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1.
J Card Surg ; 37(10): 3417-3420, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hemostatic disturbances with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can predispose to tricuspid and right heart thrombi in very rare instances. AIM: We describe a 29-year-old female patient without a previous cause of thrombosis who developed large tricuspid valve thrombus (TVT) and moderate-to-severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) during the course of COVID-19 infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Persistant fever and tachycardia with thrombocytopenia and high d-dimer increased the index of suspicion. The diagnosis was made by bedside transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Surgery was performed for thrombectomy and tricuspid valve replacement with a tissue valve. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Detection of TVT in COVID-19 patients on the basis of high index of suspicion, bedside TTE and noninvasive CMR helps early surgical treatment and subsequent reduction of mortality and hospital stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Thrombosis , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography , Female , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Humans , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/surgery , Tricuspid Valve/diagnostic imaging , Tricuspid Valve/pathology , Tricuspid Valve/surgery , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/etiology , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/surgery
3.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 99(5): 1683-1686, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850010

ABSTRACT

This case series explores four cases of thrombi straddling patent foramen ovale (TSFO), an exceedingly rare event. The cases are compared regarding their presentations, evaluations, and management strategies including the first documented uses of percutaneous thromboembolectomy for the removal of a TSFO.


Subject(s)
Foramen Ovale, Patent , Thrombosis , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnostic imaging , Foramen Ovale, Patent/therapy , Humans , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/surgery , Treatment Outcome
4.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 104(7): e211-e215, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808510

ABSTRACT

A new variant of coronavirus (2019-nCoV) causing acute respiratory distress in humans was identified for the first time in 2019, in Wuhan, China. One of the many complications of infection with this coronavirus is hypercoagulopathy, resulting in acute thrombosis; often leading to acute limb ischaemia. Herein, we report 20 cases of COVID-19 with peripheral arterial thrombosis involving either upper or lower limbs. Some patients underwent vascular procedures and most had to undergo amputation at some level. All the cases (n=20) were referred to us during the 8-month period June 2020 to March 2021. The most common age group was between 51 and 60 years, of whom 80% were males; all the patients had diabetes. The right lower limb was most affected (50%); 15 patients underwent embolectomy. Twenty-five per cent of patients presented with wet gangrene. One patient with upper limb thrombosis recovered after embolectomy and did not require any amputation. Eighty-five per cent of patients underwent some form of amputation and the mortality rate was 10%. Arterial thrombosis is one complication patients may develop during COVID-19 illness, which may affect the outcome. Patients with comorbid conditions like diabetes are at higher risk of developing arterial thrombosis during COVID-19 infection. Susceptibility to coagulopathy may continue even after patient discharge and it is important that both patients and treating physicians are aware of this limb-threatening complication and seek early medical attention.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases , COVID-19 , Peripheral Vascular Diseases , Thrombosis , Amputation , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/complications , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Ischemia/complications , Ischemia/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/surgery , Treatment Outcome
5.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 35(2)2022 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774387

ABSTRACT

The course of COVID-19 patients may be complicated by thromboembolic events. We report on a 48-year-old female COVID-19 patient who underwent surgical removal of a large intracardiac thrombus. As per our centre protocol, critically ill COVID-19 patients are anticoagulated by the direct thrombin inhibitor Argatroban with close monitoring of anti-IIa activity. An intra-atrial thrombus formation fixed in a patent foramen ovale but also large mobile portions in both atria was diagnosed 4 days after weaning and removal of the jugular and femoral extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannulas. The thrombus was removed surgically via median sternotomy and on cardiopulmonary bypass. The thrombus had a bizarre appearance with several finger-like appendices, and histological analysis revealed a mixed picture of acute and chronic thrombus portions. This case highlights the risk of life-threatening thrombus formation in COVID-19 patients despite therapeutic thrombin inhibition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Heart Diseases , Pulmonary Embolism , Thrombosis , COVID-19/complications , Female , Foramen Ovale, Patent/complications , Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnostic imaging , Foramen Ovale, Patent/surgery , Heart Atria , Heart Diseases/complications , Humans , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/surgery , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/surgery
6.
J Endovasc Ther ; 29(6): 966-970, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613202

