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1.
QJM ; 114(9): 619-620, 2021 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1584068

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) has been associated with coagulation dysfunction which predisposes patients to an increased risk of both venous and arterial thromboembolism, increasing the short-term morbidity and mortality. Current data evidenced that the rate of post-discharge thrombotic events in COVID-19 patients is lower compared to that observed during hospitalization. Rather than 'true thrombotic events', these complications seem more probably 'immunothrombosis' consequent to the recent infection. Unfortunately, the absence of data from randomized controlled trials, large prospective cohorts and ambulatory COVID-19 patients, left unresolved the question regarding the need of post-discharge thromboprophylaxis due to the absence of strong-level recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Aftercare , Anticoagulants , Humans , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 729251, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573871

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The World Health Organization declared the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on March 11, 2020. Two vaccine types were developed using two different technologies: viral vectors and mRNA. Thrombosis is one of the most severe and atypical adverse effects of vaccines. This study aimed to analyze published cases of thrombosis after COVID-19 vaccinations to identify patients' features, potential pathophysiological mechanisms, timing of appearance of the adverse events, and other critical issues. Materials and Methods: We performed a systematic electronic search of scientific articles regarding COVID-19 vaccine-related thrombosis and its complications on the PubMed (MEDLINE) database and through manual searches. We selected 10 out of 50 articles from February 1 to May 5, 2021 and performed a descriptive analysis of the adverse events caused by the mRNA-based Pfizer and Moderna vaccines and the adenovirus-based AstraZeneca vaccine. Results: In the articles on the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines, the sample consisted of three male patients with age heterogeneity. The time from vaccination to admission was ≤3 days in all cases; all patients presented signs of petechiae/purpura at admission, with a low platelet count. In the studies on the AstraZeneca vaccine, the sample consisted of 58 individuals with a high age heterogeneity and a high female prevalence. Symptoms appeared around the ninth day, and headache was the most common symptom. The platelet count was below the lower limit of the normal range. All patients except one were positive for PF4 antibodies. The cerebral venous sinus was the most affected site. Death was the most prevalent outcome in all studies, except for one study in which most of the patients remained alive. Discussion: Vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is an unknown nosological phenomenon secondary to inoculation with the COVID-19 vaccine. Several hypotheses have been formulated regarding its physiopathological mechanism. Recent studies have assumed a mechanism that is assimilable to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, with protagonist antibodies against the PF4-polyanion complex. Viral DNA has a negative charge and can bind to PF4, causing VITT. New experimental studies have assumed that thrombosis is related to a soluble adenoviral protein spike variant, originating from splicing events, which cause important endothelial inflammatory events, and binding to endothelial cells expressing ACE2. Conclusion: Further studies are needed to better identify VITT's pathophysiological mechanisms and genetic, demographic, or clinical predisposition of high-risk patients, to investigate the correlation of VITT with the different vaccine types, and to test the significance of the findings.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , /adverse effects , Antigen-Antibody Complex/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebral Veins/metabolism , Cerebral Veins/pathology , Female , Headache , Humans , Mass Vaccination , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Sex Factors , Survival Analysis , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/mortality
5.
Curr Hematol Malig Rep ; 16(5): 455-463, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442179

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high rate of respiratory failure, thromboembolism, bleeding, and death. Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are prone to both thrombosis and bleeding, calling for special care during COVID-19. We reviewed the clinical features of MPN patients with COVID-19, suggesting guidance for treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: One study by the European LeukemiaNet collected 175 MPN patients with COVID-19 during the first wave of the pandemic, from February to May 2020. Patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) were at higher risk of mortality (48%) in comparison with essential thrombocythemia (ET) (25%) and polycythemia vera (19%); the risk of death was higher in those patients who abruptly discontinued ruxolitinib. In patients followed at home, in regular wards, or in ICU, the thrombosis rate was 1.0%, 2.8%, and 18.4%, respectively. Independent risk factors for thrombosis were ET phenotype, transfer to ICU, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio; major bleeding occurred in 4.3% of patients, particularly those with PMF. MPN patients with non-severe COVID-19 treated at home should continue their primary or secondary antithrombotic prophylaxis with aspirin or oral anticoagulants. In the case of hospitalization, patients assuming aspirin should add low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) at standard doses. In contrast, LMWH at intermediate/therapeutic doses should replace oral anticoagulants prescribed for atrial fibrillation or previous venous thromboembolism. Intermediate/high doses of LMWH can also be considered in ICU patients with ET, particularly in the case of a rapid decline in the number of platelets and progressive respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic, Atypical, BCR-ABL Negative , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic, Atypical, BCR-ABL Negative/complications , Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic, Atypical, BCR-ABL Negative/diagnosis , Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic, Atypical, BCR-ABL Negative/epidemiology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic, Atypical, BCR-ABL Negative/therapy , Myeloproliferative Disorders/complications , Myeloproliferative Disorders/diagnosis , Myeloproliferative Disorders/epidemiology , Myeloproliferative Disorders/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology
6.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255950, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403298

