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1.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 84(5): 1-11, 2023 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238129

ABSTRACT

Hospitalised patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at a significantly higher risk of having thromboembolic events while in hospital and in the immediate post-hospital discharge period. Based on early data from observational studies, multiple high quality randomised controlled trials have been conducted worldwide to evaluate optimal thromboprophylaxis regimens to reduce thromboembolism and other COVID-19-related adverse outcomes in hospitalised patients. The International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis has published evidence-based guideline recommendations using established methodology for the management of antithrombotic therapy of COVID-19 patients, both in-hospital and in the immediate post-hospital discharge period. A good clinical practice statement supplemented these guidelines based on topics for which there was no or limited high-quality evidence. This review summarises the main recommendations of these documents to serve as a quick access tool for hospital doctors to use in their everyday practice when treating COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/prevention & control
2.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther ; 28: 10742484221145010, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233025

ABSTRACT

Fondaparinux sodium is a chemically synthesized selective factor Xa inhibitor approved for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolic events, that is, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and superficial vein thrombosis, in acutely ill (including those affected by COVID-19 or cancer patients) and those undergoing surgeries. Since its approval in 2002, the efficacy and safety of fondaparinux is well demonstrated by many clinical studies, establishing the value of fondaparinux in clinical practice. Some of the advantages with fondaparinux are its chemical nature of synthesis, minimal risk of contamination, 100% absolute bioavailability subcutaneously, instant onset of action, a long half-life, direct renal excretion, fewer adverse reactions when compared with direct oral anticoagulants, and being an ideal alternative in conditions where oral anticoagulants are not approved for use or in patients intolerant to low molecular weight heparins (LMWH). In the last decade, the real-world use of fondaparinux has been explored in other conditions such as acute coronary syndromes, bariatric surgery, in patients developing vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) and in pregnant women with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), or those intolerant to LMWH. The emerging data from these studies have culminated in recent updates in the guidelines that recommend the use of fondaparinux under various conditions. This paper aims to review the recent data and the subsequent updates in the recommendations of various guidelines on the use of fondaparinux sodium.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Fondaparinux/adverse effects , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/adverse effects , Polysaccharides/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Heparin
3.
Arch Cardiol Mex ; 91(Suplemento COVID): 047-054, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315058

ABSTRACT

Coagulopathy and thrombosis associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represent a major issue in the management of this disease. In the past months, clinical studies have demonstrated that COVID-19 patients present with a particular hypercoagulable state, in which a markedly increased D-dimer concomitant with increased levels of fibrinogen are observed. This hypercoagulable state leads to an increased risk of thrombosis, which seems to be higher among those patients with critical symptoms of COVID-19. The best therapeutic approach to prevent thrombotic events in COVID-19 has not been determined yet and several questions regarding thromboprophylaxis therapy, such as the time to initiate anticoagulation, type of anticoagulant and dose regimen, have emerged among physicians. To address these concerns, several medical societies have published position papers to provide the opinion of thrombosis experts on the management of coagulopathy and thrombosis associated with COVID-19. In line with this, the Latin America Cooperative Group of Hemostasis and Thrombosis (Grupo CLAHT) has constituted a panel of experts in thrombosis and hemostasis to discuss the available data on this topic. The aim of this review is to summarize the current evidence regarding hemostatic impairment and thrombotic risk in COVID-19 and to provide a carefully revised opinion of Latin American experts on the thromboprophylaxis and management of thrombotic events and coagulopathy in patients with suspected COVID-19.


