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1.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 64: 107524, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305846

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Histopathological studies have shown inflammation, cardiomyocyte injury, and microvascular thrombosis in the ventricular myocardium of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, although atrial dysfunction is common in COVID-19, little is known about histopathological changes in the atria of the heart. We therefore analyzed inflammation, cardiomyocyte injury, and microvascular thrombogenicity in the atria of deceased patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Atrial tissue was obtained from autopsied COVID-19 (n=16) patients and control patients (n=10) and analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The infiltration of CD45+ leukocytes, CD3+ T lymphocytes, CD68+ macrophages, MPO+ neutrophils, and Tryptase+ mast cells were quantified as well as cardiomyocyte damage and microvascular thrombosis. In addition, Tissue Factor (TF) and Factor XII (FXII) were quantified as markers of microvascular thrombogenicity. RESULTS: The numbers of lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils were significantly increased in the atrial myocardium and epicardial atrial adipose tissue of COVID-19 patients compared with the control group. This was accompanied by dispersed cardiomyocyte injury, the occasional presence of microvascular thrombosis, and an increased presence of TF and FXII in the microvascular endothelium. CONCLUSIONS: Severe COVID-19 induces inflammation, cardiomyocyte injury, and microvascular thrombosis in the atria of the heart.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Inflammation/pathology , Heart Atria/pathology , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/pathology
2.
Pathol Res Pract ; 245: 154471, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299736

ABSTRACT

The impact of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on lung tissue in patients on respiratory support is of significant scientific interest in predicting mortality. This study aimed to analyze post-mortem histological changes in the lung tissue of COVID-19 patients on respiratory support using vital radiology semiotics. A total of 41 autopsies were performed on patients who died of SARS-CoV-2 and had confirmed COVID-19 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and radiological evidence of lung tissue consolidation and ground glass opacity. The results showed that the duration of COVID-19 in patients on respiratory support was significantly associated with the development of all stages of diffuse alveolar damage, acute fibrous organizing pneumonia, pulmonary capillary congestion, fibrin thrombi, perivascular inflammation, alveolar hemorrhage, proliferating interstitial fibroblasts, and pulmonary embolism. The prediction model for lethal outcomes based on the duration of total respiratory support had a sensitivity of 68.3% and a specificity of 87.5%. In conclusion, for COVID-19 patients on long-term respiratory support with radiological signs of ground glass opacity and lung consolidation, post-mortem morphological features included various stages of diffuse alveolar lung damage, pulmonary capillary congestion, fibrin clots, and perivascular inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Lung/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , Inflammation/pathology , Fibrin
3.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 27(3): 184-192, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252646

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: COVID-19 lung injury is a common manifestation of severe illness. Lung tissue examination has been largely derived from autopsy - a combination of case reports, small and moderately sized series with international scope. Common and uncommon histopathology provides insight into the progression of severe, fatal disease. RECENT FINDINGS: COVID-19 lung histology is most commonly diffuse alveolar damage as part of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lung injury can be temporally heterogeneous, with patterns of healing alongside new injury. Viral studies, including immunohistochemistry, RNA in-situ hybridization, and tissue-based Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assist in discerning complications of therapy (e.g. ventilator-associated pneumonia) from primary viral-induced injury. Response to viral infection produces systemic effects, and one major manifestation is thrombosis of micro-circulation and larger vessels. Less common patterns include neutrophil-rich inflammation, raising speculation that neutrophil extra-cellular traps may play a role in both viral control and exaggerated immune response. SUMMARY: The heterogeneity of fatal cases- persistence of viral infection in lung, clearance of virus but severe lung injury, thrombosis, and exaggerated immune response - suggest that antiviral, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, and supportive therapy play a role in treatment, but that the patient-specific cause and timing of the lung injury is important in choosing intervention.