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 affects mainly the lungs, however, other manifestations, including neurological manifestations, have also been described during the disease. Some of the neurological findings have involved intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage, strokes, and other thrombotic/hemorrhagic conditions. Nevertheless, the gross pathology of hemorrhagic lesions in the central nervous system has not been previously described in Brazilian autopsy cases. This study aimed to describe gross and microscopic central nervous system (CNS) pathology findings from the autopsies and correlate them with the clinical and laboratory characteristics of forty-five patients with COVID-19 from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Forty-four patients were autopsied of which thirty-eight of these (86.36%) were positive by RT-PCR for COVID-19, and six (13.3%) were positive by the serological rapid test. Clinical and radiological findings were compatible with the infection. The patients were classified in two groups: presence (those who had hemorrhagic and/or thrombotic manifestations in the CNS) and absence (those who did not present hemorrhagic and/or thrombotic manifestations in the CNS). For risk assessment, relative risk and respective confidence intervals were estimated. Macroscopic or microscopic hemorrhages were found in twenty-three cases (52,27%). The postmortem gross examination of the brain revealed a broad spectrum of hemorrhages, from spots to large and confluent areas and, under microscopy, we observed mainly perivascular discharge. The association analyses showed that the use of corticosteroid, anticoagulant and antibiotic had no statistical significance with a risk of nervous system hemorrhagic manifestations. However, it is possible to infer a statistical tendency that indicates that individuals with diabetes had a higher risk for the same outcome (RR = 1.320, 95% CI = 0.7375 to 2.416, p = 0.3743), which was not observed in relation to other comorbidities. It is unknown whether the new variants of the virus can cause different clinical manifestations, such as those observed or indeed others. As a result, more studies are necessary to define clinical and radiologic monitoring protocols and strategic interventions for patients at risk of adverse and fatal events, such as the extensive hemorrhaging described here. It is imperative that clinicians must be aware of comorbidities and the drugs used to treat patients with COVID-19 to prevent CNS hemorrhagic and thrombotic events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Central Nervous System/pathology , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
8.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256988, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394552

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological studies suggest that individuals with comorbid conditions including diabetes, chronic lung, inflammatory and vascular disease, are at higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci associated with increased susceptibility and severity for COVID-19. However, it is not clear whether these associations are genetically determined or not. We used a Phenome-Wide Association (PheWAS) approach to investigate the role of genetically determined COVID-19 susceptibility on disease related outcomes. PheWAS analyses were performed in order to identify traits and diseases related to COVID-19 susceptibility and severity, evaluated through a predictive COVID-19 risk score. We utilised phenotypic data in up to 400,000 individuals from the UK Biobank, including Hospital Episode Statistics and General Practice data. We identified a spectrum of associations between both genetically determined COVID-19 susceptibility and severity with a number of traits. COVID-19 risk was associated with increased risk for phlebitis and thrombophlebitis (OR = 1.11, p = 5.36e-08). We also identified significant signals between COVID-19 susceptibility with blood clots in the leg (OR = 1.1, p = 1.66e-16) and with increased risk for blood clots in the lung (OR = 1.12, p = 1.45 e-10). Our study identifies significant association of genetically determined COVID-19 with increased blood clot events in leg and lungs. The reported associations between both COVID-19 susceptibility and severity and other diseases adds to the identification and stratification of individuals at increased risk, adverse outcomes and long-term effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Obesity/genetics , Thrombophlebitis/genetics , Thrombosis/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Male , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/virology , Phenomics , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thrombophlebitis/epidemiology , Thrombophlebitis/virology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/virology
10.
Adv Biol Regul ; 81: 100819, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322183

ABSTRACT

The Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with a very high incidence of thrombotic complications. The exact mechanisms for this excess risk for clots have not been elucidated although one of the often-quoted pathophysiological entity is immunothrombosis. Recognition of thrombotic complications early on in this pandemic led to an over-explosion of studies which looked at the benefits of anticoagulation to mitigate this risk. In this review, we examine the rationale for thromboprophylaxis in COVID-19 with particular reference to dosing and discuss what may guide the decision-making process to consider anticoagulation. In addition, we explore the rationale for thrombosis prevention measures in special populations including outpatient setting, pregnant females, children, those with high body mass index and those on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Decision-Making , Humans , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology
11.
Curr Opin Hematol ; 28(6): 445-453, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299024