La coagulopatía y la trombosis asociadas a la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) representan un problema importante en el manejo de esta enfermedad. Los estudios clínicos de los últimos meses han demostrado que los pacientes con COVID-19 presentan un estado de hipercoagulabilidad particular, en el que se observa un aumento notable del dímero D concomitante con niveles elevados de fibrinógeno. El estado de hipercoagulabilidad conduce a un mayor riesgo de trombosis, que parece ser mayor entre aquellos pacientes con síntomas críticos de COVID-19. El mejor enfoque terapéutico para prevenir los eventos trombóticos en esta nueva enfermedad aún no se ha determinado y han surgido varias preguntas con respecto a la tromboprofilaxia, como el momento adecuado para iniciar la anticoagulación, el tipo de anticoagulante y el régimen de dosis. Para abordar estas preocupaciones, varias sociedades médicas han publicado artículos de posición para brindar la opinión de expertos en trombosis sobre el manejo de la coagulopatía y trombosis asociadas a COVID-19. Grupo Cooperativo Latinoamericano de Hemostasia y Trombosis (Grupo CLAHT) ha convocado a un panel de expertos en trombosis y hemostasia para discutir los datos disponibles sobre este tema. El objetivo de esta revisión es resumir la evidencia actual con respecto al deterioro hemostático y el riesgo trombótico en el COVID-19 y proporcionar una opinión cuidadosamente revisada de los expertos latinoamericanos sobre la tromboprofilaxis y el manejo de eventos trombóticos y coagulopatía en pacientes con sospecha de COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19/complications , Consensus , Hemostasis , Humans , Latin America , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Thrombosis/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/therapy
4.
Circulation ; 147(25): 1891-1901, 2023 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is associated with heightened risks of venous and arterial thrombosis and hospitalization due to respiratory failure. To assess whether prophylactic anticoagulation can safely reduce the frequency of venous and arterial thrombosis, hospitalization, and death in nonhospitalized patients with symptomatic COVID-19 and at least one thrombosis risk factor, we conducted the PREVENT-HD double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial (A Study of Rivaroxaban to Reduce the Risk of Major Venous and Arterial Thrombotic Events, Hospitalization and Death in Medically Ill Outpatients With Acute, Symptomatic COVID-19] Infection). METHODS: PREVENT-HD was conducted between August 2020 and April 2022 at 14 US integrated health care delivery networks. A virtual trial design used remote informed consent and clinical monitoring and facilitated data collection through electronic health record integration with a cloud-based research platform. Nonhospitalized patients with symptomatic COVID-19 and at least one thrombosis risk factor were enrolled and randomly assigned to either 10 mg of oral rivaroxaban or placebo daily for 35 days. The primary efficacy outcome was time to first occurrence of a composite of symptomatic venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, acute limb ischemia, non-central nervous system systemic arterial embolism, hospitalization, or death through day 35. The principal safety end point was International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis critical-site or fatal bleeding. The last study visit was on day 49. RESULTS: The study was terminated prematurely because of enrollment challenges and a lower-than-expected blinded pooled event rate. A total of 1284 patients underwent randomization with complete accrual of primary events through May 2022. No patients were lost to follow-up. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 22 of 641 in the rivaroxaban group and 19 of 643 in the placebo group (3.4% versus 3.0%; hazard ratio, 1.16 [95% CI, 0.63-2.15]; P=0.63). No patient in either group experienced critical-site or fatal bleeding. One patient receiving rivaroxaban had a major bleed. CONCLUSIONS: The study was terminated prematurely after enrollment of 32% of planned accrual because of recruitment challenges and lower-than-expected event rate. Rivaroxaban prescribed for 35 days in nonhospitalized patients with symptomatic COVID-19 at risk for thrombosis did not appear to reduce a composite end point of venous and arterial thrombotic events, hospitalization, and death. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov; Unique identifier: NCT04508023.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Outpatients , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
6.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 87: 129283, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291735

ABSTRACT

Development of novel agents that prevent thrombotic events is an urgent task considering increasing incidence of cardiovascular diseases and coagulopathies that accompany cancer and COVID-19. Enzymatic assay identified novel GSK3ß inhibitors in a series of 3-arylidene-2-oxindole derivatives. Considering the putative role of GSK3ß in platelet activation, the most active compounds were evaluated for antiplatelet activity and antithrombotic activity. It was found that GSK3ß inhibition by 2-oxindoles correlates with inhibition of platelet activation only for compounds 1b and 5a. Albeit, in vitro antiplatelet activity matched well with in vivo anti-thrombosis activity. The most active GSK3ß inhibitor 5a exceeds antiplatelet activity of acetylsalicylic acid in vitro by 10.3 times and antithrombotic activity in vivo by 18.7 times (ED50 7.3 mg/kg). These results support the promising role of GSK3ß inhibitors for development of novel antithrombotic agents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Oxindoles/pharmacology , Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Platelet Aggregation
7.
Phytother Res ; 37(3): 1092-1114, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277307