Subject(s)
Autopsy/methods , COVID-19/pathology , Lung/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Management , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/etiology
4.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 159(5): 429-436, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270391

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the prevalence of postmortem kidney histopathologic features of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in addition to the rate of renal tropism in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: We searched Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, and Scopus up to September 2022 to identify eligible studies. A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence. Cochran Q test and Higgins I2 were used to assess evidence of heterogeneity. RESULTS: In total, 39 studies were included in the systematic review. The meta-analysis included 35 studies consisting of a total of 954 patients, with an average age of 67.1 years. The pooled prevalence of acute tubular injury (ATI)-related changes was the predominant finding (85% [95% confidence interval, 71%-95%]), followed by arteriosclerosis (80%), vascular congestion (66%), and glomerulosclerosis (40%). Endotheliitis (7%), fibrin microthrombi (12%), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (1%), and calcium crystal deposits (1%) were seen in a smaller number of autopsies. The overall average rate of virus detection was 47.79% in the pooled data of 21 studies (272 samples). CONCLUSIONS: The main finding-ATI-correlated to clinical COVID-19-associated acute kidney injury. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in kidney samples in addition to vascular lesions in kidneys can be linked to direct kidney invasion by the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Autopsy , Kidney/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology
5.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 178-188, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201748

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Autopsy study has been considered the gold standard method for studying the effects of any disease on the body. Since COVID-19 is a novel disease, autopsy is crucial to understand its pathophysiology. This study was conducted to analyze the microscopic and macroscopic findings of various organs in COVID-19 and to associate those findings with clinical observations and laboratory findings. Methods: Conventional invasive autopsies were performed on 33 patients with COVID-19 from September 7, 2020 to December 23, 2020. All the organs were removed by routine dissection techniques and preserved in 10 per cent formalin. The tissues were processed and stained according to standard practices using haematoxylin-eosin (H & E) and periodic acid-schiff (PAS) stain. Results: The study included 28 males and 5 females with a median age of 61 yr (range 30-90 yr). Massive pulmonary oedema and thrombi in the lungs were the characteristic features macroscopically. On microscopic examination, diffuse alveolar damage in the exudative/proliferative phase was found in 29 (87.88%) cases. Among the other notable microscopic findings were bronchopneumonia and lung abscesses due to secondary bacterial infection (n=17, 51.52%), acute tubular injury (n=21, 63.64%) and thrombi in the lungs, heart, and kidneys. Interpretation & conclusions: COVID-19 primarily affected the respiratory and the renal systems in the vast majority of severely affected patients in our study. We also found signs of hypercoagulability, as evidenced by widespread thrombi in multiple organs, along with a raised d-dimer level and a hyperinflammatory state manifested by elevated inflammatory markers. Our autopsy findings and altered laboratory investigations support the role of immune-mediated cellular injury along with direct virus-mediated cellular damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Autopsy , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Lung/pathology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/pathology
6.
Biomolecules ; 12(12)2022 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154890

ABSTRACT

The global scope and scale of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic led to huge amounts of important data from clinical observations and experimental analyses being collected, in particular, regarding the long-term impact of COVID-19 on lung tissue. Visible changes in lung tissue mainly relate to the destruction of the alveolar architecture, dense cellularity, and pulmonary fibrosis with myofibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition. These changes are the result of infection, mainly with virus variants from the first pandemic waves (Alpha to Delta). In addition, proper regulation of immune responses to pathogenic viral stimuli is critical for the control of and recovery from tissue/organ damage, including in the lungs. We can distinguish three main processes in the lungs during SARS-CoV-2 infection: damage or deficiency of the pulmonary surfactant, coagulation processes, and fibrosis. Understanding the molecular basis of these processes is extremely important in the context of elucidating all pathologies occurring after virus entry. In the present review, data on the abovementioned three biochemical processes that lead to pathological changes are gathered together and discussed. Systematization of the knowledge is necessary to explore the three key pathways in lung tissue after SARS-CoV-2 virus infection as a result of a prolonged and intense inflammatory process in the context of pulmonary fibrosis, hemostatic disorders, and disturbances in the structure and/or metabolism of the surfactant. Despite the fact that the new Omicron variant does not affect the lungs as much as the previous variants, we cannot ignore the fact that other new mutations and emerging variants will not cause serious damage to the lung tissue. In the future, this review will be helpful to stratify the risk of serious complications in patients, to improve COVID-19 treatment outcomes, and to select those who may develop complications before clinical manifestation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Thrombosis , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Lung/pathology , Thrombosis/genetics , Thrombosis/pathology
7.
Cells ; 11(19)2022 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065731

