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1.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211051764, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511654

ABSTRACT

The precise mechanisms of pathology in severe COVID-19 remains elusive. Current evidence suggests that inflammatory mediators are responsible for the manifestation of clinical symptoms that precedes a fatal response to infection. This review examines the nature of platelet activating factor and emphasizes the similarities between the physiological effects of platelet activating factor and the clinical complications of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Platelet Activating Factor/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/mortality , Inflammation/pathology , Multiple Organ Failure/complications , Multiple Organ Failure/metabolism , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Multiple Organ Failure/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/metabolism , Thrombosis/mortality , Thrombosis/pathology
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20864, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479817

ABSTRACT

Following SARS-CoV-2 infection, some COVID-19 patients experience severe host driven adverse events. To treat these complications, their underlying etiology and drug treatments must be identified. Thus, a novel AI methodology MOATAI-VIR, which predicts disease-protein-pathway relationships and repurposed FDA-approved drugs to treat COVID-19's clinical manifestations was developed. SARS-CoV-2 interacting human proteins and GWAS identified respiratory failure genes provide the input from which the mode-of-action (MOA) proteins/pathways of the resulting disease comorbidities are predicted. These comorbidities are then mapped to their clinical manifestations. To assess each manifestation's molecular basis, their prioritized shared proteins were subject to global pathway analysis. Next, the molecular features associated with hallmark COVID-19 phenotypes, e.g. unusual neurological symptoms, cytokine storms, and blood clots were explored. In practice, 24/26 of the major clinical manifestations are successfully predicted. Three major uncharacterized manifestation categories including neoplasms are also found. The prevalence of neoplasms suggests that SARS-CoV-2 might be an oncovirus due to shared molecular mechanisms between oncogenesis and viral replication. Then, repurposed FDA-approved drugs that might treat COVID-19's clinical manifestations are predicted by virtual ligand screening of the most frequent comorbid protein targets. These drugs might help treat both COVID-19's severe adverse events and lesser ones such as loss of taste/smell.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computational Biology/methods , Neoplasms/complications , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Thrombosis/complications , Virus Replication , Benchmarking , Comorbidity , Computer Simulation , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Drug Discovery , Humans , Machine Learning , Molecular Medicine , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(19): 5904-5912, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478932

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Liver injury has been reported in patients with COVID-19. This condition is characterized by severe outcome and could be related with the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to activate cytotoxic T cells. The purpose of this study is to show the histological and scanning electron microscopy features of liver involvement in COVID-19 to characterize the liver changes caused by the activation of multiple molecular pathways following this infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Liver biopsies from 4 patients (3 post-mortems and 1 in vivo) with COVID-19 were analyzed with histology and by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The liver changes showed significant heterogeneity. The first case showed ground glass hepatocytes and scattered fibrin aggregates in the sinusoidal lumen. The second evidenced intra-sinusoidal thrombi. The third was characterized by sinusoidal dilatation, atrophy of hepatocytes, Disse's spaces dilatation and intra-sinusoidal aggregates of fibrin and red blood cells. The fourth case exhibited diffuse fibrin aggregates in the dilated Disse spaces and microthrombi in the sinusoidal lumen. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19-related liver injury, a large spectrum of pathological changes was observed. The most peculiar features were very mild inflammation, intra-sinusoidal changes, including sinusoidal dilatation, thrombotic sinusoiditis and diffuse intra-sinusoidal fibrin deposition. These findings suggested that a thrombotic sinusoiditis followed by a local diffuse intra-vascular (intra-sinusoidal) coagulation could be the typical features of the SARS-CoV-2-related liver injury.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Liver Diseases/pathology , Liver/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , Aged , Autopsy , Biopsy , Erythrocytes/pathology , Fibrin , Hepatocytes/pathology , Humans , Male , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Middle Aged , Thrombosis/complications , Young Adult
5.
Nature ; 599(7884): 283-289, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404888