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. Over the past year, COVID-19 has posed a significant threat to global health. Although the infection is associated with mild symptoms in many patients, a significant proportion of patients develop a prothrombotic state due to a combination of alterations in coagulation and immune cell function. The purpose of this review is to discuss the pathophysiological characteristics of COVID-19 that contribute to the immunothrombosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Endotheliopathy during COVID-19 results in increased multimeric von Willebrand factor release and the potential for increased platelet adhesion to the endothelium. In addition, decreased anticoagulant proteins on the surface of endothelial cells further alters the hemostatic balance. Soluble coagulation markers are also markedly dysregulated, including plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue factor, leading to COVID-19 induced coagulopathy. Platelet hyperreactivity results in increased platelet-neutrophil and -monocyte aggregates further exacerbating the coagulopathy observed during COVID-19. Finally, the COVID-19-induced cytokine storm primes neutrophils to release neutrophil extracellular traps, which trap platelets and prothrombotic proteins contributing to pulmonary thrombotic complications. SUMMARY: Immunothrombosis significantly contributes to the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Understanding the mechanisms behind COVID-19-induced coagulopathy will lead to future therapies for patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/pathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/epidemiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Prognosis , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/virology
12.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 20(8): 1027-1035, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284828

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To combat COVID-19, scientists all over the world have expedited the process of vaccine development. Although interim analyses of clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of COVID-19 vaccines, a serious but rare adverse event, thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS), has been reported following COVID-19 vaccination. AREAS COVERED: This review, using data from both peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed studies, aimed to provide updated information about the critical issue of COVID-19 vaccine-related TTS. EXPERT OPINION: : The exact epidemiological characteristics and possible pathogenesis of this adverse event remain unclear. Most cases of TTS developed in women within 2 weeks of the first dose of vaccine on the receipt of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and Ad26.COV2.S vaccines. In countries with mass vaccination against COVID-19, clinicians should be aware of the relevant clinical features of this rare adverse event and perform related laboratory and imaging studies for early diagnosis. Non-heparin anticoagulants, such as fondaparinux, argatroban, or a direct oral anticoagulant (e.g. apixaban or rivaroxaban) and intravenous immunoglobulins are recommended for the treatment of TTS. However, further studies are required to explore the underlying mechanisms of this rare clinical entity. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: What is the context?Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) usually develops within 2 weeks of the first doses of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccines.TTS mainly occurs in patients aged < 55 years and is associated with high morbidity and mortality.What is new?TTS mimics autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and can be mediated by platelet-activating antibodies against platelet factor 4. Non-heparin anticoagulants, such as fondaparinux, argatroban, or a direct oral anticoagulant (e.g. apixaban or rivaroxaban) should be considered as the treatment of choice if the platelet count is > 50 × 109/L and there is no serious bleeding. Intravenous immunoglobulins and glucocorticoids may help increase the platelet count within days and reduce the risk of hemorrhagic transformation when anticoagulation is initiated.What is the impact?TTS should be a serious concern during the implementation of mass COVID-19 vaccination, and patients should be educated about this complication along with its symptoms such as severe headache, blurred vision, seizure, severe and persistent abdominal pain, painful swelling of the lower leg, and chest pain or dyspnea. The incidence of TTS is low; therefore, maintenance of high vaccination coverage against COVID-19 should be continued.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombosis/chemically induced , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/epidemiology
13.
J Autoimmun ; 122: 102685, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281444