ABSTRACT

Here, we aim to describe COVID-19 pathology across different tissues to clarify the disease's pathophysiology. Lungs, kidneys, hearts, and brains from nine COVID-19 autopsies were compared by using antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, macrophages-microglia, T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, and activated platelets. Alzheimer's Disease pathology was also assessed. PCR techniques were used to verify the presence of viral RNA. COVID-19 cases had a short clinical course (0-32 days) and their mean age was 77.4 y/o. Hypoxic changes and inflammatory infiltrates were present across all tissues. The lymphocytic component in the lungs and kidneys was predominant over that of other tissues (p < 0.001), with a significantly greater presence of T-lymphocytes in the lungs (p = 0.020), which showed the greatest presence of viral antigens. The heart showed scant SARS-CoV-2 traces in the endothelium-endocardium, foci of activated macrophages, and rare lymphocytes. The brain showed scarce SARS-CoV-2 traces, prominent microglial activation, and rare lymphocytes. The pons exhibited the highest microglial activation (p = 0.017). Microthrombosis was significantly higher in COVID-19 lungs (p = 0.023) compared with controls. The most characteristic pathological features of COVID-19 were an abundance of T-lymphocytes and microthrombosis in the lung and relevant microglial hyperactivation in the brainstem. This study suggests that the long-term sequelae of COVID-19 derive from persistent inflammation, rather than persistent viral replication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Aged , Antigens, Viral , Brain/pathology , Humans , Kidney , Lung/pathology , Macrophages , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Thrombosis/pathology
8.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 63(9): 1233-1241, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056364

ABSTRACT

The levels of anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibodies, also known as anti-PF4 or heparin complex antibodies, are used to diagnose heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). In HIT, anti-PF4 antibodies induced by heparin exposure cause thrombocytopenia and thrombosis. However, anti-PF4 antibodies were recently reported to be associated with the development of fatal vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) after adenoviral vector vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019. HIT and VITT are caused by anti-PF4 antibodies and have similar pathological conditions. However, the severity of these conditions differs and the detection sensitivity of their antibodies varies depending on the assays used. Herein, we review HIT and VITT associated with anti-PF4 antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heparin , Platelet Factor 4 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Antibodies , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Immunologic Factors , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/complications , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/pathology , Vaccines/adverse effects
9.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 18(4): 516-529, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007252

ABSTRACT

Clinical features of COVID-19 range from mild respiratory symptoms to fatal outcomes. Autopsy findings are important for understanding COVID-19-related pathophysiology and clinical manifestations. This systematic study aims to evaluate autopsy findings in paediatric cases. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database Reviews. We included studies that reported autopsy findings in children with COVID-19. A total of 11 studies (24 subjects) were included. The mean age of patients was 5.9 ± 5.7 years. Grossly, there was pericardial and pleural effusion, hepatosplenomegaly, cardiomegaly, heavy soft lung, enlarged kidney, and enlarged brain. The autopsy findings of the lungs were diffuse alveolar damage (78.3%), fibrin thrombi (43.5%), haemorrhage (30.4%), pneumonia (26%), congestion and oedema (26%), angiomatoid pattern (17.4%), and alveolar megakaryocytes (17.4%). The heart showed interstitial oedema (80%), myocardial foci of band necrosis (60%), fibrin microthrombi (60%), interstitial and perivascular inflammation (40%), and pancarditis (30%). The liver showed centrilobular congestion (60%), micro/macrovesicular steatosis (30%), and arterial/venous thrombi (20%). The kidney showed acute tubular necrosis (75%), congestion (62.5%), fibrin thrombi in glomerular capillaries (37.5%), and nephrocalcinosis, mesangial cell hyperplasia, tubular hyaline/granular casts (25% each). The spleen showed splenitis (71.4%), haemorrhage (71.4%), lymphoid hypoplasia (57.1%), and haemophagocytosis (28.6%). The brain revealed oedema (87.5%), congestion (75%), reactive microglia (62.5%), neuronal ischaemic necrosis (62.5%), meningoencephalitis (37.5%), and fibrin thrombi (25%). SARS-CoV-2 and CD68 were positive by immunohistochemistry in 85.7% and 33.3% cases, respectively. Autopsy findings of COVID-19 in children are variable in all important organs. It may help in better understanding the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Child , Infant , Child, Preschool , SARS-CoV-2 , Autopsy , Lung/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , Fibrin , Necrosis/pathology
10.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 65(3): 653-656, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964255