ABSTRACT

Derailed cytokine and immune cell networks account for the organ damage and the clinical severity of COVID-19 (refs. 1-4). Here we show that SARS-CoV-2, like other viruses, evokes cellular senescence as a primary stress response in infected cells. Virus-induced senescence (VIS) is indistinguishable from other forms of cellular senescence and is accompanied by a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which comprises pro-inflammatory cytokines, extracellular-matrix-active factors and pro-coagulatory mediators5-7. Patients with COVID-19 displayed markers of senescence in their airway mucosa in situ and increased serum levels of SASP factors. In vitro assays demonstrated macrophage activation with SASP-reminiscent secretion, complement lysis and SASP-amplifying secondary senescence of endothelial cells, which mirrored hallmark features of COVID-19 such as macrophage and neutrophil infiltration, endothelial damage and widespread thrombosis in affected lung tissue1,8,9. Moreover, supernatant from VIS cells, including SARS-CoV-2-induced senescence, induced neutrophil extracellular trap formation and activation of platelets and the clotting cascade. Senolytics such as navitoclax and a combination of dasatinib plus quercetin selectively eliminated VIS cells, mitigated COVID-19-reminiscent lung disease and reduced inflammation in SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters and mice. Our findings mark VIS as a pathogenic trigger of COVID-19-related cytokine escalation and organ damage, and suggest that senolytic targeting of virus-infected cells is a treatment option against SARS-CoV-2 and perhaps other viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Molecular Targeted Therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aniline Compounds/pharmacology , Aniline Compounds/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Cell Line , Cricetinae , Dasatinib/pharmacology , Dasatinib/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Quercetin/pharmacology , Quercetin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/metabolism
6.
Chem Biol Interact ; 348: 109657, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401276

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an ongoing public health emergency that has affected millions of people worldwide and is still a threat to many more. One of the pathophysiological features of COVID-19 is associated with the activation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) leading to the disruption of vascular integrity, coagulation and inflammation. An interlink mechanism between coagulation and inflammatory pathways has been reported in COVID-19. Multiple components are involved in these pathological pathways. Out of all, Von Willebrand Factor (VWF) is one of the primary components of coagulation pathway and also a mediator of vascular inflammation that plays an important role in thrombo-inflammation that further leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The thrombo-inflammatory co-morbidities such as hyper-coagulation, thrombosis, ARDS etc. have become the major cause of mortality in the patients of COVID-19 admitted to the ICU. Thus, VWF can be explored as a potential target to manage COVID-19 associated co-morbidities. Supporting this hypothesis, there are literature reports which disclose previous attempts to target VWF for the management of thrombo-inflammation in other pathological conditions. The current report summarizes emerging insights into the pathophysiology, mechanism(s), diagnosis, management and foundations for research on this less explored clinically relevant glycoprotein as coagulation biomarker in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Thrombosis/complications , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/complications
7.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379972

ABSTRACT

There is increasing evidence for a link between inflammation and thrombosis. Following tissue injury, vascular endothelium becomes activated, losing its antithrombotic properties whereas inflammatory mediators build up a prothrombotic environment. Platelets are the first elements to be activated following endothelial damage; they participate in physiological haemostasis, but also in inflammatory and thrombotic events occurring in an injured tissue. While physiological haemostasis develops rapidly to prevent excessive blood loss in the endothelium activated by inflammation, hypoxia or by altered blood flow, thrombosis develops slowly. Activated platelets release the content of their granules, including ATP and ADP released from their dense granules. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (NTPDase1)/CD39 dephosphorylates ATP to ADP and to AMP, which in turn, is hydrolysed to adenosine by ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73). NTPDase1/CD39 has emerged has an important molecule in the vasculature and on platelet surfaces; it limits thrombotic events and contributes to maintain the antithrombotic properties of endothelium. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of platelets as cellular elements interfacing haemostasis and inflammation, with a particular focus on the emerging role of NTPDase1/CD39 in controlling both processes.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD/metabolism , Apyrase/metabolism , Inflammation/complications , Thrombosis/complications , Animals , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Nucleotides/metabolism , Platelet Activation , Signal Transduction , Thrombosis/blood
9.
Nat Mater ; 20(8): 1045, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331386
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298166