ABSTRACT

The involvement of viruses and SARS-CoV-2 in autoimmune diseases is well known. The recent demonstration that ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 Covid-19 (AstraZeneca) vaccine (ChA) favors the production of anti-platelet factor 4 (anti-PF4) antibodies, blood clots, and thrombocytopenia raises the question of whether other anti-CoViD-19 vaccines favor the same patterns of events. We assessed the frequency of severe adverse events (SAEs) documented in the EudraVigilance European database up to April 16, 2021 related to thrombocytopenia, bleeding, and blood clots in recipients of ChA compared to that of recipients of the BNT162b2 Covid-19 (Pfizer/BioNTech) vaccine (BNT). ChA administration was associated with a much higher frequency of SAEs in each AE Reaction Group as compared with that elicited by BNT. When considering AEs caused by thrombocytopenia, bleeding and blood clots, we observed 33 and 151 SAEs/1 million doses in BNT and ChA recipients, respectively. When considering patients with AEs related to cerebral/splanchnic venous thrombosis, and/or thrombocytopenia, we documented 4 and 30 SAEs and 0.4 and 4.8 deaths/1 million doses for BNT and ChA recipients, respectively. The highest risk following ChA vaccination is in young people and, likely, women of reproductive age, as suggested by hypothesized scenarios. In conclusion, the immune reaction promoted by ChA vaccine may lead to not only thrombocytopenia and cerebral/splanchnic venous thrombosis but also other thrombotic and thromboembolic SAEs. These events are not favored by BNT vaccine. Our study may help in the evaluation of the benefit/risk profile of the ChA vaccine considering the epidemic curve present in a country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Europe , Female , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(10): 1719-1730, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether obesity is independently associated with major adverse clinical outcomes and inflammatory and thrombotic markers in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality in adults with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units across the US. Secondary outcomes were acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy (AKI-RRT), thrombotic events, and seven blood markers of inflammation and thrombosis. Unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted models were used. RESULTS: Among the 4,908 study patients, mean (SD) age was 60.9 (14.7) years, 3,095 (62.8%) were male, and 2,552 (52.0%) had obesity. In multivariable models, BMI was not associated with mortality. Higher BMI beginning at 25 kg/m2 was associated with a greater risk of ARDS and AKI-RRT but not thrombosis. There was no clinically significant association between BMI and inflammatory or thrombotic markers. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with COVID-19, higher BMI was not associated with death or thrombotic events but was associated with a greater risk of ARDS and AKI-RRT. The lack of an association between BMI and circulating biomarkers calls into question the paradigm that obesity contributes to poor outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID-19 by upregulating systemic inflammatory and prothrombotic pathways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Inflammation/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States/epidemiology
15.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211021498, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249538

ABSTRACT

Today the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global health problem. After more than a year with the pandemic, although our knowledge has progressed on COVID-19, there are still many unknowns in virological, pathophysiological and immunological aspects. It is obvious that the most efficient solution to end this pandemic are safe and efficient vaccines. This manuscript summarizes the pathophysiological and thrombotic features of COVID-19 and the safety and efficacy of currently approved COVID-19 vaccines with an aim to clarify the recent concerns of thromboembolic events after COVID-19 vaccination. The influx of newer information is rapid, requiring periodic updates and objective assessment of the data on the pathogenesis of COVID-19 variants and the safety and efficacy of currently available vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Autoantibodies/biosynthesis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Drug Approval , Female , Genetic Vectors , Glycosaminoglycans/immunology , Humans , Male , Models, Cardiovascular , Pandemics/prevention & control , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Safety , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/epidemiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/genetics , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
16.
Hemodial Int ; 25(4): 507-514, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249416

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is an increased risk of thrombotic complications in patients with COVID-19. Hemodialysis patients are already at an increased risk for thromboembolic events such as stroke and pulmonary embolism. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence of late thrombotic complications (deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, stroke, new-onset vascular access thrombosis) in maintenance hemodialysis patients after recovery from COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 200 prevalent hemodialysis patients in our center at the start of the pandemic. We excluded incident patients after the cohort entry date and those who required hemodialysis for acute kidney injury, and excluded patients with less than 1 month follow-up due to kidney transplantation or death from non-thrombotic causes. FINDINGS: One-hundred and eighty five prevalent hemodialysis patients finally met the inclusion criteria; 37 patients (17.6%) had SARS-CoV-2 infection, out of which 10 (27%) died during the acute phase of disease without evidence of thrombotic events. There was an increased risk of thrombotic events in COVID-19 survivors compared to the non-infected cohort (18.5% vs. 1.9%, p = 0.002) after a median follow-up of 7 months. Multivariate regression analysis showed that COVID-19 infection increased risk for late thrombotic events adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, antithrombotic treatment, and previous thrombotic events (Odds Ratio (OR) 26.4, 95% confidence interval 2.5-280.6, p = 0.01). Clinical and laboratory markers did not predict thrombotic events. CONCLUSIONS: There is an increased risk of late thrombotic complications in hemodialysis patients after infection with COVID-19. Further studies should evaluate the benefit of prolonged prophylactic anticoagulation in hemodialysis patients after recovery from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Anticoagulants , Humans , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology
17.
Am J Emerg Med ; 49: 58-61, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248779