ABSTRACT

We describe three postmortem open lung-biopsy findings among patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who were on anticoagulant therapy. The spectrum of histopathological findings included lung inflammation in the form of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) in exudative and organizing phases, with or without pulmonary artery thrombosis in different stages of evolution. This spectrum of inflammation and thrombosis may be indicative of a natural history of severe COVID-19 pneumonia or demonstrative of variation in therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Thrombosis , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Thrombosis/pathology
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11855, 2022 07 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960495

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), remains to spread worldwide. COVID-19 is characterized by the striking high mortality in elderly; however, its mechanistic insights remain unclear. Systemic thrombosis has been highlighted in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and lung microangiopathy in association with endothelial cells (ECs) injury has been reported by post-mortem analysis of the lungs. Here, we experimentally investigated the SARS-CoV-2 infection in cultured human ECs, and performed a comparative analysis for post-infection molecular events using early passage and replicative senescent ECs. We found that; (1) SARS-CoV-2 infects ECs but does not replicate and disappears in 72 hours without causing severe cell damage, (2) Senescent ECs are highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, (3) SARS-CoV-2 infection alters various genes expression, which could cause EC dysfunctions, (4) More genes expression is affected in senescent ECs by SARS-CoV-2 infection than in early passage ECs, which might causes further exacerbated dysfunction in senescent ECs. These data suggest that sustained EC dysfunctions due to SARS-CoV-2 infection may contribute to the microangiopathy in the lungs, leading to deteriorated inflammation and thrombosis in COVID-19. Our data also suggest a possible causative role of EC senescence in the aggravated disease in elder COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Aged , Disease Susceptibility/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/pathology
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934096

ABSTRACT

In physiology and pathophysiology the molecules involved in blood cell-blood cell and blood cell-endothelium interactions have been identified. Platelet aggregation and adhesion to the walls belonging to vessels involve glycoproteins (GP), GP llb and GP llla and the GP Ib-IX-V complex. Red blood cells (RBCs) in normal situations have little interaction with the endothelium. Abnormal adhesion of RBCs was first observed in sickle cell anemia involving vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, α4ß1, Lu/BCAM, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-4. More recently RBC adhesion was found to be increased in retinal-vein occlusion (RVO) and in polycythemia vera (PV). The molecules which participate in this process are phosphatidylserine and annexin V in RVO, and phosphorylated Lu/BCAM and α5 laminin chain in PV. The additional adhesion in diabetes mellitus occurs due to the glycated RBC band 3 and the advanced glycation end-product receptors. The multiligand receptor binds advanced glycation end products (AGEs) or S100 calgranulins, or ß-amyloid peptide. This receptor for advanced glycation end products is known as RAGE. The binding to RAGE-activated endothelial cells leads to an inflammatory reaction and a prothrombotic state via NADPH activation and altered gene expression. RAGE blockade is a potential target for drugs preventing the deleterious consequences of RAGE activation.