ABSTRACT

The virus responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): a new virus with high infectivity and moderate mortality. The major clinical manifestation of COVID-19 is interstitial pneumonia, which may progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the disease causes a potent systemic hyperin-flammatory response, i.e., a cytokine storm or macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), which is associated with thrombotic complications. The complexity of the disease requires appropriate intensive treatment. One of promising treatment is statin administration, these being 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors that exert pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects. Recent studies indicate that statin therapy is associated with decreased mortality in COVID-19, which may be caused by direct and indirect mechanisms. According to literature data, statins can limit SARS-CoV-2 cell entry and replication by inhibiting the main protease (Mpro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The cytokine storm can be ameliorated by lowering serum IL-6 levels; this can be achieved by inhibiting Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and modulating macrophage activity. Statins can also reduce the complications of COVID-19, such as thrombosis and pulmonary fibrosis, by reducing serum PAI-1 levels, attenuating TGF-ß and VEGF in lung tissue, and improving endothelial function. Despite these benefits, statin therapy may have side effects that should be considered, such as elevated creatinine kinase (CK), liver enzyme and serum glucose levels, which are already elevated in severe COVID-19 infection. The present study analyzes the latest findings regarding the benefits and limitations of statin therapy in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Endothelium/drug effects , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Macrophage Activation/drug effects , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/drug therapy
11.
Cytokine ; 146: 155634, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293703

ABSTRACT

Thrombopoietin (TPO) is most recognized for its function as the primary regulator of megakaryocyte (MK) expansion and differentiation. MKs, in turn, are best known for their role in platelet production. Research indicates that MKs and platelets play an extensive role in the pathologic thrombosis at sites of high inflammation. TPO, therefore, is a key mediator of thromboinflammation. Silencing of TPO has been shown to decrease platelets levels and rates of pathologic thrombosis in patients with various inflammatory disorders (Barrett et al, 2020; Bunting et al, 1997; Desai et al, 2018; Kaser et al, 2001; Shirai et al, 2019). Given the high rates of thromboinflammmation in the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), as well as the well-documented aberrant MK activity in affected patients, TPO silencing offers a potential therapeutic modality in the treatment of COVID-19 and other pathologies associated with thromboinflammation. The current review explores the current clinical applications of TPO silencing and offers insight into a potential role in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Gene Silencing , Inflammation/genetics , Thrombocytosis/genetics , Thrombopoietin/genetics , Thrombosis/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/metabolism , Megakaryocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombocytosis/complications , Thrombocytosis/metabolism , Thrombopoiesis/genetics , Thrombopoietin/metabolism , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/metabolism
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256566

ABSTRACT

Cells convey information among one another. One instrument employed to transmit data and constituents to specific (target) cells is extracellular vesicles (EVs). They originate from a variety of cells (endothelial, immune cells, platelets, mesenchymal stromal cells, etc.), and consequently, their surface characteristics and cargo vary according to the paternal cell. The cargo could be DNA, mRNA, microRNA, receptors, metabolites, cytoplasmic proteins, or pathological molecules, as a function of which EVs exert different effects upon endocytosis in recipient cells. Recently, EVs have become important participants in a variety of pathologies, including atherogenesis and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated thrombosis. Herein, we summarize recent advances and some of our own results on the role of EVs in atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, and discuss their potential to function as signaling mediators, biomarkers and therapeutic agents. Since COVID-19 patients have a high rate of thrombotic events, a special section of the review is dedicated to the mechanism of thrombosis and the possible therapeutic potential of EVs in COVID-19-related thrombosis. Yet, EV mechanisms and their role in the transfer of information between cells in normal and pathological conditions remain to be explored.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Thrombosis/metabolism , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , Atherosclerosis/therapy , Atherosclerosis/virology , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Signal Transduction/immunology , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Thrombosis/virology
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244035