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak has been one of the largest public health crises globally, while thrombotic complications have emerged as an important factor contributing to mortality. Therefore, compounds that regulate the processes involved in thrombosis could represent a dietary strategy to prevent thrombotic complications involved in COVID-19. In August 2022, various databases were consulted using the keywords "flavonoids", "antiplatelet", "anticoagulant", "fibrinolytic", and "nitric oxide". Studies conducted between 2019 and 2022 were chosen. Flavonoids, at concentrations mainly between 2 and 300 µM, are capable of regulating platelet aggregation, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and nitric oxide production due to their action on multiple receptors and enzymes. Most of the studies have been carried out through in vitro and in silico models, and limited studies have reported the in vivo and clinical effect of flavonoids. Currently, quercetin has been the only flavonoid evaluated clinically in patients with COVID-19 for its effect on D-dimer levels. Therefore, clinical studies in COVID-19 patients analyzing the effect on platelet, coagulant, fibrinolytic, and nitric oxide parameters are required. In addition, further high-quality studies that consider cytotoxic safety and bioavailability are required to firmly propose flavonoids as a treatment for the thrombotic complications implicated in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Flavonoids , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Nitric Oxide
8.
Circulation ; 147(11): 897-913, 2023 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261224

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic anticoagulation is indicated for a variety of circumstances and conditions in several fields of medicine to prevent or treat venous and arterial thromboembolism. According to the different mechanisms of action, the available parenteral and oral anticoagulant drugs share the common principle of hampering or blocking key steps of the coagulation cascade, which unavoidably comes at the price of an increased propensity to bleed. Hemorrhagic complications affect patient prognosis both directly and indirectly (ie, by preventing the adoption of an effective antithrombotic strategy). Inhibition of factor XI (FXI) has emerged as a strategy with the potential to uncouple the pharmacological effect and the adverse events of anticoagulant therapy. This observation is based on the differential contribution of FXI to thrombus amplification, in which it plays a major role, and hemostasis, in which it plays an ancillary role in final clot consolidation. Several agents were developed to inhibit FXI at different stages (ie, suppressing biosynthesis, preventing zymogen activation, or impeding the biological action of the active form), including antisense oligonucleotides, monoclonal antibodies, small synthetic molecules, natural peptides, and aptamers. Phase 2 studies of different classes of FXI inhibitors in orthopedic surgery suggested that dose-dependent reductions in thrombotic complications are not paralleled by dose-dependent increases in bleeding compared with low-molecular-weight heparin. Likewise, the FXI inhibitor asundexian was associated with lower rates of bleeding compared with the activated factor X inhibitor apixaban in patients with atrial fibrillation, although no evidence of a therapeutic effect on stroke prevention is available so far. FXI inhibition could also be appealing for patients with other conditions, including end-stage renal disease, noncardioembolic stroke, or acute myocardial infarction, for which other phase 2 studies have been conducted. The balance between thromboprophylaxis and bleeding achieved by FXI inhibitors needs confirmation in large-scale phase 3 clinical trials powered for clinical end points. Several of such trials are ongoing or planned to define the role of FXI inhibitors in clinical practice and to clarify which FXI inhibitor may be most suited for each clinical indication. This article reviews the rationale, pharmacology, results of medium or small phase 2 studies, and future perspectives of drugs inhibiting FXI.


Subject(s)
Stroke , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , Factor XI , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/etiology , Stroke/drug therapy
9.
Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim (Engl Ed) ; 70(3): 129-139, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259050

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 induces coagulopathy associated with an increase of thromboembolic events. Due to the lack of agreement on recommendations for thromboprophylactic management, the aim of this study was to study the dosages of LMWH used in critically ill COVID-19 patients assessing the effect on their outcome. METHODS: We evaluated data of the Reg-COVID19. According to LMWH dose two groups were analyzed: prophylaxis and treatment. Primary outcome was the relationship of LMWH dosage with mortality. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of thrombotic and bleeding events, length of ICU stay, invasive mechanical ventilation, and thrombotic and inflammatory parameters. RESULTS: Data of 720 patients were analyzed, 258 in the prophylaxis group and 462 in the treatment group. C Reactive Protein, invasive mechanical ventilation, tocilizumab and corticosteroid treatments were related with the choice of LMWH dose. Hemorrhagic events (66/720, 9.2%) and thrombotic complications (69/720, 9.6%) were similar in both groups (p = .819 and p = .265), as was the time course of the thrombotic events, earlier than hemorrhagic ones (9 [3-18] and 12 [6-19] days respectively). Mortality was lower in prophylaxis group (25.2% versus 35.1%), but once an inverse probability weighting model was applied, we found no effect of LMWH dose. CONCLUSION: We found no benefit or harm with the administration of therapeutic or prophylactic LMWH dose in COVID19 critically ill patients. With a similar rate of hemorrhagic or thrombotic events, the LMWH dose had no influence on mortality. More studies are needed to determine the optimal thromboprophylaxis protocol for critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Prospective Studies , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/prevention & control
10.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 30(4): 311-320, 2023 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287418