Subject(s)
Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Polycythemia Vera/metabolism , Retinal Vein Occlusion/metabolism , Cell Adhesion , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Erythrocytes/pathology , Glycation End Products, Advanced/metabolism , Humans , Polycythemia Vera/pathology , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/metabolism , Retinal Vein Occlusion/pathology , Thrombosis/metabolism , Thrombosis/pathology
13.
Pathol Res Pract ; 236: 154000, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914927

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary capillary microthrombosis has been proposed as a major pathogenetic factor driving severe COVID-19. Autopsy studies reported endothelialitis but it is under debate if it is caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection of endothelial cells. In this study, RNA in situ hybridization was used to detect viral RNA and to identify the infected cell types in lung tissue of 40 patients with fatal COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein-coding RNA showed a steadily decreasing signal abundance over a period of three weeks. Besides the original virus strain the variants of concern Alpha (B.1.1.7), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529) could also be detected by the assay. Viral RNA was mainly detected in alveolar macrophages and pulmonary epithelial cells, while only single virus-positive endothelial cells were observed even in cases with high viral load suggesting that viral infection of endothelial cells is not a key factor for the development of pulmonary capillary microthrombosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Lung/pathology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Thrombosis/pathology , Tropism
14.
Haematologica ; 107(10): 2445-2453, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779916

ABSTRACT

In order to improve the safety of COVID-19 vaccines, there is an urgent need to unravel the pathogenesis of vaccineinduced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT), a severe complication of recombinant adenoviral vector vaccines used to prevent COVID-19, and likely due to anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4) IgG antibodies. In this study, we demonstrated that 1E12, a chimeric anti-PF4 antibody with a human Fc fragment, fully mimics the effects of human VITT antibodies, as it activates platelets to a similar level in the presence of platelet factor 4 (PF4). Incubated with neutrophils, platelets and PF4, 1E12 also strongly induces NETosis, and in a microfluidic model of whole blood thrombosis, it triggers the formation of large platelet/leukocyte thrombi containing fibrin(ogen). In addition, a deglycosylated form of 1E12 (DG-1E12), which still binds PF4 but no longer interacts with Fcγ receptors, inhibits platelet, granulocyte and clotting activation induced by human anti-PF4 VITT antibodies. This strongly supports that 1E12 and VITT antibodies recognize overlapping epitopes on PF4. In conclusion, 1E12 is a potentially important tool to study the pathophysiology of VITT, and for establishing mouse models. On the other hand, DG-1E12 may help the development of a new drug that specifically neutralizes the pathogenic effect of autoimmune anti-PF4 antibodies, such as those associated with VITT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombocytopenia , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Epitopes , Fibrin , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments , Immunoglobulin G , Mice , Platelet Activation , Platelet Factor 4/adverse effects , Platelet Factor 4/metabolism , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Receptors, IgG/genetics , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombosis/pathology
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776246

ABSTRACT

There is accumulating evidence that platelets play roles beyond their traditional functions in thrombosis and hemostasis, e.g., in inflammatory processes, infection and cancer, and that they interact, stimulate and regulate cells of the innate immune system such as neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages. In this review, we will focus on platelet activation in hemostatic and inflammatory processes, as well as platelet interactions with neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. We take a closer look at the contributions of major platelet receptors GPIb, αIIbß3, TLT-1, CLEC-2 and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) as well as secretions from platelet granules on platelet-neutrophil aggregate and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation in atherosclerosis, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and COVID-19. Further, we will address platelet-monocyte and macrophage interactions during cancer metastasis, infection, sepsis and platelet clearance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Blood Platelets/pathology , Hemostasis , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/pathology , Neutrophils/pathology , Platelet Activation , Thromboinflammation , Thrombosis/pathology
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 861245, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775684