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have shown that COVID-19 leads to thrombotic complications, which have been associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Neutrophils are the largest population of white blood cells and play a pivotal role in innate immunity. During an infection, neutrophils migrate from circulation to the infection site, contributing to killing pathogens. This mechanism is regulated by chemokines such as IL-8. Moreover, it was shown that neutrophils play an important role in thromboinflammation. Through a diverse repertoire of mechanisms, neutrophils, apart from directly killing pathogens, are able to activate the formation of thrombi. In COVID-19 patients, neutrophil activation promotes neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, platelet aggregation, and cell damage. Furthermore, neutrophils participate in the pathogenesis of endothelitis. Overall, this review summarizes recent progress in research on the pathogenesis of COVID-19, highlighting the role of the prothrombotic action of neutrophils in NET formation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Lung/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Extracellular Traps/virology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Kidney/cytology , Kidney/immunology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Lung/cytology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/virology
15.
Pediatrics ; 148(2)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243869

ABSTRACT

STEMI can be the presenting diagnosis in adults with COVID-19; presented is a case of a 15-year-old girl with coronary thrombosis-induced STEMI associated with COVID-19. ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI) is an identified presentation of coronavirus disease 2019 in adults but has not been reported in children. We present a case of a 15-year-old girl with a coronary thrombosis-induced ST-elevation MI in the setting of acute severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, not associated with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. The patient presented with chest pain, ST elevation, and myocardial dysfunction. Coronary angiography identified thrombosis treated with anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy. MI must be considered in children who present with coronavirus disease 2019-associated myocardial dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Electrocardiography , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Thrombosis/complications , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Coronary Angiography , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Thrombosis/diagnosis
16.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217102

ABSTRACT

Hemostasis disorders play an important role in the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and outcome of COVID-19. First of all, the hemostasis system suffers due to a complicated and severe course of COVID-19. A significant number of COVID-19 patients develop signs of hypercoagulability, thrombocytopenia, and hyperfibrinolysis. Patients with severe COVID-19 have a tendency toward thrombotic complications in the venous and arterial systems, which is the leading cause of death in this disease. Despite the success achieved in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2, the search for new effective anticoagulants, thrombolytics, and fibrinolytics, as well as their optimal dose strategies, continues to be relevant. The wide therapeutic potential of seaweed sulfated polysaccharides (PSs), including anticoagulant, thrombolytic, and fibrinolytic activities, opens up new possibilities for their study in experimental and clinical trials. These natural compounds can be important complementary drugs for the recovery from hemostasis disorders due to their natural origin, safety, and low cost compared to synthetic drugs. In this review, the authors analyze possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the hemostasis disorders observed in the pathological progression of COVID-19, and also focus the attention of researchers on seaweed PSs as potential drugs aimed to correction these disorders in COVID-19 patients. Modern literature data on the anticoagulant, antithrombotic, and fibrinolytic activities of seaweed PSs are presented, depending on their structural features (content and position of sulfate groups on the main chain of PSs, molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and type of glycosidic bonds, the degree of PS chain branching, etc.). The mechanisms of PS action on the hemostasis system and the issues of oral bioavailability of PSs, important for their clinical use as oral anticoagulant and antithrombotic agents, are considered. The combination of the anticoagulant, thrombolytic, and fibrinolytic properties, along with low toxicity and relative cheapness of production, open up prospects for the clinical use of PSs as alternative sources of new anticoagulant and antithrombotic compounds. However, further investigation and clinical trials are needed to confirm their efficacy.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , Hemostasis/drug effects , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Seaweed , Sulfates/pharmacology , Thrombosis/complications , Animals , Anticoagulants/chemistry , Anticoagulants/pharmacokinetics , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Humans , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/pharmacokinetics , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Seaweed/chemistry , Sulfates/chemistry , Sulfates/pharmacokinetics , Sulfates/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/drug therapy
17.
Clin Immunol ; 227: 108733, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198654