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have a higher prevalence of micro-and macrovascular thrombotic events. However, the underlying mechanism for the increased thrombotic risk is not completely understood. Solid organ transplant recipients infected with SARS-CoV-2 may have an exponential increase in thrombotic risk and the best management strategy is unknown. CASE REPORT: A female kidney transplant recipient presented with allograft's renal artery thrombosis after a recent COVID-19 infection. Due to the risk of kidney failure or exclusion, catheter directed thrombolysis was performed. Residual thrombus was excluded using an endoprosthesis with an excellent result. There were no adverse events and kidney function improved. CONCLUSION: This paper reports the endovascular treatment of renal artery thrombosis in a living-donor kidney transplant recipient with severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Thrombosis , Humans , Female , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Living Donors , Renal Artery/diagnostic imaging , Renal Artery/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/surgery
7.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 79: 438.e1-438.e4, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine Induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare complication following ChAdOx1 (AstraZeneca) vaccination. Venous thrombosis in unusual sites such as splachnic or intracranial thrombosis, is the commonest manifestation. CASE REPORT: We report a 35-year-old male patient who presented with acute left leg ischemia and thrombocytopenia 11-days after vaccination requiring emergent thrombectomy. During work-up, a localized thrombus was detected in the left carotid bifurcation mandating carotid thrombectomy. Localized right iliac thrombus causing a non-limiting flow stenosis was treated conservatively. The platelet aggregating capacity of patient's plasma was confirmed in a functional assay, thereby establishing VITT. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge this is the first case presenting multiple arterial thromboses requiring surgical treatment after ChAdOx1 vaccination.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases/surgery , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/surgery , Femoral Artery/surgery , Thrombectomy , Thrombosis/surgery , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/etiology , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/etiology , Femoral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Iliac Artery/diagnostic imaging , Male , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Treatment Outcome
8.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 16(1): 200, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mural thrombus in the ascending aorta is rare, most of which are associated with aneurysm or atherosclerotic lesions, with high risks of causing catastrophic thrombotic events. A mural thrombus in the non-aneurysmal and non-atherosclerotic ascending aorta is exceptionally uncommon. CASE PRESENTATION: We reported a large mural thrombus in normal ascending aorta of an asymptomatic patient. Preoperative imaging confirmed the presence of the sessile thrombus located at the left anterior wall of ascending aorta. Given that it had the potential to cause fatal thrombotic complications, surgical removal and segment of ascending aorta replacement were executed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and discharged 14 days after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Anticoagulant is the therapeutic cornerstone of ascending aortic thrombus, but surgery should be performed aggressively when the thrombus is large or floating to avoid severe embolic complications or recurrence.


Subject(s)
Aortic Diseases , Atherosclerosis , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Aorta/surgery , Aortic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Diseases/surgery , Atherosclerosis/complications , Atherosclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/surgery , Treatment Outcome
9.
J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) ; 62(6): 535-541, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441429

ABSTRACT

The acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the COVID-19 disease, a global pandemic. A strong association has been documented between COVID-19 and cardiovascular events, although the exact pathophysiological mechanism is still unclear. Carotid atherothrombosis and ischemic stroke represents one of the possible severe manifestations of COVID-19, as a leading cause of long-term disability and death. Different complex intertwined mechanisms seem to underlie the endothelitis which is the cause of multiple cardiovascular manifestations. To date, few case series describing COVID-19 and acute ischemic stroke caused by cervical carotid thrombosis have been published. All the patients shared common similar radiographic features, comorbidities, and biomarker profiles. The aim of this brief review was to analyze the impact of COVID-19 pandemic in the management of a Vascular Surgery Department, changing the daily vascular practice, as well as to provide practical suggestions for symptomatic carotid stenosis, while reviewing published literature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Carotid Artery Diseases/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnosis , Carotid Artery Diseases/mortality , Carotid Artery Diseases/surgery , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/surgery , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/mortality , Thrombosis/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Surgical Procedures
10.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 72: 209-215, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385038

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Both arterial and venous thrombotic events of the extremities occur in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, but the etiology of these events remains unclear. This study sought to evaluate pathology specimens of COVID-19-positive patients postamputation, who were found to have Rutherford 3 acute limb ischemia requiring amputation. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of all vascular surgery emergency room and inpatient consultations in patients who presented to the Mount Sinai Health System from March 26, 2020, to May 10, 2020. Pathology specimens were examined using hematoxylin and eosin stain. The specimens were assessed for the following: inflammatory cells associated with endothelium/apoptotic bodies, mononuclear cells, small vessel congestion, and lymphocytic endotheliitis. Of the specimens evaluated, 2 patients with a known history of peripheral vascular disease were excluded. RESULTS: Inflammatory cells associated with endothelium/apoptotic bodies were seen in all 4 patients and in 4 of 5 specimens. Mononuclear cells were found in 2 of 4 patients. Small vessel congestion was seen in all patients. Lymphocytic endotheliitis was seen in 1 of 4 patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows endotheliitis in amputation specimens of four patients with COVID-19 disease and Rutherford Class 3 acute limb ischemia. The findings in these patients is more likely an infectious angiitis because of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Amputation , COVID-19/complications , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Lower Extremity/blood supply , Lower Extremity/surgery , Thrombosis/surgery , Thrombosis/virology , Acute Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 75: 136-139, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210816