ABSTRACT

Pregnancy can be defined a vascular event upon endocrine control. In the human hemo-chorial placentation the chorionic villi penetrate the wall of the uterine spiral arteries, to provide increasing amounts of nutrients and oxygen for optimal fetal growth. In any physiological pregnancy the natural maternal response is of a Th1 inflammatory type, aimed at avoiding blood loss through the arteriolar wall openings. The control of the vascular function, during gestation as in any other condition, is achieved through the action of two main types of prostanoids: prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane on the one hand (for vasoconstriction and coagulation), prostacyclin on the other (for vasodilation and blood fluidification). The control of the maternal immune response is upon the responsibility of the fetus itself. Indeed, the chorionic villi are able to counteract the natural maternal response, thus changing the inflammatory Th1 type into the anti-inflammatory Th2. Clinical and experimental research in the past half century address to inflammation as the leading cause of abortion, pregnancy loss, premature delivery and related pulmonary, cerebral, intestinal fetal syndromes. Increased level of Interleukin 6, Interleukin 1-beta, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alfa, Interferon-gamma, are some among the well-known markers of gestational inflammation. On the other side, COVID-19 pneumonia is a result of extensive inflammation induced by viral replication within the cells of the respiratory tract. As it may happen in the uterine arteries in the absence of an effective fetal control, viral pneumonia triggers pulmonary vascular coagulation. The cytokines involved in the process are the same as those in gestational inflammation. As the fetus breathes throughout the placenta, fetal death from placental thrombosis is similar to adult death from pulmonary thrombosis. Preventing and counteracting inflammation is mandatory in both conditions. The most relevant literature dealing with the above-mentioned concepts is reviewed in the present article.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Abortion, Spontaneous/pathology , Adult , Cytokines , Female , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Thrombosis/pathology
17.
J Cutan Pathol ; 49(9): 791-794, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774773

ABSTRACT

During the 2020 coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, several cutaneous lesions were identified, including pseudo-chilblain, vesicular, urticarial, maculopapular, and livedo/necrosis. A 59-year-old obese man with probable COVID-19 developed painful cyanosis with histopathologic capillary thrombosis of toes, and the cyanosis persisted for nearly 22 months. Shortly after initial exposure to family members with documented SARS-CoV-2, he developed upper respiratory symptoms, yet his anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody and nasal swab RT-PCR tests were repeatedly negative. Two family members were hospitalized and one of them succumbed with documented SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia within 10 days of exposure. Biopsy specimen of the distal toe 16 weeks after initial exposure showed papillary dermal capillary thrombosis with endothelial swelling, telangiectasia, and peri-eccrine lymphocytic infiltrates resembling pernio. Overall, this is the first case of biopsy specimen of "long COVID toe" following presumed SARS-CoV-2 exposure, with a demonstration of thrombotic vasculopathy, toe cyanosis, and pernio-like pathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cyanosis , Thrombosis , Toes , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Chilblains/pathology , Cyanosis/complications , Cyanosis/pathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/pathology , Time Factors , Toes/pathology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
18.
Thromb Res ; 213: 179-194, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768564

ABSTRACT

Platelet-leukocyte crosstalk is commonly manifested by reciprocal links between thrombosis and inflammation. Platelet thrombus acts as a reactive matrix that recruits leukocytes to the injury site where their massive accumulation, activation and migration promote thrombotic events while triggering inflammatory responses. As a life-threatening condition with the associations between inflammation and thrombosis, COVID-19 presents diffuse alveolar damage due to exaggerated macrophage activity and cytokine storms. These events, together with direct intracellular virus invasion lead to pulmonary vascular endothelialitis, cell membranes disruption, severe endothelial injury, and thrombosis. The developing pre-alveolar thrombus provides a hyper-reactive milieu that recruits circulating leukocytes to the injury site where their activation contributes to thrombus stabilization and thrombosis propagation, primarily through the formation of Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET). NET fragments can also circulate and deposit in further distance where they may disseminate intravascular thrombosis in severe cases of disease. Thrombi may also facilitate leukocytes migration into alveoli where their accumulation and activation exacerbate cytokine storms and tissue damage, further complicating the disease. Based on these mechanisms, whether an effective anti-inflammatory protocol can prevent thrombotic events, or on the other hand; efficient antiplatelet or anticoagulant regimens may be associated with reduced cytokine storms and tissue damage, is now of interests for several ongoing researches. Thus shedding more light on platelet-leukocyte crosstalk, the review presented here discusses the detailed mechanisms by which platelets may contribute to the pathogenesis of COVID-19, especially in severe cases where their interaction with leukocytes can intensify both inflammatory state and thrombosis in a reciprocal manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Leukocytes/metabolism , Prognosis , Thrombosis/pathology
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