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a major health problem worldwide since 2020. Although the main pathophysiology of COVID-19 is a respiratory infectious disease, it could also cause cardiovascular complications, including thrombosis. Thus, anticoagulation therapy has been thought to help prevent thrombosis, leading to improved survival. However, to date, several aspects of the optimal anticoagulation strategies for COVID-19 remain unclear. Considering the status of COVID-19-related thrombosis and some domestic issues in Japan, the optimal anticoagulation strategies for COVID-19 might have to be based on Japanese domestic clinical data considering racial difference. Racial disparities in terms of thromboembolic risk have been well known in the pre-COVID-19 era, and the risk of COVID-19-associated thrombosis depending on race could be an important issue. Considering a potential higher risk of bleeding with anticoagulation therapy in the Asian population, it might be important to maintain a good balance between the risks of thrombosis and bleeding. Latest evidences of COVID-19-related thrombosis and anticoagulation strategies, including some domestic issues in Japan, showed a different status of COVID-19-related thrombosis in Japan from that in Western countries, suggesting the potential benefit of different anticoagulation strategies, specifically for the Japanese population. Although these insights could be useful for the consideration of anticoagulation strategies for the Japanese population, the final decision should be based on balancing the benefits and risks of anticoagulation therapy in each patient.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , East Asian People , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Thrombosis/drug therapy
11.
JAMA Intern Med ; 183(6): 520-531, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267740

ABSTRACT

Importance: Given the high risk of thrombosis and anticoagulation-related bleeding in patients with hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia, identifying the lowest effective dose of anticoagulation therapy for these patients is imperative. Objectives: To determine whether therapeutic anticoagulation (TA) or high-dose prophylactic anticoagulation (HD-PA) decreases mortality and/or disease duration compared with standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation (SD-PA), and whether TA outperforms HD-PA; and to compare the net clinical outcomes among the 3 strategies. Design, Settings, and Participants: The ANTICOVID randomized clinical open-label trial included patients with hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia requiring supplemental oxygen and having no initial thrombosis on chest computer tomography with pulmonary angiogram at 23 health centers in France from April 14 to December 13, 2021. Of 339 patients randomized, 334 were included in the primary analysis-114 patients in the SD-PA group, 110 in the HD-PA, and 110 in the TA. At randomization, 90% of the patients were in the intensive care unit. Data analyses were performed from April 13, 2022, to January 3, 2023. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive either SD-PA, HD-PA, or TA with low-molecular-weight or unfractionated heparin for 14 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: A hierarchical criterion of all-cause mortality followed by time to clinical improvement at day 28. Main secondary outcome was net clinical outcome at day 28 (composite of thrombosis, major bleeding, and all-cause death). Results: Among the study population of 334 individuals (mean [SD] age, 58.3 [13.0] years; 226 [67.7%] men and 108 [32.3%] women), use of HD-PA and SD-PA had similar probabilities of favorable outcome (47.3% [95% CI, 39.9% to 54.8%] vs 52.7% [95% CI, 45.2% to 60.1%]; P = .48), as did TA compared with SD-PA (50.9% [95% CI, 43.4% to 58.3%] vs 49.1% [95% CI, 41.7% to 56.6%]; P = .82) and TA compared with HD-PA (53.5% [95% CI 45.8% to 60.9%] vs 46.5% [95% CI, 39.1% to 54.2%]; P = .37). Net clinical outcome was met in 29.8% of patients receiving SD-PA (20.2% thrombosis, 2.6% bleeding, 14.0% death), 16.4% receiving HD-PA (5.5% thrombosis, 3.6% bleeding, 11.8% death), and 20.0% receiving TA (5.5% thrombosis, 3.6% bleeding, 12.7% death). Moreover, HD-PA and TA use significantly reduced thrombosis compared with SD-PA (absolute difference, -14.7 [95% CI -6.2 to -23.2] and -14.7 [95% CI -6.2 to -23.2], respectively). Use of HD-PA significantly reduced net clinical outcome compared with SD-PA (absolute difference, -13.5; 95% CI -2.6 to -24.3). Conclusions and Relevance: This randomized clinical trial found that compared with SD-PA, neither HD-PA nor TA use improved the primary hierarchical outcome of all-cause mortality or time to clinical improvement in patients with hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia; however, HD-PA resulted in significantly better net clinical outcome by decreasing the risk of de novo thrombosis. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04808882.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Male , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , Heparin/administration & dosage , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
12.
Artif Organs ; 46(12): 2371-2381, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) represents an advanced option for supporting refractory respiratory and/or cardiac failure. Systemic anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin (UFH) is routinely used. However, patients with bleeding risk and/or heparin-related side effects may necessitate alternative strategies: among these, nafamostat mesilate (NM) has been reported. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search (PubMed and EMBASE, updated 12/08/2021), including all studies reporting NM anticoagulation for ECMO. We focused on reasons for starting NM, its dose and the anticoagulation monitoring approach, the incidence of bleeding/thrombosis complications, the NM-related side effects, ECMO weaning, and mortality. RESULTS: The search revealed 11 relevant findings, all with retrospective design. Of these, three large studies reported a control group receiving UFH, the other were case series (n = 3) or case reports (n = 5). The main reason reported for NM use was an ongoing or high risk of bleeding. The NM dose varied largely as did the anticoagulation monitoring approach. The average NM dose ranged from 0.46 to 0.67 mg/kg/h, but two groups of authors reported larger doses when monitoring anticoagulation with ACT. Conflicting findings were found on bleeding and thrombosis. The only NM-related side effect was hyperkalemia (n = 2 studies) with an incidence of 15%-18% in patients anticoagulated with NM. Weaning and survival varied across studies. CONCLUSION: Anticoagulation with NM in ECMO has not been prospectively studied. While several centers have experience with this approach in high-risk patients, prospective studies are warranted to establish the optimal space of this approach in ECMO.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Thrombosis , Humans , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Heparin/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Hemorrhage/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Thrombosis/drug therapy
13.
Support Care Cancer ; 30(10): 8491-8500, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253044