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for many pathological processes, including altered vascular disease development, dysfunctional thrombosis and a heightened inflammatory response. However, there is limited work to determine the underlying cellular responses induced by exposure to SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins. Thus, our objective was to investigate how human arterial adventitial fibroblasts inflammation, thrombosis and diabetic disease markers are altered in response to Spike, Nucleocapsid and Membrane-Envelope proteins. We hypothesized that after a short-term exposure to SARS-CoV-2 proteins, adventitial fibroblasts would have a higher expression of inflammatory, thrombotic and diabetic proteins, which would support a mechanism for altered vascular disease progression. After incubation, the expression of gC1qR, ICAM-1, tissue factor, RAGE and GLUT-4 was significantly up-regulated. In general, the extent of expression was different for each SARS-CoV-2 protein, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 proteins interact with cells through different mechanisms. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 protein interaction with vascular cells may regulate vascular disease responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Fibroblasts/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Thrombosis/virology , Aorta/cytology , Aorta/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Cell Survival/immunology , Cell Survival/physiology , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Glucose Transporter Type 4/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/virology , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/metabolism , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/metabolism
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(4)2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194192

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence suggests that novel COVID-19 is associated with increased prothrombotic state and risk of thromboembolic complications, particularly in severe disease. COVID-19 is known to predispose to both venous and arterial thrombotic disease. We describe a case of a 61-year-old woman with history of type II diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia who presented with dry cough and acute abdominal pain. She was found to have a significantly elevated D-dimer, prompting imaging that showed thrombi in her right ventricle and aorta. She had rapid clinical deterioration and eventually required tissue plasminogen activator with subsequent durable clinical improvement. This case highlights a rare co-occurrence of venous and arterial thrombi in a patient with severe COVID-19. Further studies are needed to clarify the molecular mechanism of COVID-19 coagulopathy, the utility of D-dimer to predict and stratify risk of thrombosis in COVID-19, and the use of fibrinolytic therapy in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Thrombosis , Aorta/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Heart Ventricles/pathology , Humans , Middle Aged , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use
19.
Trends Neurosci ; 44(7): 527-537, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171720

ABSTRACT

Prior to COVID-19, only two human-tropic coronaviruses resulted in epidemics and cerebrovascular disease was rarely reported. Evidence now suggests that 1-6% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients develop stroke. According to some reports, stroke risk is more than sevenfold greater in patients with COVID-19 than influenza. Concerningly, outcomes of COVID-19-related stroke are often worse than in stroke patients without COVID-19 from the same cohorts. In this review, we highlight the emerging association between COVID-19 and stroke and discuss putative pathogenetic mechanisms. Etiology of stroke in COVID-19 patients is likely multifactorial, related to coagulopathy, inflammation, platelet activation, and alterations to the vascular endothelium. Significant work remains to be done to better understand the pathogenesis of COVID-19-related stroke and for designing optimal primary and secondary prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/complications , Stroke/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Stroke/mortality , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/mortality , Thrombosis/virology
20.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 28(4): 406-416, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170541

ABSTRACT

A questionnaire on COVID-19-related thrombosis in patients hospitalized before Aug 31, 2020, was sent to 399 hospitals throughout Japan. Responses were received from 111 (27.8%) with information on 6,202 COVID-19 patients. Of these, 333 and 56 required ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), respectively, and 212 died (3.4%). D-dimer levels were measured in 75.0% of the patients, revealing that 9.2% and 7.6% exhibited D-dimer increases of 3-8-fold and ≥8-fold the reference value, respectively. Thrombotic events occurred in 108 patients (1.86% of the 5,807 patients with available data) including symptomatic cerebral infarction in 24, myocardial infarction in 7, deep vein thrombosis in 41, pulmonary thromboembolism in 30, and other thrombotic events in 22. Some patients developed multiple thrombotic events. Thrombosis occurred in 32 patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 severity (0.59% of those with data available) and in 52 patients on ventilation or ECMO (13.5% of severe patients for whom data were available). Thrombosis occurred in 67 patients during worsening clinical condition and in 26 during recovery. Anticoagulant therapy was provided to 893 patients (14.6% of the 6,119 patients with available data), the main reasons being provided as elevated D-dimer levels and worsening clinical condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Thrombosis/complications , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction , Oxygen/metabolism , Respiration, Artificial , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thrombosis/epidemiology
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