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Current vaccines for the Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) have demonstrated efficacy with low risk of adverse events. However, recent reports of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) associated with adenovirus vector vaccines have raised concern. OBJECTIVE: This narrative review summarizes the current background, evaluation, and management of TTS for emergency clinicians. DISCUSSION: TTS, also known as vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, is a reaction associated with exposure to the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) and AD26.COV2·S (Johnson & Johnson) vaccine, which may result in thrombocytopenia and thrombotic events. There are several case series of patients diagnosed with TTS, but the overall incidence is rare. TTS is characterized by exposure to one of the aforementioned vaccines 4-30 days prior to presentation, followed by thrombosis, mild-to-severe thrombocytopenia, and a positive platelet factor-4 (PF4)-heparin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thrombosis typically involves atypical locations, including cerebral venous thrombosis and splanchnic vein thrombosis. Evaluation should include complete blood count, peripheral smear, D-dimer, fibrinogen, coagulation panel, renal and liver function, and electrolytes, as well as PF4-heparin ELISA if available. Consultation with hematology is recommended if suspected or confirmed. Treatment may include intravenous immunoglobulin and anticoagulation, while avoiding heparin-based agents and platelet transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: With increasing vaccine distribution, it is essential for emergency clinicians to be aware of the evaluation and management of this condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombosis/chemically induced , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Time Factors
18.
Eur J Haematol ; 107(2): 173-180, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228750

ABSTRACT

Very rare cases of thrombosis associated with thrombocytopenia have occurred following the vaccination with AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine. The aim of this concise review is to summarize the current knowledge on the epidemiologic and pathogenic mechanisms of this syndrome named vaccine-associated immune thrombosis and thrombocytopenia (VITT). A practical patient management section will also be dealt with using information available from national and international scientific societies as well as expert panels. A literature search on the VITT syndrome was carried out in PubMed using appropriate MeSH headings. Overall, 40 VITT cases have been reported. Continuous pharmacovigilance monitoring is needed to collect more data on the real incidence and the pathogenesis of VITT syndrome. Such information will also help us to optimize the management this rare but often clinically severe thrombotic condition associated with COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cost of Illness , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Patient Outcome Assessment , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/therapy , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/therapy
19.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(7): 1718-1726, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213418

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the difference in the rate of thromboembolic complications between hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-positive compared with COVID-19-negative patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adult patients hospitalized from January 1, 2020, through May 8, 2020, who had COVID-19 testing by polymerase chain reaction assay were identified through electronic health records across multiple hospitals in the Mayo Clinic enterprise. Thrombotic outcomes (venous and arterial) were identified from the hospital problem list. RESULTS: We identified 3790 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 testing across 19 hospitals, 102 of whom had positive test results. The median age was lower in the COVID-positive patients (62 vs 67 years; P=.03). The median duration of hospitalization was longer in COVID-positive patients (8.5 vs 4 days; P<.001) and more required intensive care unit care (56.9% [58 of 102] vs 26.8% [987 of 3688]; P<.001). Comorbidities, including atrial fibrillation/flutter, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and malignancy, were observed less frequently with COVID-positive admissions. Any venous thromboembolism was identified in 2.9% of COVID-positive patients (3 of 102) and 4.6% of COVID-negative patients (168 of 3688). The frequency of venous and arterial events was not different between the groups. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for COVID-positive-patients for any venous thromboembolism was 0.63 (95% CI, 0.19 to 2.02). A multivariable logistic regression model evaluated death within 30 days of hospital discharge; neither COVID positivity (adjusted OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.54 to 2.34) nor thromboembolism (adjusted OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.32) was associated with death. CONCLUSION: Early experience in patients with COVID-19 across multiple academic and regional hospitals representing different US regions demonstrates a lower than previously reported incidence of thrombotic events. This incidence was not higher than a contemporary COVID-negative hospitalized comparator.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Thrombosis/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
20.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(11): 1129-1132, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209813

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of thrombosis in children with SARS-CoV-2 is scarce. In this multicentre national cohort of children with SARS-CoV-2 involving 49 hospitals, 4 patients out of 537 infected children developed a thrombotic complication (prevalence of 0.7% (95% CI: 0.2% to 1.9%) out of the global cohort and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.3% to 2.8%) out of the hospitalised patients). We describe their characteristics and review other published paediatric cases. Three out of the four patients were adolescent girls, and only two cases had significant thrombotic risk factors. In this paediatric cohort, D-dimer value was not specific enough to predict thrombotic complications. Adolescence and previous thrombotic risk factors may be considered when initiating anticoagulant prophylaxis on children with SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Young Adult
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