thrombin generation may increase in the first days after the second dose of either vaccine and after the first dose of the ChAdOx1 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Thrombophilia , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Thrombin , Thrombomodulin , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Thrombophilia/etiology , Vaccination
12.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648620

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as COVID-19, is currently developing into a rapidly disseminating and an overwhelming worldwide pandemic. In severe COVID-19 cases, hypercoagulability and inflammation are two crucial complications responsible for poor prognosis and mortality. In addition, coagulation system activation and inflammation overlap and produce life-threatening complications, including coagulopathy and cytokine storm, which are associated with overproduction of cytokines and activation of the immune system; they might be a lead cause of organ damage. However, patients with severe COVID-19 who received anticoagulant therapy had lower mortality, especially with elevated D-dimer or fibrin degradation products (FDP). In this regard, the discovery of natural products with anticoagulant potential may help mitigate the numerous side effects of the available synthetic drugs. This review sheds light on blood coagulation and its impact on the complication associated with COVID-19. Furthermore, the sources of natural anticoagulants, the role of nanoparticle formulation in this outbreak, and the prevalence of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) after COVID-19 vaccines are also reviewed. These combined data provide many research ideas related to the possibility of using these anticoagulant agents as a treatment to relieve acute symptoms of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Disorders/classification , Blood Coagulation Disorders/prevention & control , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/prevention & control , Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thrombophilia/etiology
13.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262600, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622369

ABSTRACT

In patients with severe forms of COVID-19, thromboelastometry has been reported to display a hypercoagulant pattern. However, an algorithm to differentiate severe COVID-19 patients from nonsevere patients and healthy controls based on thromboelastometry parameters has not been developed. Forty-one patients over 18 years of age with positive qRT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 were classified according to the severity of the disease: nonsevere (NS, n = 20) or severe (S, n = 21). A healthy control (HC, n = 9) group was also examined. Blood samples from all participants were tested by extrinsic (EXTEM), intrinsic (INTEM), non-activated (NATEM) and functional assessment of fibrinogen (FIBTEM) assays of thromboelastometry. The thrombodynamic potential index (TPI) was also calculated. Severe COVID-19 patients exhibited a thromboelastometry profile with clear hypercoagulability, which was significantly different from the NS and HC groups. Nonsevere COVID-19 cases showed a trend to thrombotic pole. The NATEM test suggested that nonsevere and severe COVID-19 patients presented endogenous coagulation activation (reduced clotting time and clot formation time). TPI data were significantly different between the NS and S groups. The maximum clot firmness profile obtained by FIBTEM showed moderate/elevated accuracy to differentiate severe patients from NS and HC. A decision tree algorithm based on the FIBTEM-MCF profile was proposed to differentiate S from HC and NS. Thromboelastometric parameters are a useful tool to differentiate the coagulation profile of nonsevere and severe COVID-19 patients for therapeutic intervention purposes.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , Thrombelastography , Thrombophilia/blood , Adult , Aged , Algorithms , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Thrombophilia/etiology , Young Adult
15.
Microvasc Res ; 140: 104310, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586954

ABSTRACT

Evidence suggests severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) infection is characterised by pulmonary and systemic microvasculature dysfunction, specifically, acute endothelial injury, hypercoagulation and increased capillary permeability. Diabetes, which is also characterised by vascular injury in itself, confers an increased risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. It has been suggested that pre-existing endothelial dysfunction and microvascular disease in diabetes will exacerbate the vascular insults associated with COVID-19 and thus lead to increased severity of COVID-19 infection. In this article, we evaluate the current evidence exploring the impact of microvascular complications, in the form of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, in individuals with COVID-19 and diabetes. Future insights gained from exploring the microvascular injury patterns and clinical outcomes may come to influence care delivery algorithms for either of these conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Diabetic Angiopathies/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Microcirculation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/etiology , Albuminuria/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Capillary Permeability , Delivery of Health Care , Diabetic Angiopathies/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/physiopathology , Diabetic Neuropathies/complications , Diabetic Neuropathies/physiopathology , Diabetic Retinopathy/complications , Diabetic Retinopathy/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/injuries , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/physiopathology , Pulmonary Circulation , Pulmonary Edema/etiology , Pulmonary Edema/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome
16.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann ; 30(5): 515-523, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582716

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 is the disease produced by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2, which is introduced into the host's cell thanks to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. Once there, it uses the cell's machinery to multiply itself. In this process, it generates an immune response that stimulates the lymphocytes to produce cytokines and reactive oxygen species that begin to deteriorate the endothelial cell. Complement activation, through the complement attack complex and C5a, contributes to this endothelial damage. The different mediators further promote the expression of adhesion molecules on the endothelial surface, which encourages all blood cells to adhere to the endothelial surface to form small conglomerates, called clots, which obstruct the lumen of the small blood vessels. Furthermore, the mediators of clot lysis are inhibited. All this promotes a prothrombotic environment within the pulmonary capillaries that is reflected in the elevation of D-dimer. The only solution for this cascade of events seems to be the implementation of an effective anticoagulation protocol that early counteracts the changes induced by thrombi in the pulmonary circulation and reflected in the functioning of the right ventricle.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis , Blood Coagulation , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Treatment Outcome
17.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211010973, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582642