ABSTRACT

Cancer and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have unusual similarities: they both result in a markedly elevated risk of thrombosis, exceptionally high D-dimer levels, and the failure of anticoagulation therapy in some cases. Cancer patients are more vulnerable to COVID-19 infection and have a higher mortality rate. Science has uncovered much about SARS-CoV-2, and made extraordinary and unprecedented progress on the development of various treatment strategies and COVID-19 vaccines. In this review, we discuss known data on cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), SARS-CoV-2 infection, and COVID-19 vaccines and discuss considerations for managing CAT in patients with COVID-19. Cancer patients should be given priority for COVID-19 vaccination; however, they may demonstrate a weaker immune response to COVID-19 vaccines than the general population. Currently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends an additional dose and booster shot of the COVID-19 vaccine after the primary series in patients undergoing active cancer treatment for solid tumors or hematological cancers, recipients of stem cell transplant within the last 2 years, those taking immunosuppressive medications, and those undergoing active treatment with high-dose corticosteroids or other drugs that suppress the immune response. The mainstay of thrombosis treatment in patients with cancer and COVID-19 is anticoagulation therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control
14.
Arch Pediatr ; 30(3): 172-178, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234070

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) are associated with a risk of hypercoagulability and thrombotic events. We aimed (a) to evaluate the demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings as well as the incidence of thrombotic events of COVID-19 and MIS-C in children and (b) to determine the role of antithrombotic prophylaxis. METHODS: A single-center retrospective study evaluated hospitalized children with COVID-19 or MIS-C. RESULTS: The study group consisted of 690 patients, 596 (86.4%) diagnosed with COVID-19 and 94 (13.6%) diagnosed with MIS-C. Antithrombotic prophylaxis was used for 154 (22.3%) patients: 63 patients (10.6%) in the COVID-19 group and 91 (96.8%) patients in the MIS-C group. Use of antithrombotic prophylaxis was statistically higher in the MIS-C group (p<0.001). Patients who received antithrombotic prophylaxis were of older median age, were more commonly male, and had more frequent underlying diseases than those without prophylaxis (p<0.001, p<0.012, p<0.019, respectively). The most common underlying condition was obesity in patients who received antithrombotic prophylaxis. Thrombosis was observed in one (0.2%) patient in the COVID-19 group with a thrombus in the cephalic vein, two (2.1%) patients in the MIS-C group, with a dural thrombus in one patient and a cardiac thrombus in the other patient. The patients with thrombotic events were previously healthy and had mild disease. CONCLUSION: In our study, thrombotic events were rare compared with previous reports. We used antithrombotic prophylaxis for most children with underlying risk factors; perhaps for this reason, we did not observe thrombotic events in children with underlying risk factors. We suggest that patients diagnosed with COVID-19 or MIS-C be closely monitored for thrombotic events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Child , Male , COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolytic Agents , Retrospective Studies , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control
15.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 45(5): 256-261, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2208302