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality rates. The impact of thrombotic complications has been increasingly recognized as an important component of this disease. CASE REPORTS: We describe four cases of spontaneous acute aortic thrombosis in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection observed from March to December 2020 at Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Gemelli IRCCS in Rome, Italy.


Subject(s)
Aortic Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Thrombosis/etiology , Acute Disease , Aged , Aortic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Diseases/surgery , COVID-19/diagnosis , Embolectomy , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Male , Thrombectomy , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/surgery , Treatment Outcome
12.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 73: 122-128, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118331

ABSTRACT

Carotid free-floating thrombus is an uncommon entity that usually presents with neurologic symptoms. Crescendo transient ischemic attack is an accepted indication for urgent carotid endarterectomy. COVID-19 is associated with severe thromboembolic complications. We report the case of a 61-year-old man who developed, 2 weeks after the diagnosis of COVID-19, crescendo transient ischemic attack, complicating a large intraluminal floating thrombus within the right common carotid artery. A carotid thromboendarterectomy under local anesthesia, with patch closure was immediately performed without complications. We conducted a literature review to identify cases of common carotid artery thrombus related to COVID-19. Carotid free-floating thrombus in the common carotid artery is exceptional. However, since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, 15 cases have been published.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Carotid Artery Diseases/etiology , Carotid Artery, Common , Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Aged , Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery Diseases/surgery , Carotid Artery, Common/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Female , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/surgery , Ultrasonography
13.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 73: 114-118, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064854

ABSTRACT

A total occlusion of the aorta is a rare condition; however, while rare, it has a very high mortality rate. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses serious health problems, including vascular problems. Inflammatory changes produced by viral infections can cause serious disturbances in the coagulation system. Although cases showing a marked increase in thrombotic activity in the venous system have been presented, thrombosis in the arterial system, especially in the aorta, has rarely been reported. Here, we present 2 patients admitted to our hospital with an acute aortic thrombosis.


Subject(s)
Aortic Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Thrombosis/etiology , Acute Disease , Aged , Aortic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Diseases/surgery , Fatal Outcome , Femoral Artery/surgery , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Thrombectomy , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050387

ABSTRACT

Novel COVID-19 continues to intrigue medical professionals with its varied presentations. Though it affects the respiratory tract primarily, thrombogenesis has been the Achilles' heel. A 44-year-old man diagnosed with COVID-19 presented with upper limb pain at a local hospital and was found to have thrombosis of the right axillary artery. Despite a successful embolectomy at the local hospital, there was re-occlusion of the axillary artery and the limb became ischaemic. He was referred to our institution by which time the limb became gangrenous above the elbow and had to be amputated. Extensive sloughing of the nerves was also seen in the local area. Hypercoagulability presenting with various manifestations is common in COVID-19 and needs early anticoagulation. We present this asymptomatic patient who lost a limb to this COVID-19 sequelae.


Subject(s)
Amputation , Arm/surgery , Axillary Artery , COVID-19/complications , Gangrene/surgery , Ischemia/surgery , Thrombosis/complications , Adult , Arm/blood supply , Arm/pathology , Axillary Artery/surgery , Embolectomy , Gangrene/etiology , Gangrene/pathology , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/pathology , Male , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/surgery
15.
Clin Imaging ; 75: 1-4, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039316