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 triggers abnormalities in coagulation parameters that can contribute to thrombosis. The goals of this research were to determine the levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer and FDP in COVID-19 patients. Following a systematic study, among 1198 articles, 35 studies were included in the meta-analysis of fibrinogen levels in both severe and non-severe groups. The funnel plot, Egger's regression asymmetry test, and Begg's test used to measure the bias of publications. All meta-analysis performed by comprehensive meta-analysis version 2 (CMA2). The pooled findings of fibrinogen levels revealed a significant rise in fibrinogen levels in severe COVID-19 than non-severe patients with COVID-19. The D-dimer and FDP levels were significantly higher in severe patients than non-severe patients with COVID-19 were. The levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer, and FDP have increased significantly in ICU patients compared to non-ICU patients. Although, levels of clotting parameters do not always correlate with the severity of disease, these findings showed the diagnostic importance for fibrinogen, D-dimer, and FDP in COVID-19. The presence of a continuous rise in serial measurements of fibrinogen, D-dimer, and FDP may predict that patients with COVID-19 may become critically ill.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Hemostasis , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Humans , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/etiology
18.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 295-301, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575822

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk of developing a hypercoagulable state due to haemostatic changes directly related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection or to the consequence of the cytokine storm. Anticoagulation is now recommended to reduce the thrombotic risk. Ilio-psoas haematoma (IPH) is a potentially lethal condition that can arise during the hospitalization, especially in intensive care units (ICUs) and frequently reported as a complication of anticoagulation treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report a case series of seven subjects with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia complicated by Ilio-psoas haematomas (IPHs) at our COVID-Hospital in Rome, Italy. RESULTS: Over the observation period, 925 subjects with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to our COVID-hospital. Among them, we found seven spontaneous IPHs with an incidence of 7.6 cases per 1000 hospitalization. All the reported cases had a severe manifestation of COVID-19 pneumonia, with at least one comorbidity and 5/7 were on treatment with low weight molecular heparin for micro or macro pulmonary thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: Given the indications to prescribe anticoagulant therapy in COVID-19 and the lack of solid evidences on the optimal dose and duration, it is important to be aware of the iliopsoas haematoma as a potentially serious complication in COVID-19 inpatients. KEY MESSAGE Critically ill patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk of hypercoagulability state and anticoagulation therapy is recommended. Ilio-psoas haematoma (IPH) is found to be a complication of anticoagulation regimen especially in severe COVID-19 cases. An incidence of 7.6 cases per 1000 admission of IPHs was reported. Hypoesthesia of the lower limbs, pain triggered by femoral rotation, hypovolaemia and anaemia are the most common symptoms and signs of IPHs that should alert physician.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Hematoma/epidemiology , Psoas Muscles/diagnostic imaging , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hematoma/chemically induced , Hematoma/diagnosis , Hematoma/drug therapy , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Muscular Diseases , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
19.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program ; 2021(1): 614-620, 2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566499

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is frequently associated with abnormalities on coagulation testing and a coagulopathy driven by inflammation, intravascular coagulation activation, and microvascular thrombosis. Elevated D-dimer is the most common finding and is a predictor of adverse outcomes including thrombosis, critical illness, and death. Although COVID-19-associated coagulopathy has some similarities to disseminated intravascular coagulation, the platelet count is usually preserved, coagulation times are usually normal or minimally prolonged, and thrombosis is more common than bleeding, at least in noncritically ill patients. Bleeding is uncommon but may be a significant problem in critically ill patients, including those who may develop a consumptive coagulopathy with frank disseminated intravascular coagulation and those on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Blood product support to correct coagulopathy is reserved for bleeding patients or those requiring invasive procedures. Current recommendations suggest that all hospitalized patients should receive at least a prophylactic dose of anticoagulation. Results from a multiplatform randomized clinical trial suggest that therapeutically dosed anticoagulation may improve outcomes, including the need for organ support and mortality in moderately ill patients but not in those requiring critical care. The results of ongoing trials evaluating the impact of different antithrombotic strategies (therapeutic agents and intensity) on COVID-19 outcomes are eagerly awaited and are expected to have important implications for patient management. We also discuss COVID-19 vaccine-associated cytopenias and bleeding as well as vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia, in which thrombosis is associated with thrombocytopenia, elevated D-dimer, and, frequently, hypofibrinogenemia.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Middle Aged , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Thrombocytopenia/therapy , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/therapy , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/therapy
20.
Br J Haematol ; 196(4): 902-922, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566272

ABSTRACT

In 145 previously healthy non-critically ill young adults, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related symptoms, risk factors for thrombosis, coagulation and inflammatory parameters were compared, with 29 patients reporting unusual thrombotic events (UTEs) and 116 not having thrombotic events. The inflammatory indices, coagulation and prothrombotic platelet phenotype (PTPP) were significantly higher in patients with UTEs versus those without. Patients with UTEs were categorised according to detection of thrombophilic genes (TGs), coagulation and inflammatory markers to the non-TG and TG subcohort. A total of 38 UTEs were identified, which included splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT; 11), stroke (six), cerebral vein thrombosis (five), thrombotic microangiopathy (four), limb ischaemia and inferior vena cava thrombosis (three each), ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (two), superior vena cava thrombosis (two), upper limb deep venous thrombosis and retinal vein thrombosis, one each. We found a 55% prevalence of TGs mainly heterozygous coagulation factor II, thrombin (FII)-G20210A, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-V617F, protein-S, and antithrombin III deficiency with a high (76·9%) prevalence of venous UTEs, multiple vessels thrombosis, and recurrence rate among the TG versus non-TG subcohort. The presence of JAK2-V617F, and FII-G20210A mutations was linked with SVT. Thrombosis in the non-TG subcohort was associated with more haemorrhagic problems, thrombosis progression and a significantly higher level of inflammatory markers, PTPP, mean platelet volume, von Willebrand factor, and factor VIII, which remained high for up to 6 months, as well as elevated D-dimer. Acquired and inherited thrombophilia with endotheliopathy appeared to be a relevant mechanism to explain the occurrence of UTEs that are not correlated to COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Blood Platelets/pathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Factor VIII/analysis , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Prospective Studies , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/diagnosis , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/etiology , Young Adult , von Willebrand Factor/analysis
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