ABSTRACT

The multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a severe clinical entity affecting the coagulative system; although thromboembolic events (TEs) are not common, most patients receive anticoagulation. We retrospectively assessed patients below 18 years admitted with MIS-C at Meyer Children's Hospital (Florence, Italy). Data on baseline clinical and laboratory presentation, treatment, and outcome, including differences between patients with and without thrombotic prophylaxis, were analyzed. Thirty-two children 1 to 15 years were included. Seventeen patients (53.1%) required intensive care admission, 2 (8.7%) had obesity, 7 (30.4%) a central venous catheter, and 14 (43.8%) an impaired cardiac function. Twelve patients (37.5%) received prophylactic anticoagulation: they had more frequent cardiac involvement (91.7 vs. 50%, P =0.02) and higher ferritin levels (median 1240 vs. 501.5 ng/mL, P <0.001). No differences were found in median d -dimers between the 2 groups. Twenty-one patients (65.6%) had d -dimers >5×upper limit of normal but the indication for anticoagulation was not driven by d -dimers. No patient had hemorrhagic events and only 1 patient (3.1%) had a superficial thrombotic event (under thromboprophylaxis). Our series and the available literature data on MIS-C and thromboembolic events suggest that TEs are a rare complication of MIS-C that is frequently associated with high d -dimer values. However, also in MIS-C, the well-established risk factors of pediatric TEs (ie, older age, central venous catheter, obesity, and cancer) should guide thromboembolic risk assessment.


Subject(s)
Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , Child , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Obesity
16.
Int J Med Sci ; 20(1): 136-141, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203044

ABSTRACT

Objectives: There are currently no appropriate markers and target for prophylaxis against COVID-19-related thrombosis, especially in the not-severe cases. We tested the hypothesis that inflammation is a suitable marker and target for prophylaxis against COVID-19-related thrombosis. Methods: Data of all 32 COVID-19 patients admitted to Saitama Medical Center between January 1 and March 30, 2021, were analyzed. Patients were divided into severe (requiring oxygen, n=12) and non-severe (no requirement for oxygen, n=20), and also those with high C-reactive protein (CRP) level (cutoff value: 30 mg/L, n=21) and low-CRP (n=11). We also compared the clinical and laboratory data of a 46-year-old post-liver transplant male patient, who was treated with a combination of immunosuppressants (methylprednisolone, fludrocortisone, cyclosporine, and everolimus) with those of other COVID-19 patients, using the Smirnoff-Grubbs and Box plots tests. Results: The levels of CRP, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) were significantly higher in the high-severity group than the low-severity group; while other coagulation parameters were comparable. The time between onset of illness and blood levels of lactate dehydrogenase, fibrinogen, D-dimer, TAT, and plasmin alpha2-plasmin inhibitor complex (PIC) were significantly higher whereas lymphocyte count was significantly lower in the high-CRP group. Extremely low levels of TAT, PIC, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were recorded in the liver transplant patient treated with immunosuppressants. The TAT, PIC, and PAI-1 levels were deemed outliers. Conclusions: Inflammation is a potentially suitable marker and target for prophylaxis against COVID-19-related thrombosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 , Inflammation/drug therapy , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Oxygen , Immunosuppressive Agents , Lactate Dehydrogenases
18.
Blood Transfus ; 20(6): 495-504, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154555