ABSTRACT

We describe a 40-year-old man with severe COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation who developed aorto-bi-iliac arterial, right lower extremity arterial, intracardiac, pulmonary arterial and ilio-caval venous thromboses and required right lower extremity amputation for acute limb ischemia. This unique case illustrates COVID-19-associated thrombotic complications occurring at multiple, different sites in the cardiovascular system of a single infected patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Thrombosis , Venous Thrombosis , Adult , Amputation , Humans , Leg/diagnostic imaging , Leg/surgery , Lower Extremity/diagnostic imaging , Lower Extremity/surgery , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/surgery , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/surgery
17.
J Emerg Med ; 60(5): e103-e107, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) commonly present with fever, constitutional symptoms, and respiratory symptoms. However, atypical presentations are also well known. Though isolated mesenteric arterial occlusion associated with COVID-19 has been reported in literature, combined superior mesenteric arterial and venous thrombosis is rare. We report a case of combined superior mesenteric arterial and venous occlusion associated with COVID-19 infection. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 45-year-old man who was a health care worker who presented to the emergency department with severe abdominal pain. The clinical examination was unremarkable, but imaging revealed acute mesenteric ischemia caused by superior mesenteric artery and superior mesenteric vein occlusion. Imaging of the chest was suggestive of COVID-19 infection, which was later confirmed with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of his nasopharyngeal swab. To date, only 1 case of combined superior mesenteric artery and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis caused by COVID-19 has been reported. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: During the COVID-19 pandemic it is important to keep mesenteric ischemia in the differential diagnosis of unexplained abdominal pain. Routinely adding high-resolution computed tomography of the chest to abdominal imaging should be considered in patients with acute abdomen because it can help to identify COVID-19 immediately. © 2020 Elsevier Inc.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Intestines/blood supply , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/virology , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Abdominal Pain/etiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Female , Humans , Intestines/diagnostic imaging , Intestines/surgery , Laparotomy , Male , Mesenteric Arteries , Mesenteric Artery, Superior/diagnostic imaging , Mesenteric Artery, Superior/surgery , Mesenteric Ischemia , Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion/diagnosis , Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion/diagnostic imaging , Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion/etiology , Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion/surgery , Mesenteric Veins , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thrombectomy , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
18.
J Vasc Surg ; 73(1): 18-21, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963557

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome novel coronavirus-2 pandemic is affecting almost every country in the world. Even if the major symptoms of coronavirus disease-2019 are respiratory, different symptoms at presentation are now recognized. Venous thromboembolism has been reported in infected patients and few but increasing cases of arterial thrombosis have been described. We report a case of acute aortoiliac and lower limb artery occlusions in a patient presenting with severe coronavirus disease-2019 infection. The mechanism of the occlusion seemed to be distal embolization from a floating thrombus in the aortic arch caused by a major inflammatory state and virus infection. The patient underwent aortoiliac and lower limb artery mechanical thrombectomy, but required unilateral major amputation.


Subject(s)
Aortic Diseases/etiology , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Iliac Artery , Thrombosis/etiology , Acute Disease , Amputation , Aortic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Diseases/surgery , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/surgery , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Iliac Artery/diagnostic imaging , Iliac Artery/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Thrombectomy , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/surgery , Treatment Outcome
20.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e925753, 2020 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The novel COVID-19 disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is a highly infectious disease that originated in Wuhan, China, and has rapidly spread throughout the world. In addition to respiratory complications, the virus has also been implicated in damage to other organ systems as well as coagulopathy. The present report describes the first presumptive case of COVID-19-associated acute superior mesenteric artery thrombosis and acute intestinal ischemia. CASE REPORT A 55-year old man presented to the emergency department with nausea, generalized abdominal pain and diarrhea; he denied having a fever or any respiratory symptoms. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis revealed bilateral pulmonary ground-glass opacities. He tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and was treated with hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and ceftriaxone, and was discharged home after five days of inpatient treatment. One week later, the patient returned with recurrent nausea, vomiting and worsening diffuse abdominal pain. A CT scan of the abdomen showed a 1.6-cm clot, causing high grade narrowing of the proximal superior mesenteric artery and bowel ischemia. The patient emergently underwent exploratory laparotomy, thromboembolectomy and resection of the ischemic small bowel. A post-operative complete hypercoagulable workup was unrevealing. CONCLUSIONS Despite the absence of respiratory symptoms, patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 may show atypical presentations, such as gastrointestinal symptoms. Clinicians managing patients with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during the COVID-19 pandemic should monitor these patients for potential complications that may arise from this disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Intestines/blood supply , Ischemia/virology , Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Thrombosis/virology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Diarrhea/etiology , Embolectomy , Humans , Infarction/diagnosis , Infarction/surgery , Infarction/virology , Intestines/diagnostic imaging , Intestines/surgery , Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Ischemia/surgery , Male , Mesenteric Artery, Superior/diagnostic imaging , Mesenteric Artery, Superior/surgery , Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion/diagnostic imaging , Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion/surgery , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombectomy , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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