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), increases thrombotic risk in hospitalised patients. The rate of thrombosis in patients with COVID-19 is unclear. The role of heparin, frequently used in the management of hospitalised patients, also needs to be clarified. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of enoxaparin given at prophylactic or therapeutic dose in hospitalised patients with COVID-19, and evaluated its role in the development of disease in terms of mortality, and incidence of thrombotic and bleeding events. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 141 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, admitted to five different wards (one intensive care unit, 2 sub-intensive care units, and 2 general infectious disease units) of Cotugno Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in Naples, Italy, between March and May 2020. RESULTS: Over a median time of 17 days (IQR 11-25), enoxaparin was given to 90/141 patients (63.8%) of whom 65 took a prophylactic and 25 a therapeutic dose. We documented 14 episodes of thrombosis (9.9%); almost all were cases of pulmonary embolism. No significant difference in terms of thromboembolic prevention was found between those patients not receiving anticoagulants and those on prophylactic or therapeutic dose of enoxaparin. Five episodes of major bleeding occurred (3.5%); therapeutic dose of enoxaparin was associated with a greater bleeding risk than prophylactic dose (p=0.002). During follow-up, 31 patients (22%) died; these were mostly elderly men with two or more comorbidities at admission. No advantages of enoxaparin, either as prophylaxis or at high doses, in terms of mortality were observed. At multivariate analysis, low estimated glomerular filtration rate, and high total bilirubin and fasting hyperglycemia were independently associated with a higher mortality. DISCUSSION: We did not observe advantages in terms of either thromboembolic prevention or mortality of enoxaparin, which however was more frequently used in patients with more severe disease. Prophylactic enoxaparin was not seen to be associated with bleeding risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Male , Humans , Aged , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/drug therapy
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17408, 2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077099

ABSTRACT

Our objective was to assess the incidence of drug bioaccumulation in critically ill COVID-19 patients with AKI receiving intermediate dose nadroparin for thrombosis prophylaxis. We conducted a Prospective cohort study of critically ill COVID-19 patients. In patients on intermediate dose nadroparin (5700 IU once daily) we assessed the incidence of bioaccumulation (trough anti-Xa level > 0.2 IU/mL) stratified according to presence of AKI. We quantified this association using multilevel analyses. To assess robustness of our observations, we explored the association between AKI and anti-Xa activity in patients receiving high dose nadroparin (> 5700 IU). 108 patients received intermediate dose nadroparin, of whom 24 had AKI during 36 anti-Xa measurements. One patient with AKI (4.2% [95%CI 0.1-21%]) and 1 without (1.2% [95%CI 0.03-6.5%]) developed bioaccumulation (p = 0.39). Development of AKI was associated with a mean increase of 0.04 (95%CI 0.02-0.05) IU/ml anti-Xa activity. There was no statistically significant association between anti-Xa activity and AKI in 51 patients on high dose nadroparin. There were four major bleeding events, all in patients on high dose nadroparin. In conclusion, Bioaccumulation of an intermediate dose nadroparin did not occur to a significant extent in critically ill patients with COVID-19 complicated by AKI. Dose adjustment in AKI may be unnecessary.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Nadroparin/adverse effects , Critical Illness , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/prevention & control
20.
S Afr Med J ; 112(7): 472-477, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2073605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increased incidence of thromboembolic events in hospitalised COVID­19 patients has been demonstrated despite the use of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). Antiplatelet therapy prior to admission and early in the disease course has been hypothesised to be protective against thrombosis. OBJECTIVES: To describe the bleeding and thrombosis outcomes in hospitalised patients with confirmed COVID­19 receiving LMWH, with and without concomitant antiplatelet therapy. Secondary objectives were to explore predictors of bleeding and thrombosis outcomes, and dosing practices of antiplatelet therapy and LMWH. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study of bleeding and thrombosis outcomes at Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, during the first COVID­19 wave, in 808 hospitalised patients with confirmed COVID­19 receiving LMWH with and without concomitant antiplatelet therapy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed if predictors were deemed statistically and clinically significant. RESULTS: Patients receiving both LMWH and antiplatelet therapy had similar bleeding outcomes compared with patients only receiving LMWH (odds ratio (OR) 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6 - 4.0). Patients receiving both LMWH and antiplatelet therapy had increased odds of developing thrombosis compared with patients only receiving LMWH (OR 4.8; 95% CI 2.1 - 10.7). CONCLUSION: The bleeding risk in COVID­19 patients receiving both LMWH and antiplatelet therapy was not significantly increased. A potentially higher risk of thrombosis in patients receiving LMWH and antiplatelet therapy was observed. However, this could reflect confounding by indication. Randomised studies are required to further evaluate the use of antiplatelet therapy to treat hospitalised patients with COVID­19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/adverse effects , Humans , South Africa/epidemiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control
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